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Full text of "Grove's dictionary of music and musicians"

HAROI D B LEE I IBRARV 

.. 0, UTAH 



A DICTIONARY 



OF 



MUSIC AND MUSICIANS 



f/'r GROVE'S 
DICTIONARY OF MUSIC 

AND MUSICIANS 



EDITED 

BY 

J. A. FULLER MAITLAND, M.A., F.S.A. 



IN FIVE VOLUMES 
VOL. II 



THEODORE PRESSER COMPANY 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
1916 



Copyright, 1906, 
By THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 



Set up and electrotyped. Published February, 1906. Reprinted 
September, 1908 ; November, 1910; November, 1911; December, 
1915. 



Norfoootr IprcsB 

J. 8. Cushing Co. — Berwick & Smith Oo. 

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 



BRiGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY 
PrtOVO.UTAH 



LIST OF CONTKIBUTOKS 



The names of deceased writers are printed in italics 



R. Aldrich, Esq., 'New York Times' 

E. Heron-Allen, Esq. 

G. E. P. Arkwright, Esq. 

J. R. Sterndale-Bennett, Esq. 

D. J. Blaikley, Esq. . 

J. C. Bridge, Esq., Mus.D. 
Mrs. Walter Carr . 
Edward Chadfield, Esq. 
William Chappell, Esq., F.S.A. 
Alexis Chitty, Esq. . 
M. Gust ave Chouquet, Keeper of the 
Musique, Paris 

W. W. COBBETT, Esq. . 

Arthur Duke Coleridge, Esq. 

Frederick Corder, Esq. 

Major G. A. Crawford 

W. R. Creighton, Esq. 

William H. Cummings, Esq., Mus.D., 

E. Dannreuther, Esq. 
Herr Paul David 

H. Walford Davies, Esq., Mus.D. 

E. J. Dent, Esq. 

L. M'C. L. Dix, Esq. . 
Clarence Eddy, Esq. 

F. G. Edwards, Esq. . 

H. Sutherland Edwards, Esq. 
Thomas Elliston, Esq. 
Edwin Evans, Esq. 
Gustave Ferrari, Esq. 
W. H. G rattan Flood, Esq. . 
Rev. W. H. Frere . 
Rev. F. W. Galpin . 
Nicholas Gatty, Esq., Mus.B. 
Dr. Franz Gehring, Vienna . 



Museum 



F.S.A. 



at the 



Conservatoire de 



R. 


A. 




E. 


H. 


-A. 


G. 


E. 


P. A. 


J. 


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S.-B. 


D. 


J. 


B. 


J. 


C. 


B. 


M. 


C. 


C. 


E. 


C. 




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C. 




A. 


C. 




G. 


C. 




W. 


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A. 


D. 


C. 


F. 


C. 




G. 


A. 


C. 


W. 


R 


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W. 


H 


C. 


E. 


D. 




P. 


D. 




H. 


W. 


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J. 


D. 


L. 


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C. L. D 


C. 


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F. 


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H. 


S. 


E. 


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G. F. 


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VI 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 



Chapels 



Temple 



Royal 



Alfred Gibson, Esq. . 

C. L. Graves, Esq. 

J. C. Griffith, Esq. . 

Sir George Grove, C.B., D.C.L 

W. H. Hadow, Esq. . 

H. V. Hamilton, Esq. 

Mrs. Robert Harrison 

Rev. Thomas Helmore, Master of the Children of the 

W. Henderson, Esq. . 

Arthur F. Hill, Esq. 

A. J. HlPKlNS, Esq., F.S.A. 

Edward John Hopkins, Esq., Mus.D., Organist to the 

Rev. Canon T. P. Hudson (now Pemberton) 

Francis Hueffer, Esq. 

A. Hughes- Hughes, Esq. 

John Hullah, Esq., LL.D. 

Duncan Hume, Esq. . 

W. Hume, Esq. 

William H Husk, Esq. 

M. Hugues Imbert 

F. H. Jenks, Esq., Boston, U.S.A. 

M. Adolphe Jullien . 

Frank Kidson, Esq. . 

Hermann Klein, Esq. 

E. Krall, Esq. 

H. E. Krehbiel, Esq., New York 

M. Maurice Kufferath 

Robin H. Legge, Esq. 

Rev. Charles Mackeson, F.R.S. 

Charles Maclean, Esq., Mus.D. (art. ' International 

H. S. Macran, Esq. . 

Herr A. Maczewski, Kaiserslautern 

Julian Marshall, Esq. 

Mrs. Julian Marshall 

Russell Martineau, Esq. 

Miss Louisa M. Middleton . 

Rev. J. R. Milne 

Mrs. Newmarch 

Miss Edith Oldham . 

Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart, Mus.D., Professor of 

Music in the University of Oxford 
Sir C. Hubert H. Parry, Bart., C V.O., MusD., Professor of Music in 

the University of Oxford, Director of the Royal College of Music 
Sidney H. Pardon, Esq. ..... 

E. J. Payne, Esq. ...... 

Rev. Hugh Pearson, Canon of Windsor 

Edward H. Pember, Esq., K.C. .... 



Music Society') 



A. G. 

C. L. G. 
J. C. G. 
G. 

W. H. h w - 
H. V. H. 

B. H. 
T. H. 
W. H. 

A. F. H. 
A. J. H. 

E. J. H. 
T. P. H. 

F. H. 

A. H.-H. 
J. H. 

D. H. 
W. H K ' 
W. H. H. 
H. I. 

F. H. J. 
A. J. 
F. K. 
H. K. 

E. K. 
H. E. K. 
M. K. 

R. H. L. 
C. M. 
C. M. 
H. S. M. 
A. M. 
J. M. 

F. A. M. 
R. M. 

L. M. M. 
J. R. M. 
R. N. 

E. O. 

F. A. G. O. 

C. H. H. P. 
S. H. P. 
E. J. P. 
H. P. 
E. H. P. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 



Vll 



Rev. Canon T. P. Pemberton (formerly Hudson) 
Miss Phillimore .... 

Kerr G. Ferdinand Pohl, Librarian to the Gesellschaft 
Vienna ..... 

E. Polonaski, Esq. .... 
Victor de Pontigny, Esq. 

Ebenezer Prout, Esq., Mus.D., Professor of Music in 

Dublin ..... 
Rev. W. Pulling .... 
W. S. Rockstro, Esq. .... 

F. G. Shinn, Esq., Mus.D. 
W. Barclay Squire, Esq. 

Miss C. Stainer .... 

J. F. R. Stainer, Esq. . . . 

Sir Robert P. Stewart, Mus.D., Professor of Music 

of Dublin ..... 
William H. Stone, Esq., M.D. 
R. A. Streatfeild, Esq. 
Franklin Taylor, Esq. 

A. W. Thayer, Esq., United States Consul, Trieste 
Miss Bertha Thomas .... 
C. A. W. Troyte, Esq. 

P. G. L. Webb, Esq. .... 
H. A. Whitehead, Esq. 
R. Vaughan Williams, Esq., Mus.D. . 
Mrs. Edmond Wodehouse 
The Editor ..... 



... 


T. p. p. 


. . . 


C. M. P. 


der Musikfreunde, 




• • • 


C. F. P. 


• • • 


E. p 1 - 


• • 


V. DE P. 


the University of 




... 


E. P. 


... 


w. p G - 


. . . 


W. S. R. 


... 


F. G. S. 


• . . 


W. B. S. 


... 


C. S. 


... 


J. F. R. S. 


in the University 




... 


R. P. S. 


. . . 


W. H. S. 


. . . 


R. A. S. 


... 


F. T. 


. . . 


A. W. T. 


. . . 


B. T. 


. . . 


C. A. W. T. 


• • . 


P. G. L. W. 


• . . 


H. A. W. 


• * . 


R. V. W. 


• • . 


A. H. W. 


■ • • 


M, 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

George Frederick Handel Frontispiece 

FACING PAGE 

Cesar France 96 

Robert Franz 104 

Etelka Gerster 160 

Gewandhaus, Leipzig .....' 164 

Michael Ivanovich Glinka 180 

Christoph Willibald, Ritter von Gluck 184 

Carl Goldmark 196 

Charles Francois Gounod 208 

Andre Ernest Modeste Gretry 238 

Edvard Hagerup Grieg 242 

Giulia Grisi 244 

George Grove 246 

Jacques Franqois Fromental Elias Halevy . . . . . . . 274 

Franz Joseph Haydn 348 

Louis Joseph Ferdinand Herold 386 

Joseph Joachim 534 

Clara Louise Kellogg 562 

The Kneisel Quartet 588 

Orlandus Lassus 638 

Lilli Lehmann 666 

Jenny Lind 734 

Franz Liszt 740 

Pauline Lucca 776 



A DICTIONARY 



OF 



MUSIC AND MUSICIANS 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



MUSIC AND MUSICIANS 



F 



T? The fourth note of the natural scale, with 

* Bb for its key-signature. In French and 
in soli'aing, Fa. D is its relative minor. 

The F clef is the bass clef, the sign of which 
is a corruption of that letter. (See Bass Clef 
and Clef.) 

F minor has a signature of four flats, and Ab 
is its relative major. 

F is the final of the Lydian church mode, 
with C for its dominant. 

Ffl is in German Fis, in French Fa diese. 

Beethoven has very much favoured these keys, 
having left two Symphonies (Pastoral and No. 8), 
three String Quartets (the first and last, and 
Rasoumowsky, No. 1), two PF. Sonatas, op. 10, 
No. 2, and op. 54, etc., in F major; Overture to 
' Egmont,' Sonata appassionata, Quartet, op. 95, 
in F minor. One of Beethoven's notes to Steiner 



is signed 



W: 



# 



F# is more rarely used ; but we may mention 
Haydn's Farewell Symphony ; a PF. Sonata 
(op. 78) by Beethoven, for which he had a 
peculiar affection ; and a charming Romance 
of Schumann's (op. 28, No. 2) ; also Chopin's 
Impromptu, op. 36, and Barcarole, op. 60. 

/ is the usual abbreviation for forte. 

The holes in the belly of the violin are called 
the / holes from their shape. g. 

FA FICTUM. In the system of Guido 
d'Arezzo, Bft, the third sound in the Hexachor- 
dum naturale, was called B mi ; and Bb, the 
fourth sound in the Hexachordum molle, B fa. 
And, because B fa could not be expressed with- 
out the accidental sign (2? rotunduin) it was 
called Fa fictum. [See Hexaohord.] For this 
reason, the Polyphonic Composers applied the 
term Fa fictum to the note Bb, whenever it 
was introduced, by means of the accidental sign, 
into a mode sung at its natural pitch ; and, by 
analogy, to the Eb which represented the same 
interval in the transposed modes. The Fa 
fictum is introduced, with characteristic effect, 
in the ' Gloria Patri ' of Tallis's five-part Re- 
sponses, at the second syllable of the word 
'witho^' ; and a fine example of its employ- 
ment in the form of the transposed Eb will be 
found in Giaches Archadelt's Madrigal, ' II 
bianco e dolce cigno,' at the second and third 
VOL. II 



IE 



syllables of the word 'piangendo,' as shown in the 
example in the article Madrigal. w. s. r. 

FABRI, Annibale Pio, Detto Balino, one 
of the most excellent tenors of the 1 8th century, 
was born at Bologna in 1697. Educated musi- 
cally by the famous Pistocchi, he became the 
favourite of the Emperor Charles VI., and other 
Princes sought to engage him in their service. 
He was also a composer, and member of the 
Accademia Filarmonica of Bologna ; received 
into that society in 1719, he was named its Prin- 
cipe, or president, in 1725, 1729, 1745, 1747, 
and 1750. In 1729 he came to England and 
sang, with Bernacchi, his fellow -pupil under 
Pistocchi, in Handel's ' Tolemeo,' taking the 
part of Araspe, formerly sung by Boschi. As 
the latter was a bass, the part was probably 
transposed for Fabri for want of a bass to sing 
it. In the same year he performed the tenor 
part in ' Lotario,' as also in ' Partenope ' (1730), 
and in 'Poro' and a reprise of 'Rinaldo' (1731), 
all by the same master. Having been appointed 
to the Royal Chapel at Lisbon a few years later, 
he died there August 12, 1760. j. m. 

FABRICIUS, Werner (1633-1679), an 
organist and composer of note, was born April 
10, 1633, at Itzehoe, Holstein. As a boy he 
studied music under his father, Albert Fabricius, 
organist in Flensburg, and Paul Moth, the 
Cantor there. He went to the Gymnasium in 
Hamburg, where Thomas Selle and Heinrioh 
Scheidemann were his teachers in music. In 
1650 he went to the Leipzig University, study- 
ing philosophy, theology, and law ; in the latter 
he became a fully qualified ' Notar. ' He was 
appointed Musik- Director of the Paulinerkirche, 
Leipzig, in 1656, and in 1658 was also appointed 
organist to the Nicolaikirche. Although he 
tried for the post of Cantor to the Thomaikirche 
in March 1658, he was not elected. He was 
married July 3, 1665, and one son survived him, 
Johann Albert Fabricius. He died Jan. 9, 
1679, at Leipzig, forty-five years old, according 
to the contemporary account of him in Musica 
Davidica, oder Davids Musik, bei der Leichbe- 
stattung des . . . Herrn Werneri Fabricii . . . 
durch Joh. Thilone, ad S. Nicolaum Ecclesiaste. 
(See Monatshefte fiir Musikgeschichte, 1875, 
p. 180.) Eitner (Quellen- Lex-ikon) corrects the 
date of death, however, to April 9, 1679. 



FABRITIUS 



FACCIO 



List of works : — 

1. Deliciae Hannonicae oder musikalische Gemttths - Ergotzung, 
von allerhand Paduanen, Alemanden, Couranten, Balletten, Sara- 
banden, von 5 Stiinmeu nebenst ihrem Basso Continuo, auff Violen 
und andern Instrumenten f uglichen zu gebrauchen. Leipzig. Joh. 
Bauern. 1656. 4to. 64 compositions. Four part-books (the Bassus 
missing) in Upsala Library. 

2. Trauer- Trost- Nah mens Ode, dem ... Herrn Joh. Bauern . . . 
liber dem allzufriizeitigen Abschiede Ihres . . . Sdhuleins David 
•welches . . . den 28 Feb. J 656, entsehlafen . . . in folgende Melodey 
gesetzt von Wernero Fabricio. Text : ' Du Blut von unserem Blute,' 
for five voices, in score. Leipzig, folio sheet. 

Gedoppelte Frulings Lust . . . bey erfreulichen Hochzeits-Feste 
des . . . Herrn Sigis. Bnperti Saltzbergers . . . den 15 Ap. 1656. 
In einer Arie entworffen von Wernero Fabricio Holsato. Druckts, 
Quirin Bauch. Text : ' Schbner FrUhling lass dich kiissen,' in score, 
folio sheet. Both in the Zwickau Ratsschulbibl. 

3. E. C. Homburgs geistlicher Lieder erster Theil, mit zweystim- 
inigen Melodeyen geziehret von W. F. , Jetziger Zeit Musik-Directoren 
in der Paulinerkirchen zu Leipzig. Jena. Georg Sengenwalden. 
1659. 8vo. pp. 526. Contains 100 melodies with figured bass ; 
Zahn gives 23 of them which became part of the church song. Iu 
the Augsburg Stadtbibl. etc. 

4. Werneri Fabricii Holsati N(otarius) P(ublicus) C(aesareus) 
Academiae & ad D. Nicolai Lipsiensium musici, Geistliche Arien, 
Dialogen und Concerten, so zu Heiligung holier Fest-Tagen mit 4, 

5, 6, und 8 Vocal-Stimmen sampt ihrem gedoppelten Basso continuo, 
auff unterschiedliche Arten, nebst allerhand Instrumenten fiiglich 
konnen gebraucht und musicirt werden. Leipzig. Joh. Bauern. 
1662. 4to. Contains complimentary Latin verses addressed to him 
by the aged Heinrich Schiitz. Six compositions. Nine part-books 
in the British Museum, etc. 

5. Vier-stimmige Motette ; ' Vater in deine Hande ' . . . auf Herrn 
Wentzel Buhlens Namens-Tage. Leipzig. 1671. 4to. 

6. Werneri Fabricii Manuductio zum General Bass bestehend aus 
lauter Exempeln. Leipzig. 1675. This work is mentioned in 
Matthe3on's Grosse General Bass Schule, 1731, p. 13. 

7. Werneri Fabricii, ehemaligen Organisten zu St. Nicolai in 
Leipzig, Unterricht, wie man ein neu Orgelwerk, obs gut und 
bestandig sey, nach alien Stilcken, in- und auswendig examiniren 
und so viel moglich, probiren soil. Frankfurt und Leipzig, 1756. 
lvol. 8vo. pp.87. No preface or dedication. In British Museum, etc. 
It is curious that this work should have been published nearly 80 
years after Fabricius's death, for no earlier edition is known. It has 
been suggested that the date is a misprint for 1656, but the title 
states ' formerly organist of S. Nicolas, Leipzig,' and he held that 
post until his death. 

His music is also to be found in : — 

1. Passiouale Melicum . . . Martino Jano, Gorlitz. 1663. Three 
melodies. 

2. Johann Criigers . . . Praxis pietatis melica. Frankfurt. 1676 
and 1693 editions. Six melodies with figured bass. 

3. Nurnbergisches Gesangbuch. 1676, 1677, and 1690 editions. 
Five melodies with figured bass, from the Geistliche Lieder of 
Homburg, 1659. 

4. Geistlicher Harffen-Klang auf zehen seyten . . . Joh. Quirs- 
felden Leipzig. 1679. Five melodies. 

5. Musikalischer Vorschmack . . . von Peter Sohren. Hamburg. 
1683. One melody with figured bass. 

6. Lttneburgisches Gesangbuch. 1686 and 1694 editions : one 
melody. 1695 and 1702 editions : two melodies. 

7. Das grosse Cantional oder : Kirchen-Gesangbuch, Darmstadt, 
1687. Three melodies. 

8. Choral Gesangbuch . . . von Daniel Speeren, Stuttgart. 1692. 
Three melodies. 

9. Meiningenisches Gesangbuch. Editio 3 and 4, 1693 and 1697. 
Two melodies with figured bass. 

10. Darmstadtisches Gesangbuch. 1699. One melody. 

11. Cantiques Spirituels. 5eme Edition. Frankfort. 1702. One 
melody with figured bass. 

12. Konig's Liederschatz. 1738. Eight melodies. 
Winterfeld {Der evang. Kirchengcsang. 11. Musikbeilage, Nos. 

173-4) reprinted two of Fabricius's best-known chorales from the 1659 
Geistliche Lieder : ' Las-st uns jauchzen ' and ' Jesus du, du bleibst,' 
voice part with figured bass. In the Upsala Library, in Gustaf 
DUben's Collection of 'Motetti e Concerti, Libro 5,' 1665, are two 
compositions by W. Fabricius. Eitner (Quellen-Lexikon) gives the 
following MSS : in the Berlin Konigl. Bibl. MS. Z. 40. No. 2 * Lleblich 
und schone sein.'and No. 4 ' Herr, wenn ich nur dich habe,' both for 
eight voices. -, ~ 

FABRITIUS (Fabricius), Albinus (fl. 1580- 
1595), is said to have lived in Gorlitz, Prussia. 
The one work known of his was published at 
Gratz, Styria(Steiermark), in Austria: 'Cantiones 
sacrae sex vocum iam primum lucem aspicientes. 
Authore Albino Fabritio. Graecii, quae est 
metropolis Styriae, excudebat Georgius Wid- 
manstadius.' 1595. Obi. 4to. Twenty-five 
motets. Six part-books in Wolfenbiittel Herzogl. 
Bibliothek. 

Contents : 1. Gaudent in coelis ; 2. O sacrum convivium ; 3. Quare 
tnstis es anima ; 4. Non vos relinquam : 5. Hodie rex coelorum ; 

6. AveRegina; 7. 8alvefestadies ; 8. Christusresurgens ; 9. Aurea 
lux roseo; 10. Tu solis qui facis; 11. Scio quod redemptor; 12. 
Canute Domino ; 13. Hodie Christus natus ; 14. Sis praesens Detis • 
15. Ad te levavi ; 16. Convertistl planctum ; 17. Vulnerasti cor 
roenm; 18. Exultet omnium ; 19. Ascendit Deus ; 20. Almaiedem- 
ptoris ; 21. Sancta Maria ; 22. Levavi oculos meoi ; 23. Benedictus 
Deus; 24. D«u» canticum novum ; 25. Exaudiat te Dominus. 



Five motets from this work, Nos. 1, 4, 14, 

24, and 25, were included in the Bodenschatz 
Collection ' Florilegium select, cant. ' Lipsiae, 
1603, and again in 1618. A motet for four voices, 
' Estote fortes in bello,' by ' Fabricius,' is in the 
' Theatri musicae, selectissimae Orlandi de Lassus ' 
etc. Lib. 2, 1580, No. 7 (Vogel. Cat. Wolfen- 
biittel Herzogl. Bibliothek). 

MSS. — Eitner {Quellen-Lexikon) mentions six 
motets in the Proske Bibl. MS. 775, and one, ' O 
sacrum convivium ' (No. 2 in A. F.'s Cant. Sac), 
in the Dresden Konigl. Bibl. MS. mus. q. 89 
a-f. No. 37. 

In the Breslau Stadtbibliothek (see Bonn's 
Cat.) the MSS. 15, 18 (dated on cover 1580), 
and 30 contain * Haec est dies quam fecit 
Dominus ' for six voices ; and fourteen of the 
motets in A. F.'s Cant. Sac, Nos. 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 
11, 12, 13 (two copies), 14, 15, 16, 23, 24, and 

25. 'Non vos relinquam' (No. 4, Cant. Sac) 
is also in the Zwickau Ratsschulbibl. MS. 53, 
No. 78 (see Vollhardt's Cat.) In the library 
at Freiberg, Saxony, are twenty-six motets for 
six voices, Nos. 1-25 the same as those pub- 
lished in A. F.'s Cant. Sac. 1595, and placed 
in the same order : No. 26, • Quam pulchra es ' 
(Cant, cantici), is also headed ' Albini Fabricii 
a 6 vocib. ' (see Kade's Aeltere Musikalien). c. s. 

FACCIO, Franco, born March 8, 1840, 1 at 
Verona, of parents in humble circumstances, who 
deprived themselves almost of the necessaries of 
life in order to give their son a musical educa- 
tion. In Nov. 1855 he entered the Conserva- 
torio of Milan, where he made remarkable 
progress in composition under Ronchetti. An 
overture by him was played at one of the 
students' concerts in 1860. In the following 
year he left the institution, and on Nov. 10, 
1863, he had the good fortune to have a three- 
act opera, ' I Profughi Fiamminghi, ' performed 
at La Scala. Before this a remarkable work, 
written in collaboration with his friend Boito, 
and entitled 'Le Sorelle d' Italia,' had been per- 
formed at the Conservatorio. [See vol. i. 
p. 354 a.] The same friend, for whom he had 
formed a warm attachment during the time of 
their studentship, wrote him the libretto of 
1 Amleto, ' which was given with success at the 
Teatro Carlo Fenice, at Genoa, on May 30, 1865 
(not at Florence, as Pougin states), but which 
was unfavourably received at the Scala in Feb. 
1871. In 1866 he fought, together with Boito, 
in the Garibaldian army, and in 1867-68 under- 
took a tour in Scandinavia. A symphony in F 
dates from about this time. In July 1868 he 
succeeded Croff as professor of harmony in the 
Conservatorio, and after acquiring great ex- 
perience as a conductor at the Teatro Carcano, 
was made conductor at La Scala. A Cantata 
d' inaugurazione was performed in 1884, and two 
sets of songs by him have been published by 

1 Paloschi and Biemann. Pougin gives the date as 1841. Various 
articles in the Gazietta musicale di Milano support either date 
indifferently 



FACKELTANZ 



FALCON 



Ricordi. Faccio held an important position 
among the advanced musicians of Italy, and as a 
composer his works command attention by their 
originality. It was, however, as a conductor 
that he made his greatest success, and he was 
rightly considered as the greatest Italian con- 
ductor of his time. He directed the first Euro- 
pean performance of Verdi's 'Aida' in 1872, and 
the production of his ' Otello ' in 1887, both at 
Milan. He visited England and conducted the 
performances of ' Otello ' at the Lyceum Theatre 
in July 1889 ; and died at the Biffi Sanatorium, 
Monza, July 23, 1891. M. 

FACKELTANZ, or Marche aux flambeaux, 
a torchlight procession — a survival from the 
mediaeval tournaments — which takes place at 
some of the German Courts on occasion of the 
marriage of members of the royal family. The 
procession has to march round the court or 
hall, with various intricate ceremonies {Times, 
Feb. 19,1878). The music— for military band- 
is a Polonaise, usually with a loud first and last 
part, and a soft trio. Meyerbeer wrote four — 
one for the marriage of the Princess Royal (the 
Empress Frederick), (Jan. 25, 1858). Spontini, 
Flotow, and others, have also written them. 
See also Tattoo. g. 

FAGOTTO. The Italian name for the Bassoon, 
obviously arising from its resemblance to a faggot 
or bundle of sticks. The Germans have adopted 
it as Fagott. [See Bassoon.] w. h. s. 

FAIGNIENT, Noe, a Belgian composer of 
the 16th century, concerning whose life nothing 
is known. His first book of Chansons, Madri- 
gales & Motetz a Quatre, Cincq & Six Parties, 
Nouuellement composees par Noe Faignient, was 
published at Antwerp in five part-books in 1 568 ; 
Yonge's Musica Transalpina (1588) contains 
twomadrigals, and thirty-two other compositions 
are noted in Eitner's Bill. d. MusiksammehuerJce. 
{Quellen-Lexikon. ) 

FAISST, Immanuel Gottlob Friedricii, 
born Oct. 13, 1823, at Esslingen in Wiirtemberg, 
was sent to the seminary at Schonthal in 1836, 
and in 1&40 to Tubingen, in order to study 
theology ; but his musical talents, which had 
previously shown themselves in the direction of 
great proficiency on the organ, were too strong, 
and, although he received no direct musical in- 
struction worth mentioning, he had made such 
progress in composition by 1844 that when he 
went to Berlin and showed his productions to 
Mendelssohn, that master advised him to work 
by himself rather than attach himself to any 
teacher. In 1846 he appeared in public as an 
organ player in many German towns, and finally 
took up his abode in Stuttgart. Here in 1 847 he 
founded an organ school and a society for the 
study of church music. He undertook the direc- 
tion of several choral societies, and in 1857 took 
a prominent part in the foundation of the Con- 
servatorium, to the management of which he 
was appointed two years later. Some time 



before this the University of Tubingen bestowed 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in 
recognition of the value of his 'Beitrage zum 
Geschichte der Claviersonate, ' an important 
contribution to the musical periodical Cacilia 
(1846), and the title of Professor was given him a 
few years afterwards. In 1 8 6 5 he was appointed 
organist of the Stiftskirche, and received a prize 
for his choral work ' Gesang im Griinen' at the 
choral festival in Dresden. His setting of Schil- 
ler's ' Macht des Gesanges ' was equally success- 
ful in the following year with the Schlesische 
Sangerbund, and a cantata 'Des Sangers Wieder- 
kehr ' has been frequently performed. His 
compositions are almost entirely confined to 
church music and choral compositions. Several 
quartets for male voices, and organ pieces were 
published collectively, and the Lebert and Stark 
' Pianoforteschule ' contains a double fugue by 
him. With the latter he published in 1880 an 
'Elementar- und Chorgesangschule,' which has 
considerable value. He undertook the editing 
of the great edition of Beethoven's pianoforte 
sonatas with Lebert, for the firm of Cotta, for 
which edition Von Bulow edited the sonatas 
from op. 53 onwards. Faisst died at Stuttgart, 
June 5, 1894. M. 

FA-LA. A piece of vocal music for three 
or more voices, originally set wholly or in part 
to these two sol-fa syllables. Fa-las belong 
essentially to the madrigalian era, most of the 
composers of which have left specimens of them. 
They are said to be the invention of Gastoldi di 
Cara vaggio — if the utterance of musical sounds on 
unmeaning syllables can be called an invention. 
Many of his ' balletti,' like many of the Ballets 
ol Morley — such as ' Now is the month of May- 
ing ' — end with a lengthened Fa-la. A 4-part 
song known as ' The Waitts,' by an English 
composer Jeremiah Savile, set wholly on those 
syllables, is probably the most popular Fa-la in 
existence. J. H. 

FALCON, Marie Cornelie, born Jan. 28, 
1812, either at Paris or at Monestier near Le 
Puy, received vocal instruction at the Conserva- 
toire from Henri, Pellegrini, and Bordogni, and 
learnt dramatic action from Nourrit ; she gained 
in 1830-31 first prizes for vocalisation and 
singing. On July 20, 1832, she made her debut 
at the Opera as Alice in ' Robert, ' with brilliant 
success. ' Her acting, intelligence, and self-pos- 
session give us promise of an excellent actress. 
In stature tall enough to suit all the operatic 
heroines, a pretty face, great play of feature. . . . 
Her voice is a well-defined soprano, more than 
two octaves in compass, and resounding equally 
with the same power ' (Castil-Blaze). She re- 
mained there until 1838, when ill-health and 
loss of voice compelled her to leave for Italy. 
Her parts included Donna Anna on the produc- 
tion of ' Don Juan,' March 10, 1834 ; Julie in 
1 La Vestale ' at Nourrit's benefit May 3, 1834 ; 
the heroines in ' Moi'se ' and ' Siege de Corinthe.' 



4 



FALSE RELATION 



FAMITSIN 



She also created the parts of Mrs. Ankarstroem 
('Gustave III.'), Morgiana in Cherubim's ' Ali 
Baba,' Rachel (' La Juive '), Valentine (' Hugue- 
nots '), the last two her best parts, the heroine 
in Louise Bertin's ' Esmeralda, ' and Leonor in 
Niedermeyer's ' Stradella. ' ' Richly endowed by 
nature, beautiful, possessing a splendid voice, 
great intelligence, and profound dramatic feel- 
ing, she made every year remarkable by her 
progress and by the development of her talent. ' 
(Fetis.) After an absence of two years, and 
under the impression that her voice was restored, 
on March 14, 1840, she reappeared at a benefit 
given on her behalf in the first two acts of 
' La Juive, ' and in the fourth act of the 
'Huguenots.' But her voice had completely 
gone, and it was with difficulty she could get 
through the first part — indeed she fainted in 
the arms of Duprez. (Clement, Histoire de 
Musique, p. 749.) After this she retired alto- 
gether from the Opera, where her name still 
survives to designate dramatic soprano parts. 
Mme. Falcon afterwards married M. Malanc/m. 
She made a single appearance as late as 1891, 
and died Feb. 26, 1897. A. c. 

FALSE RELATION is the occurrence of 
chromatic contradiction in different parts or 
voices, either simultaneously, as at (a), or in 
chords which are so near together that the effect 
of one has not passed from the mind before the 
other comes to contradict it with a new accidental, 
as at (b). 



(a) 
u I- I 



p 



£± 






2=2 



1 



The disagreeable effect is produced by the con- 
tradictory accidentals belonging to different keys, 
or unequivocally to major or minor of the same 
key ; and it follows that when the contradiction 
is between notes which can coexist in the same 
key the effect is not disagreeable. Thus chromatic 
passing notes and appoggiaturas do not affect 
the key, and are used without consideration of 
their apparent contradictions. Schumann uses 
the sharp and natural of the same note in the 
same chord in his c Andante und Yariationen ' 
for two pianofortes, op. 46 (a), and Haydn the 
same in his Quartet in D, op. 71 (b). 




Again, notes which are variable in the minor key 
do not produce any objectionable effect by their 
juxtaposition, as the minor 7th descending and 
the major 7th ascending or stationary ; thus 
Mendelssohn in the Overture to ' Ruy Bias ' has 
Bb and Btj in alternate chords. 



gfe 



9 



3: 



issrr 






j^H 



■ST 



And the treatment of notes which are inter- 
changeable in chromatic and diatonic chords 
in the same key is equally free, as between a 
chromatic note of the chord of the augmented 
sixth and a succeeding diatonic discord. 




*? 



I gH-^-^- gi 



The rule is further modified by so many exceptions 
that it is almost doubtful if the cases in which 
the effect is objectionable are not fewer than 
those in which it is not. c. h. h. p. 

FALSETTO. The voices of both men and 
women contain two — or, as defined in the 
Mithode du Chant du Conservatoire de Musique, 
three — registers, viz. chest voice (voce di petto) ; 
head voice (y. di testa ) ; and a third which, as 
being forced or non-natural, is called by Italians 
and French falsetto or fausset, or 'false' voice. 
The limits of these are by no means fixed. In 
every voice identical notes can be produced in 
more ways than one, and thus each register can 
be extended many degrees beyond its normal 
limits. But it is all but impossible for a singer 
to keep both first and third registers in working 
order at the same time. The male counter-tenor, 
or alto voice, is almost entirely falsetto, and is 
generally accompanied by an imperfect pronun- 
ciation, the vowels usually partaking more or 
less of the quality of the Italian u or English oo, 
on w r hich the falsetto seems to be most easily 
producible. 

The earliest mention of the falsetto in musical 
Europe is in reference to the Sistine Chapel, 
where Spaniards exceptionally gifted with this 
voice preceded that artificial class to whom from 
the 16th century until the 19th alto and even 
soprano parts have been assigned. [The falsetto 
voice has more recently been restored to its old 
place in the Sistine and other Roman choirs.] J. H. 

FALSTAFF. 1. A comic Italian opera in 
two acts ; words by Maggioni, music by Balfe. 
Produced at Her Maj esty 's Theatre, July 19,1838. 
2. Yerdi's last opera is in three acts, is set to 
a libretto by Boito, and was produced at the 
Scala, Milan, on Feb. 9, 1893 ; at Covent 
Garden, May 19, 1894. See Merry Wives. 

FAMITSIN (Famintsin), Alexander Ser- 
geivich, of aristocratic descent, was born at 
Kalouga, Oct. 24 (O.S.), 1841. He was educated 
in St. Petersburg, and on leaving the University 
spent two years in Leipzig, where he studied 
theory under Hauptmann, Richter, and Mos- 
cheles. On his return to Russia he was appointed 
professor of musical history and aesthetics at 
the newly-opened Conservatoire. Heresignedin 
1872, in order to devote himself to composition. 
As a critic he made himself notorious by his 



FANCIES 



FANFARE 



attacks upon the new national school of music. 
Famitsin composed two weak but pretentious 
operas : ' Sardanapalus, ' given in St. Petersburg 
in 1875, but with so little success that he made 
no effort to produce his second opera, ' Uriel 
Acosta.' His instrumental works include three 
quartets, a pianoforte quintet, and a ' Russian 
Rhapsody' for violin and orchestra. Two 
books of ' Songs for Russian Children ' have out- 
lived his more ainbitious attempts. As a 
musical antiquary he did his best work in the 
following publications : Russian Mummers and 
Gleemen (1889); The Ancient Indo- Chinese Scale 
in Europe and Asia, and its appearance in the 
Russian Folk- Songs (1890); The Gusslee : a 
Russian National Instrument (1890) ; and The 
Dombra and Kindred Instruments (1891). Famit- 
sin died at St. Petersburg, July 6, 1896. R. N. 

FANCIES, or FANTASIES, the old English 
name for Fantasia, which see. In the various 
collections catalogued under the head of Vir- 
ginal Music all three words occur. The name 
seems to have been confined to original com- 
positions as opposed to those which were written 
upon a given subject or upon a ground. Sir 
Hubert Parry made the Fancy the subject of one 
of his lectures — 'Neglected By-ways in Music' 
— at the Royal Institution in 1900 ; reported in 
the Musical Times for 1900, p. 247. M. 

FANDANGO. An Andalusian dance, a 
variety of the Seguidilla, accompanied by the 
guitar and castanets. In its original form the 
fandango was in 6-8 time, of slow tempo, mostly 
in the minor, with a trio in the major ; some- 
times, however, the whole was in a major key. 
Later it took the 3-4 tempo, and the characteristic 

Spanish rhythm j jjl Jj J J- In this 

shape it closely resembles the seguidilla and 
bolero. One Fandango tune is given by Hawkins 
(Appendix, No. 33). Another has been rendered 
famous through its partial adoption by both 
Gluck and Mozart — the former in his Ballet of 
' Don Juan,' the latter in ' Figaro ' (end of Act 
3). It is given in its Spanish form by Dohrn 
in the Neue Zeitschrift f. Musik (xi. 163, 7) as 
follows : — 
Andante. 

: I ^~' l_ H d 




Ie^P 





eset ess ess rrri scsr bbb 





ad lib. ^ 






p dolce. 



!=^EE££^§=§^ 







cresc. 



7£ *HF 




The rhythm of the castanets was 





Mozart's version is known and accessible ; 
Gluck's will be found in the Appendix to Jahn's 
Mozart. 

There is a curious piece of history said to be 
connected with this dance. Soon after its first 
introduction, in the 17th century, it was con- 
demned by the ecclesiastical authorities in Spain 
as a 'godless dance.' Just as the Consistory 
were about to prohibit it, one of the judges 
remarked that it was not fair to condemn any 
one unheard. Two celebrated dancers were 
accordingly introduced to perform the fandango 
before the Consistory. This they did with such 
effect, that, according to the old chronicler, 
' every one joined in, and the hall of the con- 
sistorium was turned into a dancing saloon.' 
No more was heard of the condemnation of the 
fandango. 

Similar dances to the fandango are the 
Tirana, the Polo, and the Jota Ar agones a. 

e. p. 

FANFARE. A French term of unknown 
origin — perhaps Moorish, perhaps onomatopoeic 
— denotes in strictness a short passage for trum- 
pets, such as is performed at coronations and 
other state ceremonies. 1. In England they are 
known as ' Flourishes, ' and are played by the 
Trumpeters of His Majesty's Household Cavalry 
to the number of eight, all playing in unison on 
Eb trumpets without valves. The following, 
believed to date from the reign of Charles II., 
is the Flourish regularly used at the opening 
of Parliament, and was also performed at the 
announcement of the close of the Crimean War, 
the visit of Queen Victoria and the Prince of 
Wales to St. Paul's after the Prince's recovery, 
and on other occasions : — 



6 



FANING 



FANTASIA 



i 



Effi 



,ggf pg 



w^p- 



Emf^ 




==3=S 



teff=STS3=3 




ffffiJTJ^yj^-rffl- f i^ jEg 



.' JJJ J i jJ 



5E^^fe^3 



^ 



2. So picturesque and effective a feature as the 
Fanfare has not been neglected by Opera com- 
posers. No one who has heard it can forget the 
effect of the two nourishes announcing the arrival 
of the Governor in ' Fidelio,' both in the opera 
and in the two earlier overtures. True to the 
fact, Beethoven has written it in unison (in the 
opera and the later overture in Bb, in the earlier 
overture in Efc>, with triplets). Other com- 
posers, not so conscientious as he, have given 
them in harmony, sometimes with the addition 
of horns and trombones. See Spontini's ' Olym- 
pic ' ; Meyerbeer's ' Struensee, ' Act 2 ; Am- 
broise Thomas's ' Hamlet,' and many more. A 
good example is that in 'Tannhauser,' which 
forms the basis of the march. It is for three 
Trumpets in B. 

Weber has left a short one — ' kleiner Tusch ' 
— for twenty Trumpets in C (Jahns's Thematic 
Cat. No. 47 a). [Tusch.] 

3. The word is also employed in a general 
sense for any short prominent passage of the 
brass, such as that of the Trumpets and Trom- 
bones (with the wood wind also) near the end 
of the fourth movement in Schumann's Efc> Sym- 
phony ; or of the whole wind band in the open- 
ing Andante of the Reformation Symphony, g. 

FANING, Eaton, the son of a professor 
of music, was born at Helston in Cornwall, 
May 20, 1850. He received his first instruction 
on the pianoforte and violin from his parents, 
and performed at local concerts before he was 
five years old. In April 1870, he entered the 
Royal Academy of Music, where he studied under 
Sir W. Sterndale Bennett, Dr. Steggall, Signor 
Ciabatta, and Messrs. Sullivan, Jewson, Aylward, 
and Pettit, and carried off successively the 
bronze medal (1871), silver medal for the Piano- 
forte (1872), Mendelssohn Scholarship (1873), 
bronze medal for Harmony (1874), and the 
Lucas silver medal for Composition (1876). In 
1874 Mr. Faning was appointed Sub-Professor of 
Harmony, in 1877 Assistant- Professor of the 
Pianoforte, and Associate, and in 1878 Professor 
of the Pianoforte. He also played the violon- 
cello and drums in the orchestra. On July 18, 
1877, Mr. Faning's operetta, 'The Two Majors,' 
was performed at the Royal Academy, which 
event led to the establishment of the Operatic 
Class at the institution. A comic operetta, 
'Mock Turtles,' was produced at the Savoy 



Theatre in 1881, and another, 'The Head of 
the Poll,' at the German Reed Entertainment 
in 1882. At the same date Mr. Faning occu- 
pied the posts of Professor and Conductor of 
the Choral Class at the National Training School, 
and Professor of the Pianoforte at the Guildhall 
School of Music ; the latter post he resigned 
in July 1885, when he was appointed Director 
of the Music at Harrow School. [He filled this 
post with much credit, and important musical 
results, until 1901, when he retired. He ex- 
amined for the Associated Board of the R. A.M. 
and the R.C.M. in South Africa in 1901.] 
From the opening of the Royal College of Music 
until July 1885 he taught the Pianoforte and 
Harmony, and until Easter 1887 also conducted 
the Choral Class at that institution. For a 
good many seasons he conducted a ' Select 
Choir' at Messrs. Boosey's Ballad Concerts. 
Mr. Faning was for some time conductor of the 
London Male Voice Club, and of the Madrigal 
Society. [He took the degree of Mus.B. at 
Cambridge in 1894, and of Mus.D. in 1900. 
For this last his exercise was a mass in B 
minor. ] His compositions include two operettas, 
a symphony in C minor, two quartets, an over- 
ture, a Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis for full 
orchestra (performed at St. Paul's at the Festival 
of the Sons of the Clergy), besides anthems, 
songs, duets, and part-songs, among which the 
' Song of the Vikings,' for four-part chorus with 
pianoforte duet accompaniment, has attained 
wide popularity. [An interesting article on 
Faning appeared in the Musical Times for 1901, 
p. 513.] w. B. s. 

FANISKA. Cherubini's twenty-first opera ; 
in three acts ; words by Sonnleithner from the 
French. Produced at the Karntlmerthor Theatre, 
Vienna, Feb. 25, 1806. 

FANTASIA is a term of very respectable 
antiquity as applied to music, for it seems to be 
sufficiently established by both Burney and 
Hawkins in their Histories that it was the im- 
mediate predecessor of the term Sonata, and 
shares with the term Ricercar the honour of 
having been the first title given to compositions 
expressly for instruments alone. It seems itself 
to have been a descendant of the madrigal ; for 
when madrigals, accompanied as they commonly 
were by instruments playing the same parts with 
the voices, had to a certain extent run their 
course as the most popular form of chamber 
compositions, the possibility of the instruments 
playing the same kind of music without the 
voices was not far to seek. Hawkins remarks 
that the early Fantasias 'abounded in fugues 
and little responsive passages and all those other 
elegances observable in the structure and con- 
trivance of the madrigal.' They were written 
for combinations of various instruments, such as 
a ' Chest of Viols, ' and even for five ' Cornets ' 
(Zinken). There are examples of this kind by 
very ancient English composers, and some also 



FANTASIESTUCK 



FARANDOLE 



for the Virginals by Byrd and Gibbons in 
Farthenia. Numerous examples by these and 
other composers of the time, notably Giles 
Farnaby and Peter Phillips, occur in the Fitz- 
william Virginal Book. Dr. Burney quotes 
Simpson's Compendium to the intent that in 
the year 1667 ' this style of music was much 
neglected because of the scarcity of auditors 
that understand it, their ears being more de- 
lighted with light and airy music' 

In the works of Bach there are a great number 
of Fantasias both as separate works and as the 
first movement to a Suite, or conjoined with a 
Fugue. In the latter capacity are two of the 
finest Fantasias in existence, namely that in 
A minor called 'Grosse Fantasie und Fuga ' 
(B.-G. xxxvi. p. 81), and that in D minor, 
commonly known as the 'Fantasia cromatica' 
{B.-G. xxxvi. p. 71). Among his organ works 
also there are some splendid specimens, such as 
Fantasia et Fuga in G minor (B.-G. xv. p. 177), 
and a Fantasia of considerable length in G 
major, constituting a complete work in itself 
(B.-G. xxxviii. p. 75). Among the works of 
his sons and other contemporaneous German 
masters are also many specimens of Fantasias. 
Some of them are very curious, as the last move- 
ment of a Sonata in F minor by Philip Emanuel 
Bach, published in Roitzsch's 'Alte Klavier 
Musik,' in the greater part of which the division 
by bars is entirely dispensed with ; and the same 
peculiarity distinguishes a Fantasia by Johann 
Ernst Bach which is published in the same 
collection. Mozart produced some fine examples 
of Fantasias, Beethoven apparently only two 
distinctly so called, namely opus 77 and the 
Choral Fantasia ; and two of the Sonatas (op. 
27) are entitled 'quasi una Fantasia,' which 
implies some irregularity of form. In more 
modern times, apart from Schumann's fine ex- 
ample dedicated to Liszt (op. 17), the name has 
been applied to various vulgar effusions which 
have little in common with real music ; but the 
name has been restored to its former dignity by 
Brahms, who uses it as the collective name for 
his short piano pieces, op. 116. The name has 
also been commonly applied to those nondescript 
pieces of orchestral music which are not long 
enough to be called symphonic poems, and not 
formal enough to be called overtures, c. h. h. p. 
FANTASIESTUCK. A name adopted by 
Schumann from Hoffmann to characterise various 
fancy pieces for pianoforte, alone and with other 
instruments (PF. solo, op. 12, 111 ; with clarinet, 
op. 73 ; with violin and violoncello, op. 88). 
They are on a small scale, but several of them 
of considerable beauty. 

FARANDOLE. A national Provencal dance. 
No satisfactory derivation has been given of the 
name. Diez (Etymologisches Worterbuch der 
Romanischen Sprachen) connects it with the 
Spanish Farandula, a company of strolling 
players, which he derives from the German 



fahrende. A still more unlikely derivation has 
been suggested from the Greek <pa\ay% and 
5ou\os, because the dancers in the Farandole are 
linked together in a long chain. The dance is 
very probably of Greek origin, and seems to be a 
direct descendant of the Cranes' Dance, the in- 
vention of which was ascribed to Theseus, who 
instituted it to celebrate his escape from the 
Labyrinth. This dance is alluded to at the end 
of the hymn to Delos of Callimachus : it is still 
danced in Greece and the islands of the iEgean, 
and may well have been introduced into the South 
of France from Marseilles. The Farandole con- 
sists of a long string of young men and women, 
sometimes as many as a hundred in number, 
holding one another by the hands, or by ribbons or 
handkerchiefs. The leader is always a bachelor, 
and he is preceded by one or more musicians 
playing the galoubet, i.e. a small wooden flute- 
a-bec, and the tambourin. [See Tambourik.] 
With his left hand the leader holds the hand 
of his partner, in his right he waves a flag, 
handkerchief, or ribbon, which serves as a signal 
for his followers. As the Farandole proceeds 
through the streets of the town the string of 
dancers is constantly recruited by fresh additions. 
The leader (to quote the poet Mistral) ' makes 
it come and go, turn backwards and forwards . . . 
sometimes he forms it into a ring, sometimes 
winds it in a spiral, then he breaks off from his 
followers and dances in front, then he joins on 
again, and makes it pass rapidly under the 
uplifted arms of the last couple. ' l The Farandole 
is usually danced at all the great feasts in the 
towns of Provence, such as the feast of Corpus 
Domini, or the ' Coursos de la Tarasquo,' which 
were founded by King Rene on April 14, 1474, 
and take place at Tarascon annually on July 29. 
In the latter the Farandole is preceded by the 
huge effigy of a legendary monster — the Tarasque 
— borne by several men and attended by the 
gaily dressed ' chevaliers de la Tarasque.' The 
music of the Farandole is in 6-8 time, with a 
strongly accentuated rhythm. The following 
is the traditional ' Farandoulo dei Tarascaire 
of Tarascon : — 



•S ! Moderate. 



j gFg g g g^j 



£ 



f*5t 



mm- 



.. i . 1— i ivwajBim — »-- ^^^_j . . . , I 



i l — n. — ^^j — l "ii — I — ^W 




The Farandole has occasionally been used for 

l AnseumeMathieu, La Farandoulo, published with a translation 
l and notes by F. Mistral. Avignon, 1862. 



8 



FARCE 



FARINELLI 



less innocent purposes than that of a mere dance : 
in 1815 General Ramel was murdered at Tou- 
louse by the infuriated populace, who made use of 
their national dance to surround and butcher him. 

The Farandole has been introduced on the 
stage in Gounod's ' Mireille,' and in Daudet's 
1 L'Arlesienne ' (with Bizet's music), but the 
dance is not suited for the purposes of a ballet. 
Further information concerning it will be found 
sub voce in Larousse's Dictionary, in Vidal's 
Lou Tamboiirin, Desanat's Coursos de la Taras- 
quo, Mistral's Mireille, Fetes de la Tarasque, 
and introduction to Mathieu's La Farandoulo, 
and in the works of Hyacinthe Morel. A good 
description of the dance occurs in Daudet's Numa 
Roumestan. w. b. s. 

FARCE (Ital. Farsia, probably from the 
Latin farcio, to stuff — Plautus has ccntones 
farcire, to insert falsehoods or tricks). A farsia 
was a canticle in the vulgar tongue intermixed 
with Latin, originating in the French church 
at the time when Latin began to be a tongue 
not ' understanded of the people.' The farsia 
was sung in many churches at the principal 
festivals, almost universally at Christmas. It 
became a vehicle for satire and fun, and thus 
led to the modern Farsa or Farce, a piece in 
one act, of which the subject is extravagant and 
the action ludicrous. J. h. 

FARINELLI. A serio-comic opera in two 
acts ; words by C. Z. Barnett, music by John 
Barnett; produced at Drury Lane, Feb. 8, 1839, 
Balfe acting Farinelli, and being forced by 
hoarseness to leave off at the end of the first act. 

FARINELLI, Cristiano, a violin player 
and composer, was an uncle of the celebrated 
singer Farinelli (Carlo Broschi). Date and 
place of his birth and death are unknown. 
After living for some time in France we find 
him from 1680 to 1685 at Hanover, side by 
side with Handel, as leader of the band. [Ac- 
cording to Chrysander {Handel, i. 418) he was 
in the Elector's service in 1714, and, on the 
latter's accession to the English throne, com- 
posed a cantata on the words, ' Lord, remember 
me when thou comest in Thy kingdom.' (See 
Quellen-Lexikon.)] He appears to have enjoyed 
a great reputation as a performer, and consider- 
able popularity as a composer of instrumental 
music in a light and pleasing style. He excelled 
especially in the performance of Lulli's airs and 
his own so-called ' Follia,' which was known in 
England during the 18th century as 'FarmeH's 1 
ground.' [See Follia and the Musical Times 
for 1888, p. 717.] Farinelli was ennobled by 
the King of Denmark, and, according to Hawkins, 
was appointed by George I. his resident at 
Venice. p. d. 

FARINELLI, Carlo Broschi, detto, was 
born Jan. 24, 1705, at Naples, according to his 
own statement made to Dr. Burney, who saw 

1 D'Urfey wrote his song ' Joy to great Caesar ' in honour of Charles 
II. to 'divisions ' on this bass ; it must, therefore, have been com- 
posed before 1685. 



him at Bologna in 1770, though Padre G. Sacchi, 
his biographer, fixes his birthplace at Andria. 
Some say that he derived his sobriquet from the 
occupation of his father, who was either a miller 
or a seller of flour {farina) ; others contend that 
he was so named after three brothers Farina, 
very distinguished amateurs at Naples, and his 
patrons. It is, however, more probable that he 
simply took the name of his uncle Farinelli, the 
composer. Sacchi declares that he saw in Fari- 
nelli's possession the letters of nobility which he 
was required to produce when admitted, by the 
favour of the King of Spain, into the orders of 
Calatrava and St. Iago. It seems scarcely 
credible that noble parents should have destined 
their son for the musical stage, or consented to 
the peculiar preparation necessary to make him 
a soprano ; but this, as usual, is explained by 
the story of an accident having happened to the 
boy while riding, which rendered necessary the 
operation by which he retained his treble. The 
voice, thus manufactured, became the most 
beautiful ever heard. He soon left the care of 
his father, who taught him the rudiments, to 
enter the school of Porpora, of whom he was the 
first and most distinguished pupil. In spite of 
his explicit statement to Dr. Burney, it is not 
possible that Farinelli could have made his debut 
at Naples in 1720, at the age of fifteen, in Metas- 
tases ' Angelica e Medoro ' ; for the latter did 
not leave Rome till 1721, and ' Angelica e Medoro ' 
was not written before 1722. (Fetis.) In that 
year Farinelli, already famous in southern Italy 
under the name of il ragazzo (the boy), accom- 
panied Porpora to Rome, and made his first 
appearance there in 'Eumene,' composed by his 
master for the Teatro Aliberti. There was a 
German trumpet player at that time in the 
capital, who excited the admiration of the 
Romans by his marvellous powers. For this 
artist Porpora wrote an obbligato part to a song, 
in which his pupil vied with the instrument 
in holding and swelling a note of extraordinary 
length, purity, and volume. Although the vir- 
tuoso performed this in a wonderful manner, 
Farinelli excelled him in the duration, brilliance, 
and gradual crescendo and diminuendo of the 
note, while he carried the enthusiasm of the 
audience to the highest pitch by the novelty and 
spontaneity of the shakes and difficult variations 
which he introduced into the air. It is probable 
that these were previously arranged by Porpora, 
and not due to the impromptu inspiration of the 
singer. Having remained under the instruction 
of his master until 1724, Farinelli made his first 
journey to Vienna in that year. A year later 
he sang for the first time at Venice in Albinoni's 
1 Didone abbandonata, ' the libretto by Metasta- 
sio ; and subsequently returned to Naples, where 
he achieved a triumph in a Dramatic Serenade 
by Hasse, in which he sang with the celebrated 
cantatrice, Tesi. In 1726 he appeared in Fr. 
Ciampi's ' Ciro ' at Milan ; and then made his 



FARINELLI 



FARINELLI 



second visit to Rome, where he was anxiously 
expected. In 1727 he went to Bologna, where 
he was to meet the famous Bernacchi, the ' King 
of Singers,' for the first time. Meeting this 
rival in a grand duo, Farinelli poured forth all 
the beauties of his voice and style without 
reserve, and executed a number of most difficult 
passages, which were rewarded with tumultuous 
applause. Nothing daunted, Bernacchi replied 
in the same air, repeating every trill, roulade, or 
cadenza which had been sung by Farinelli. The 
latter, owning his defeat, entreated his conqueror 
to give him some instruction, which Bernacchi, 
with equal generosity, willingly consented to 
bestow ; and thus was perfected the talent of 
the most remarkable singer, perhaps, who has 
ever lived. 

After a second visit to Vienna in 1728, Fari- 
nelli went several times to Venice, Rome, Naples, 
Piacenza, and Parma, meeting and vanquishing 
such formidable rivals as Nicolini, Faustina, 
and Cuzzoni, and being everywhere loaded with 
riches and honours. In 1731 he visited Vienna 
for the third time. It was at this point that he 
modified his style, from one of mere brilliance 
and bravura, which, like a true pupil of Porpora , 
he had hitherto practised, to one of pathos and 
simplicity. This change is said to have been 
suggested by the Emperor Charles VI. ' You 
have,' he said, ' hitherto excited only astonish- 
ment and admiration , but you have never touched 
the heart ; it would be easy to you to create 
emotion, if you would but be more simple and 
more expressive ! ' Farinelli adopted this ad- 
mirable counsel, and became the most pathetic, 
as he was still the most brilliant, of singers. 

Returning once more to Italy, he revisited, 
with ever-increasing renown, Venice, Rome, Fer- 
rara, Lucca, and Turin. In 1734 he made his 
first journey to England. Here he arrived at 
the moment when the opposition to Handel, sup- 
ported by the nobles, had established a rival 
Opera, with Porpora for composer, and Senesino, 
who had quarrelled with the great German, for 
principal singer. The enterprise, however, did 
not succeed, but made debts to the amount of 
£19,000. At this juncture Porpora naturally 
thought of his illustrious pupil, who obeyed 
the summons, and saved the house. He made 
his first appearance at the Theatre, Lincoln's 
Inn, in ' Artaserse,' the music of which was 
chiefly by Riccardo Broschi, his own brother, and 
Hasse. The most favourite airs were ' Pallido 
il sole,' set by Hasse and sung by Senesino ; 
' Per questo dolce amplesso,' by the same, and 
' Son qual nave,' by Broschi, both the latter 
being sung by Farinelli. In the last, composed 
specially for him, the first note (as in the song 
in ' Eumene ') was taken with such delicacy, 
swelled by minute degrees to such an amazing 
volume, and afterwards diminished in the same 
manner to a mere point, that it was applauded 
for full five minutes. After this, he set off with 



such brilliance and rapidity of execution that 
it was difficult for the violins of those days to 
accompany him. He sang also in 'Onorio,' 
• Polifemo,' and other operas by Porpora ; and 
excited an enthusiastic admiration among the 
dilettanti, which finally culminated in the famous 
ejaculation of a lady in one of the boxes (per- 
petuated by Hogarth in the Rakes Progress) — 
' One God and one Farinelli ! ' In his first per- 
formance at Court he was accompanied by the 
Princess Royal, who insisted on his singing two 
of Handel's songs at sight, printed in a different 
clef, and composed in a different style, from any 
to which he had ever been accustomed. He also 
confirmed the truth of the story, that Senesino 
and himself meeting for the first time on the 
same stage, ' Senesino had the part of a furious 
tyrant to represent, and Farinelli that of an 
unfortunate hero in chains ; but, in the course 
of the first song, he so softened the obdurate 
heart of the enraged tyrant that Senesino, for- 
getting his stage character, ran to Farinelli and 
embraced him in his arms. The Prince of Wales 
gave Farinelli a ' fine wrought-gold snuff-box, 
richly set with diamonds and rubies, in which 
was enclosed a pair of diamond knee-buckles, 
as also a purse of one hundred guineas.' This 
example was followed by most of the courtiers, 
and the presents were duly advertised in the 
Court Journal. His salary was only £1500, yet 
during the three years 1734, 1735, and 1736, 
which he spent in London, his income was not 
less than £5000 per annum. On his return to 
Italy, he built, out of a small part of the sums 
acquired here, ' a very superb mansion, in which 
he dwelt, choosing to dignify it with the sig- 
nificant appellation of the English Folly.' 

Towards the end of 1736, Farinelli set out 
for Spain, staying a few months in France by 
the way ; where, in spite of the ignorance and 
prejudice against foreign singers which then 
distinguished the French, he achieved a great 
success. Louis XV. heard him in the Queen's 
apartments, and applauded him to an extent 
which astonished the Court (Riccoboni). The 
King gave him his portrait set in diamonds, and 
500 louis d'or. Though the singer, who had 
made engagements in London, intended only a 
flying visit to Spain, his fortune kept him there 
nearly twenty-five years. He arrived in Madrid, 
as he had done in London , at a critical moment. 
Philip V., a prey to melancholy depression, ne- 
glected the affairs of the State, and refused even 
to preside at the Council. The Queen, hearing 
of the arrival of Farinelli, determined to try the 
effect of his voice upon the King. She arranged 
a concert in the next room to that which the 
King occupied, and invited the singer to perform 
there a few tender and pathetic airs. The 
success of the plan was instantaneous and com- 
plete : Philip was first struck, then moved, and 
finally overcome with pleasure. He sent for the 
artist, thanked him with effusion, and bade him 

b 



10 



FARINELLI 



FAEINELLI 



name his reward. Farinelli, duly prepared, 
answered that his best reward would be to see 
the monarch return to the society of his Court 
and to the cares of the State. Philip consented, 
allowed himself to be shaved for the first time 
for many weeks, and owed his cure to the powers 
of the great singer. The Queen, alive to this, 
succeeded in persuading the latter to remain at 
a salary of 50,000 francs, and Farinelli thus 
separated himself from the world of art for ever. 
He related to Burney that during ten years, until 
the death of Philip V. , he sang four songs to the 
King every night without change of any kind. 
Two of these were the ' Pallido il sole ' and ' Per 
questo dolce amplesso ' of Hasse ; and the third, 
a minuet on which he improvised variations. 
He thus repeated about 3600 times the same 
things, and never anything else : he acquired, 
indeed, enormous power, but the price paid for 
it was too high. It is not true that Farinelli 
was appointed prime minister by Philip ; this 
post he never had ; but under Ferdinand VI., 
the successor of Philip, he enjoyed the position 
of first favourite, superior to that of any minister. 
This King was subject to the same infirmity as 
his father, and was similarly cured by Farinelli, 
as Saul was by David. His reward this time 
was the cross of Calatrava (1750), one of the 
highest orders in Spain. From this moment his 
power was unbounded, and exceeded that ever 
obtained by any singer. Seeing the effect pro- 
duced on the King by music, he easily persuaded 
him to establish an Italian opera at Buen-retiro, 
to which he invited some of the first artists of 
Italy. He himself was appointed the chief 
manager. He was also employed frequently in 
political affairs, was consulted constantly by the 
minister La Ensenada, and was especially con- 
sidered as the agent of the ministers of those 
European Courts which were opposed to the 
family treaty proposed by France. (Bocous.) 
In all his prosperity Farinelli ever showed the 
greatest prudence, modesty, and moderation : he 
made no enemies, strange as it may seem, but 
conciliated those who would naturally have 
envied him his favour with the King. Hearing 
one day an officer in the ante-chamber complain 
of the King's neglect of his thirty years' service, 
while riches were heaped on ' a miserable actor, ' 
Farinelli begged a commission for the grumbler, 
and gave it to him, to his great surprise, observ- 
ing mildly that he was wrong to tax the King 
with ingratitude. According to another anec- 
dote, he once requested an embassy for a courtier, 
when the King asked him if he was not aware 
that this grandee was a particular enemy of his. 
' True,' replied Farinelli ; ' but this is how I 
desire to take my revenge upon him.' He was 
as generous also as he was prudent. A story 
is told of a tailor who brought him a handsome 
gala - costume, and refused any payment, but 
humbly begged to hear one song from the 
incomparable artist. After trying in vain to 



change his resolution, Farinelli good-humouredly 
complied, and sang to the delighted tailor, not 
one, but several songs. Having concluded, he 
said : ' I too am rather proud ; and that is the 
reason, perhaps, of my having some advantage 
over other singers. I have yielded to you ; it is 
but just that you should yield in turn to me.' 
He then insisted on paying the man nearly 
double the value of the clothes. 

While still at Madrid he heard of the death of 
his former rival, teacher, and friend, Bernacchi. 
In a letter (in the possession of the present 
writer), dated April 13, 1756, he speaks with 
deep regret of the loss of one ' for whom he had 
always felt esteem and affection,' and condoles 
with his correspondent, Padre Martini. 

Shortly after the ascent of Charles III. to the 
throne (1759), Farinelli received orders to leave 
the kingdom, owing probably to Charles's in- 
tention to sign the family pact with France 
and Naples, to which the singer had ever been 
opposed. He preserved his salary, but on con- 
dition that he should live at Bologna and not at 
Naples. Once more in Italy, after twenty-five 
years of exile, Farinelli found none of his friends 
remaining. Some were dead ; others had quitted 
the country. New friends are not easily made after 
middle age ; and Farinelli was now fifty-seven 
years old. He had wealth, but his grandeur was 
gone. Yet he was more addicted to talking of 
his political career than of his triumphs as a 
singer. He passed the twenty remaining years 
of his life in a splendid palazzo, a mile from 
Bologna, contemplating for hours the portraits 
of Philip V., Elisabeth, and Ferdinand, in 
silence, interrupted only by tears of regret. He 
received the visits of strangers courteously, and 
showed pleasure in conversing with them about 
the Spanish Court. He made only one journey 
during this period, to Rome, where he expatiated 
to the Pope on the riches and honours he had 
enjoyed at Madrid. The Holy Father answered, 
' Avete fatta tanta fortuna costa, perche vi avete 
trovato le gioie, che avete perdute in qua.' 

When Burney saw him at Bologna in 1771, 
though he no longer sang, he played on the 
viol d' amour and harpsichord, and composed for 
those instruments. He had also a collection of 
keyed instruments in which he took great delight, 
especially a piano made at Florence in 1730, 
which he called Rafael d 1 Urbino. Next to that, 
he preferred a harpsichord which had been given 
to him by the Queen of Spain ; this he called 
Correggio, while he named others Titian, Guido, 
etc. He had a fine gallery of pictures by Murillo 
and Ximenes, among which were portraits of his 
royal patrons, and several of himself, one by his 
friend Amiconi, representing him with Faustina 
and Metastasio. The latter was engraved by 
I. Wagner at London (fol.), and is uncommon ; 
the head of Farinelli was copied from it again 
by the same engraver, but reversed, in an oval 
(4to), and the first state of this is rare : it 



FARINELLI 



FARMER 



11 



gupplied Sir J. Hawkins with the portrait for 
his History of Music. C. Lucy also painted 
Farinelli; the picture was engraved (fol.) in 
mezzotint, 1735, by Alex. Van Haecken, and 
this print is also scarce. # 

Fetis falls into an error in contradicting the 
story of Farinelli's suggesting to Padre Martini 
to write his History of Music, on the ground 
that he only returned to Italy in 1761, four 
years after the appearance of the first volume, 
and had no previous relations with the learned 
author. The letter quoted above shows that he 
was in correspondence with him certainly as 
early as April 1756, when he writes in answer 
to a letter of Martini, and, after adverting to the 
death of Bernacchi, orders twenty-four copies 
of his work, bound in red morocco, for presents 
to the Queen and other notabilities of the Court. 
It is therefore quite possible that their corre- 
spondence originated even long before this. They 
remained in the closest intimacy until death 
separated them by the decease of Farinelli, July 
15, 1782, in the seventy- eighth year of his age. 

Martinelli speaks in glowing terms of this 
great artist, saying that he had seven or eight 
notes more than ordinary singers, and these 
perfectly sonorous, equal, and clear ; that he had 
also much knowledge of music, and was a worthy 
pupil of Porpora. Mancini, a great master of 
singing, and a fellow-pupil of Bernacchi with 
Farinelli, speaks of him with yet more en- 
thusiasm. 'His voice,' he says, 'was thought 
a marvel, because it was so perfect, so powerful, 
so sonorous, and so rich in its extent, both in the 
high and the low parts of the register, that its 
equal has never been heard in our times. He 
was, moreover, endowed with a creative genius 
which inspired him with embellishments so new 
and so astonishing that no one was able to 
imitate them. The art of taking and keeping 
the breath so softly and easily that no one could 
perceive it began and died with him. The 
qualities in which he excelled were the evenness 
of his voice, the art of swelling its sound, the 
portamento, the union of the registers, a surprising 
agility, a graceful and pathetic style, and a shake 
as admirable as it was rare. There was no 
branch of the art which he did not carry to the 
highest pitch of perfection .... The successes 
which he obtained in his youth did not prevent 
him from continuing to study ; and this great 
artist applied himself with so much perseverance 
that he contrived to change in some measure his 
style and to acquire another and superior method, 
when his name was already famous and his 
fortune brilliant. ' Such was Farinelli, as superior 
to the great singers of his own period as they 
were to those of more recent times. J . M. 

FARINELLI, Giuseppe, composer, born at 
Este, May 7, 1769 ; in 1785 entered the Con- 
servatory de' Turchini at Naples, where he 
itudied accompaniment under Fago, and com- 
position under Sala and Tritto. In 1808 he 



was in Venice, and 1810-17 at Turin. In 1819 
he was appointed chapel-master at Trieste, where 
he died Dec. 12, 1836. He composed an im- 
mense number of operas (Fetis enumerates forty, 
and Riemann gives the number as fifty- eight) in 
avowed imitation of Cimarosa, which, however, 
were more successful than the majority of imita- 
tions. A duet he introduced into the ' Matri- 
monio Segreto' has been mistaken for Cimarosa's 
own composition. He also wrote a mass, a five- 
part 'Christe eleison,' a 'Stabat' in two parts, 
and other church music. M. c. c. 

FARMER, John (fl. 1591-1601), an import- 
ant madrigalian composer of the Elizabethan 
period, and also known to us by his skilful 
settings for four voices of the old church 
psalm tunes. He was the author of a little 
treatise entitled — 

' Divers and sundry waies of two parts in one, to the number of 
fortie, upon one playn Song ; sometimes placing the ground above 
and two parts benethe, and otherwhile the ground benethe and two 
parts above, or againe, otherwise the ground sometimes in the 
middest betweene both, and likewise other Conceites, which are 
plainlie set downe for the Profite of those which would attaine unto 
Knowledge. Performed and published by John Farmer in favoure 
of such as love Musicke, with the ready way to Perfect Knowledge. 
Imprinted at London by Thomas Este the Assignc of William Byrd, 
and are to be sould in Broad Streete neere the Royal Exchaunge at 
the Author's house. 1591.' 

The only known copy now extant of this 
tract, which is dedicated to ' Edward de Vere, 
Earle of Oxenford, ' is in the Bodleian Library. 
It consists of a series of examples of three-part 
counterpoint in different orders, and seems to 
have attained considerable success. Hawkins 
(Hist. iii. 373) says, 'Before Bevin's time the 
precepts for the composition of Canon were 
known to few. Tallis, Bird, Waterhouse, and 
Farmer were eminently skilled in this more 
abstruse part of musical practice.' 

In 1599 was published 'The first set of 
English Madrigals to Foure Voyces. Newly 
composed by John Farmer, Practicioner in the 
Arte of Musicque. 4to. Printed at London in 
Little Saint Helen's by William Barley the 
Assigne of Thomas Morley, and are to be sold 
at his shoppe in Gratiaus - streete, Anno Bom. 
1599.' This work also is dedicated to the 
' Earle of Oxenford, ' whom Farmer calls his 
1 very good Lord and Master. ' In the address 
to the reader he claims to have 'fitly linkt 
Musicke to Number, as each give to other their 
true effect, which is to make delight, a virtue 
so singular in the Italians, as under that en- 
sign only they hazard their honour.' The 
collection consists of seventeen madrigals, six- 
teen of which are for four, and the seventeenth 
for eight voices. 

No further madrigals of Farmer's appear to 
have been printed except the fine one for six 
voices, ' Fair Nymphs I heard one telling, ' 
which he contributed to the ' Triumphs of 
Oriana' (1601). This and his delightful 'To 
take the air a bonny lass was walking ' are the 
only two of his madrigals familiar to the present 
generation, for the simple but much to be re- 
gretted reason that no others are now published. 



12 



FARMER 



FARMER 



Hawkins gives a four-part madrigal of Far- 
mer's, 'You pretty flowers' (the first of the 
seventeen mentioned above), in the Appendix 
to his History of Music. The Library of 
Christ Church, Oxford, and the Music School 
contain some MS. music of his, and there are 
a few of his hymn tunes in MS. at the British 
Museum. 

Farmer was one of the moat important con- 
tributors to Thomas Este's 'Whole Booke of 
Ps times,' 1592. (See Este.) He not only set 
all the canticles, hymns, etc. (twelve in number) 
which are there prefixed to the Psalms proper, 
but also five of the psalm tunes themselves. 
Barney, speaking of these settings {Hist. iii. 
54), says, 'The counterpoint is constantly simple, 
of note -against note, but in such correct and 
excellent harmony as manifests the art to have 
been very successfully cultivated in England at 
that time.' The following interesting example 
will show that Farmer was not unworthy of 
Burney's encomium. It may be mentioned 
that in all these settings the melody or ' playn- 
song' is invariably given to the voice immediately 
above the bass ; generally the tenor, but in 
this example the counter-tenor, as this tune 
is set for two trebles, counter-tenor, and 
bass. The rule by which the old writers intro- 
duced the major third into the final chord of 
all compositions in the minor mode (see Tierce 
de Picardie) is rigidly observed by Farmer 
and the other contributors to Este's collection, 
not only at the end of each psalm tune, but 
also at the end of every line in each tune. 



Cheshire Tune — Psalm 146 
tll.J'JjlUI 



<S>—tS>- i - l s>- <sl . 



My God I will 



^M 



SE 



f 



r 

al- 




My soul praise thou the Lord al-ways, My God I 



P^p¥ 



221 



E£ 



con - fess, 




•will con-fess, While breath and life pro - long my days 

J-J- ^ 'I I I , i ! 




My tongue no time shall 



^ 



Nothing is known as to either the dates or 
places of Farmer's birth and death ; and until 



recently nothing has been known of his life, 
except that he was living in London at the 
date of the publication of his madrigals in 1599. 
From an inspection, however, of the Chapter 
Acts of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin (kindly 
afforded to the writer by the Dean), it appears 
that Farmer preceded Thomas Bateson as organist 
of that Cathedral. The following are the only 
Chapter Acts which refer to him : — 

1595. Feb. 16. — Yt is ordered ye said daie by the Deane 
and Chapter that Mr. John Fermer shall have as Mr. of 
the children & organist for this yeare fifteene pounds 
Currant money of England from Candelmas daie last 
(vizt.) of the Vicars 10s. and of Mr. Deane 20s. and of 
every Dignitie 10s. ster. and the rest the Proctor ot the 
Church is to make upp. 

1596. Aug. 10. — The said daie Robert Jordan resigned 
his Viccars Rowme in the Chapter house, and the same 
daie John Farmer was sworn Viccar Corrall in his place. 

1597. July 18. — It is ordered that if Mr. John Fermer 
doe not return by the first of August 1597 that then all 
Excuses sett a -part; — His place to bee voyd in this 
Church for depting the land without lycence. 

Although there are no subsequent references 
in the Chapter Acts to any other organist until 
the appointment of Bateson in 1608-9, it seems 
most probable that Farmer went straight from 
Dublin to London in 1597, as we find him resid- 
ing in Broad Street in 1599. l. m'c. l. d. 

FARMER, John, born August 16, 1836, at 
Nottingham, received his musical education at 
the Leipzig Conservatorium, and subsequently 
under Andrae Spaeth at Saxe-Coburg. He was 
a teacher of music at Zurich, and subsequently 
music master at Harrow School from 1862 to 
1885, where he obtained great popularity. He 
became organist in Balliol College in 1885, 
where he instituted in the College Hall a series 
of Sunday and Monday evening concerts for the 
performance of glees, part-songs, etc., as well 
as the ' Balliol College Musical Society. ' His 
compositions include 'Christ and his Soldiers,' 
oratorio, 1878; a 'Requiem in memory of 
departed Harrow friends ' ; ' Cinderella, ' a fairy 
opera, 1882 ; 'Nursery Rhymes Quadrilles,' for 
chorus and orchestra, four sets ; ' Hunting Songs 
Quadrilles,' for same ; songs, etc. He edited 
' Hymns and Tunes for High Schools ' ; the 
' Harrow Glee Book,' ' Harrow School Marches, ' 
'Harrow School Songs,' etc., as well as two 
volumes of Bach for the use of High Schools. 
[For some years before his death, which took 
place at Oxford, July 17, 1901, he had been 
examiner for the Society of Arts. In a warmly 
appreciative article on him in the Musical Gazette 
for Dec. 1901, his successor at Balliol, Dr. Ernst 
Walker, wrote, ' He struck out a line for him- 
self, and spent himself royally and with abso- 
lute self-sacrifice in the popularisation of good, 
and only good, music among the naturally 
more or less unmusical.'] A. c. 

FARMER, Thomas, Mus.Bac, was originally 
one of the Waits of London, and graduated at 
Cambridge in 1684. He composed instrumental 
music for the theatre, and contributed some 
songs to the second edition of Playford's Choice 



FARNABY 



FARRENC 



13 



Ay res, 1675, to The Theater of Music, 1685-87, 
and to D'Urfey's Third Collection of Songs, 
1685. In 1686 he published 'A Consort of 
Musick in four parts, containing thirty-three 
Lessons beginning with an Overture,' and in 
1690 ' A Second Consort of Musick in four parts, 
containing eleven Lessons, beginning with a 
Ground.' [In Apollo's Banquet is 'Mr. Farmer's 
Magot for violins ' ; Farmer also wrote music for 
'The Princess of Cleve' in 1682 (Brit. Mus. Add. 
MSS. 29,283-5).] Purcell composed an elegy, 
written by Nahum Tate, upon his death (printed 
in Orpheus Britannicus , ii. 35), from which it 
is certain that he died before 1695. w. H. h. 

FARNABY, Giles, Mus. Baa, was of the 
family of Farnaby of Truro. He commenced 
the study of music about 1580 [was living in 
London in 1589 (Churchwardens' accounts of 
St. Helen's, Bishopsgate)], and on July 7, 1592, 
graduated at Oxford as Bachelor of Music ; 
stating in his supplicat that he had studied music 
for twelve years (Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 257). 
He was one of the ten composers employed by 
Thomas Este to harmonise the tunes for his 
1 Whole Booke of Psalmes ' published in 1592. 
In 1598 he published 'Canzonets to foure voyces, 
with a song of eight parts, ' with commendatory 
verses prefixed by Antony Holborne, John Dow- 
land, Richard Alison, and Hugh Holland. A 
madrigal by Farnaby, ' Come, Charon, come,' is 
in the Royal College of Music, and another, 
' Construe my meaning, ' has been edited by 
W. B. Squire. w. h. h. 

There are a number of pieces by him in 
the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (see Virginal 
Music), among which is a curious composition 
for two virginals, and a transcription for virginals 
of his own madrigal 'Daphne on the Rainebowe.' 
The same volume contains four pieces by his 
son, Richard Farnaby, of whom nothing is 
known. Giles Farnaby contributed harmonies 
to some of the tunes in Ravenscroft's Psalter 
(1621). Wood's statement that he was a native 
of Truro is probably correct, though the name 
does not occur in the Visitation of Cornwall 
of 1620. Thomas Farnaby's wife came from 
Launceston. He lived most of his life in London 
and Sevenoaks, and his descendants remained 
in Kent ; but the early history of the family is 
obscure, and the connection between Giles and 
Thomas Farnaby the Kentish schoolmaster can- 
not be traced. [Additions by w. b. s., and 
from the Diet, of Nat. Biog.] 

FARRANT, John. According to Hawkins 
there were two musicians of this name, who both 
flourished about the year 1600. It is quite 
probable that there was only one, who was organ- 
ist of Ely in 1567-72 ; of Hereford, 1592-93 ;* 
Christ Church, Newgate Street, London, and 
Salisbury Cathedral, 1598-1602. A service 
attributed to Richard Farrant is the work of 

* He ' was sconced for railing and contumelious speeches to Mr. 
Custos in the hall at supper-time ' (Havergal's Fasti Herefordenset). 



John Farrant (West's Cathedral Organists, pp. 
29, 41, 78). m. 

FARRANT, Richard, was one of the Gentle- 
men of the Chapel Royal in the 16th century. 
The date of his first appointment is not known, 
[he was a member of the chapel in the reign 
of Edward VI.] but he resigned in April 
1564, on becoming Master of the Children of 
St. George's Chapel, Windsor, of which he is 
said to have been also a lay vicar and organist. 
During his tenure of office at Windsor he occupied 
' a dwelling house within the Castle, called the 
Old Commons.' On Nov. 5, 1569, he was re- 
appointed a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and 
remained such until his death, which occurred 
on Nov. 30, 1580. Farrant's church music 
merits all the eulogy which has been bestowed 
upon it for solemnity and pathos. The service 
printed by Boyce in G minor and given by Tud- 
way (Brit. Mus., Harl. MSS. 7337 and 7338) in A 
minor [is almost certainly by John Farrant, who 
was possibly his son]. His two anthems, ' Call 
to remembrance ' and ' Hide not Thou Thy face ' 
were for many years performed on Maundy 
Thursday during the distribution of the royal 
bounty. The beautiful anthem, 'Lord, for Thy 
tender mercies' sake ' (the words from Lydley's 
Prayers), was long assigned to Farrant, although 
it is attributed by earlier writers to John Hilton. 
Tudway (Harl. MSS. 7340) gives another anthem 
— ' O Lord, Almighty,' full, four voices — as his, 
but this is questionable. [Various payments for 
the plays produced at Court by Farrant's boys 
are entered in the Acts of the Privy Council, 
under dates between 1566 and 1579.] 

His son, Daniel, was one of the first authors 
who set lessons ' lyra way ' for the viol, after the 
manner of the old English lute or bandora, in 
the time of Charles I. [He was violist in the 
King's band between 1606 or 1607 and 1625 
(Nagel, Annalen der englischen Hofmusik in the 
Monatshefte f Musikgesch. 1894-95). A book 
of organ pieces by him is in the Cathedral library 
of Durham.] w. h. h. Additions from Mr. G. 
E. P. Arkwright, the Quellen-Lexikon, etc. 

FARRENC, Jacques Hippolyte Aristide, 
born at Marseilles, April 9, 1794, died in Paris, 
Jan. 31, 1865, composed some pieces for the flute, 
but is best known as a writer on music. He took 
an important part in the second edition of Fetis's 
Biographieuniverselle, and wrote the biographical 
notices in Madame Farrenc's Trisor des Pianistes. 
He also contributed critiques to La France 
musicale, and La Revue de Musique ancienne 
et moderne (Rennes, 1858). Some of his valu- 
able notes and unpublished articles are among 
the MSS. in the library of the Paris Conserva- 
toire. 

His wife Louise — born in Paris, May 31, 1804 ; 
died there, Sept. 15, 1875 — was a sister of the 
sculptor Auguste Dumont, and aunt of Ernest 
Reyer. She studied under Reicha, and at an 
early age could compose both for the orchestra 



14 



FASCH 



FASCH 



and piano. She married in 1821, and made 
several professional tours in France with her 
husband, both performing in public with great 
success. Madame Farrenc was not only a clever 
woman, but an able and conscientious teacher, 
as is shown by the many excellent female pupils 
she trained during the thirty years she was pro- 
fessor of the piano at the Conservatoire (Nov. 
1842 -Jan. 1873). Besides some remarkable 
etudes, sonatas, and pieces for the pianoforte, 
she composed sonatas for piano and violin or violon- 
cello, trios, two quintets, a sestet, and a nonet, for 
which works she obtained in 1869 the prize of 
the Academie des Beaux Arts for chamber-music. 
She also wrote two symphonies and three over- 
tures for full orchestra, and several of her more 
important compositions were performed at the 
Conservatoire concerts. More than by all these, 
however, her name will be perpetuated by the 
Trcsor des Pianistes, a real anthology of music, 
containing chefs-d'oeuvre of all the classical 
masters of the harpsichord and pianoforte from 
the 16th century down to Weber and Chopin, as 
well as more modern works of the highest value. 
[Her Traits des abbreviations was published in 
1897. See also Trcsor des Pianistes.] g. c. 

FASCH, Johann Friedrich, born at Buttel- 
stedt (Weimar), April 15, 1688, was a chorister 
at Weissenfels in 1699, a scholar of the Thomas- 
schule in Leipzig from 1701 to 1707, where he 
studied law as Avell as music, the latter under 
Kuhnau. He founded a ' Collegium musicum,' 
which seems to have been the ancestor of the 
' Grosses Concert ' and so of the Gewandhaus 
concerts ; he wrote overtures for the society in 
the style of Telemann, and composed three 
operas for the Naumburg fair and elsewhere. 
In 1714, after leading a wandering life for some 
years, he was an official secretary at Gera, and 
in 1719 went to Zeitz as organist and ' Rath- 
schreiber,' where he remained for two years. 
In 1721 he took service with Count Morzini at 
Lucave6 in Bohemia, and in 1722 was appointed 
court capellmeister at Zerbst, where he died, Dec. 
5, 1768. He was invited to compete for the 
post of cantor at the Thomasschule against Bach, 
but apparently refused to do so. (Spitta, 
J. S. Bach (Engl, transl.), ii. 181.) Bach held 
Fasch's music in high esteem, and copied out 
five orchestral suites of his. In the collection 
of music left by Philipp Emanuel Bach was a 
whole set of church cantatas by Fasch. Several 
masses, a requiem, eleven church cantatas and 
motets, one Passion-setting, various overtures, 
trios, sonatas, etc., are preserved in MS. at 
Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin, and Brussels (see 
Qicellen-Lexikon, from which, with Riemann's 
I^exikon, the above particulars are taken). Fasch's 
son, 

Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch, founder 
of the 'Singakademie' at Berlin, Avas born Nov. 
18, 1736, at Zerbst. As a child he was delicate, 
and much indulged. He made rapid progress on 



the violin and clavier, and in the rudiments of 
harmony. After a short stay at Coethen, where 
he made his first attempts at composition in 
church music, he was sent to Strelitz. Here he 
continued his studies under Hertel, in all branches 
of music, but especially in accompaniment, at 
that time a difficult art, as the accompanist had 
only the figured bass to guide him. In 1751 
Linicke, the court clavierist, having declined to 
accompany Franz Benda, Fasch offered to supply 
his place at the harpsichord, and Benda's praises 
incited him to still greater efforts. After his 
return to Zerbst he was sent to complete his 
education at Klosterbergen near Magdeburg. 
Benda had not forgotten their meeting, and in 
1756, when just twenty, Fasch was appointed 
on his recommendation accompanist to Frederick 
the Great. His coadjutor was no less a person 
than Emanuel Bach ; they took it in turns to 
accompany the King's flute-concertos, and as soon 
as Fasch had become accustomed to the royal 
amateur's impetuous style of execution, his 
accompaniments gave every satisfaction. The 
Seven Years' War put an end to Frederick's flute- 
playing, and as Fasch received his salary (300 
thalers) in paper, worth only a fifth part of 
its nominal value, — a misfortune in which he 
anticipated Beethoven — he was compelled to 
maintain himself by giving lessons. For his 
lessons in composition he made a collection of 
several thousand examples. About the same 
time he wrote several most ingenious canons, 
particularly one for twenty-five voices containing 
five canons put together, one being in seven parts, 
one in six, and three in four parts. After the 
battle of Torgau the King granted him an 
addition of 100 thalers to his salary, but the 
increase covered the direction of the opera, which 
was put into his hands from 1774 to 1776. After 
the war of the Bavarian succession Frederick gave 
up his practice, and Fasch was free to follow his 
natural inclination for church music. In 1783, 
incited by a 16-part Mass of Benevoli's, which 
Reich ardt had brought from Italy, he wrote one 
for the same number of voices, which, however, 
proved too difficult for the court-singers. He 
retained his post after Frederick's death, but 
occupied himself chiefly with composition and 
teaching. In the summer of 1 790, as he himself 
tells us, he began choral-meetings in the summer- 
house of Geheimrath Milow, which resulted in 
the ' Singakademie, ' an institution which under 
his pupil and successor Zelter became very 
popular, and exercised an important influence on 
musical taste in Berlin for many years. Before 
his death Fasch was twice visited by Beethoven, 
who spent some time in Berlin in the summer of 
1796. On the first occasion, June 21, he heard 
a chorale, the three first numbers of Fasch's 
mass, and several movements from his 119th 
Psalm, and he himself extemporised on one of 
the subjects of the latter. On the 28th he re- 
appeared and again extemporised, to the delight 



faur£ 



FAURE 



15 



of Fasch's scholars, who, as Beethoven used to 
say, pressed round him and could not applaud 
for tears (Thayer's Beethoven, ii. 13). The 
Academy at that date was about ninety strong, 
but at the time of Fasch's death, August 3, 1800, 
it had increased to 147. In accordance with a 
wish expressed in his mil, the Academy performed 
Mozart's Requiem to his memory — for the first 
time in Berlin. The receipts amounted to 1200 
thalers, an extraordinary sum in those days, and 
were applied to founding a Fund for the per- 
petual maintenance of a poor family. In 1801 
Zelter published his Life — a brochure of sixty- 
two pages 4 to, with a portrait. In 1839 the 
Academy published Fasch's best sacred works in 
six volumes. A seventh, issued by the representa- 
tives of Zelter, contains the mass and the canon 
above alluded to. Of his oratorio ' Giuseppe 
riconosciuto,' performed in 1774, one terzetto 
alone remains, Fasch having destroyed the rest, 
together with several other works composed 
before the 16 -part mass. As a master of com- 
position in many parts, Fasch is the last repre- 
sentative of the great school of sacred composers 
which lasted so long in Italy, and his works are 
worth studying. They combine the severity of 
ancient forms with modern harmony and a fine 
vein of melody, and constitute a mine which 
would well repay investigation. [For list of 
extant works, see the Quellen-Lexikon.~\ f. g. 
FAURE, Gabriel Urbain, born May 13, 
1845, at Pamiers (Ariege), studied at Paris with 
Niedermeyer, the founder of theEcoledeMusique 
religieuse ; also under Dietsch and Saint- Saens. 
His first appointment on leaving the school in 
1866 was that of organist at St. Sauveur, Rennes ; 
in 1870 he returned to Paris, and after holding 
the posts of accompanying organist at St. Sulpice 
and principal organist at St. Honore, became 
maitre de chapelle at the Madeleine, [where he 
became organist in 1896 ; in the same year he 
was appointed a professor of composition in the 
Conservatoire]. He became known as a com- 
poser by his touching and original songs, of 
which a selection of twenty was published by 
Hamelle, and 'Le Poeme d' Amour' by Durand 
and Schoenewerk, but his compositions in this 
class are very numerous. [Among the most re- 
markable of his later lyrics may be mentioned 
' Apres un reve, ' ' En Priere, ' and • Les Roses 
d'Ispahan.'] He has also published many piano- 
forte pieces ; at the Societe Rationale de Musique 
he produced a Cantique de Racine, duets for 
female voices, and a violin sonata, afterwards 
played at the Trocadero, on July 5, 1878, which 
last has become popular in Germany. Among his 
most remarkable works, besides a Berceuse and 
Romance for violin and orchestra, a beautiful 
Llegie for violoncello, two Quartets for piano 
and strings (1882 and 1887), two for strings 
alone, and a Violin Concerto, we may mention 
an Orchestral Suite (Salle Herz, Feb. 13, 1874), 
a pretty ' Chceur des Djinns ' (Trocadero, June 



27, 1878), a symphony in D minor (Chatelet, 
March 15, 1885), a one-act operetta, ' L'Or- 
ganiste,' at the Salle Duprez, 1885, a Requiem 
(Madeleine, Jan. 16, 1888), and a choral work, 
' La Naissance de Venus ' (Colonne Concerts, 
1895, Leeds Festival, 1898). [< Madrigal,' op. 
35, for vocal quartet and orchestra ; ' Pavane,' 
op. 50, for orchestra and chorus ad lib. ; five 
Melodies, op. 58, to Verlaine's poems ; a piano 
quintet, op. 60 ; 'La Bonne Chanson,' op. 61 ; 
nine songs to Verlaine's words, are among the 
most important of his recent works.] Music to 
various plays has been written from time to 
time, such as that to Dumas's 'Caligula' 
(Odeon, 1888), Ed. Harancourt's 'Shylock' 
(adapted from Shakespeare, Odeon, 1889), 
Maeterlinck's 'Pelleas et Melisande' (English 
version produced at the Prince of Wales's 
Theatre, June 21, 1898), and Lorrain and 
Herold's ' Promethee ' (Beziers, 1900). In 1885 
and 1893 the Prix Chartier was awarded to 
him. In 1892 he succeeded Guiraud as In- 
specteur des Beaux -Arts, and in June 1905 
succeeded Theodore Dubois as Director of the 
Paris Conservatoire. a. j. 

FAURE, Jean-Baptiste, son of a singer in 
the church at Moulins, where he was born, Jan. 
15, 1830. When he was three the family re- 
moved to Paris, and when he was seven his father 
died. In 1843 he entered the solfeggio class 
in the Conservatoire, and soon after the maitrise 
of the Madeleine, where he was under Trevaux, 
an excellent teacher, to whom he owes his sound 
knowledge of music. After the breaking of his 
voice he took up the piano and double bass, and 
was for some time a member of the band at the 
Odeon theatre. When his voice had recovered 
he joined the chorus of the Theatre Italien, and 
in Nov. 1850 again entered the Conservatoire, 
and in 1852 obtained the first prizes for singing 
and for opera-comique. He made his debut Oct. 
20, 1852, at the Opera Comiqne, in Masse's 
' Galathee, ' after which he advanced steadily 
through various rdles until his creation of the 
parts of Justin in Grisar's 'Chien du Jardinier' ; 
the Duke of Greenwich in Auber's 'Jenny Bell,' 
in 1855 ; the Marquis d'Herigny in Auber's 
' Manon Lescaut ' ; the Marquis de Valbreuse 
in Clapisson's ' Sylphe ' * in 1856; Crevecceur 
in Gevaert's ' Quentin Durward ' in 1858 ; Hoel 
in Meyerbeer's 'Pardon du Ploermel' in 1859 
placed him in the front rank. [Among his 
greatest successes were the parts of Malipieri 
in ' Haydee ' ; Peter the Great in ' L'^toile du 
Nord' ; and the title role in Nicolo's 'Joconde.' 
On Sept. 28, 1861, he made his first appearance 
at the Opera as Julien de Medicis in Ponia- 
towski's ' Pierre de Medicis, ' and remained there 
as principal baritone for nearly seventeen years. 
His new parts were in Masse's ' La Mule de 
Pedro,' in 1863; Nelusko in ' L'Africaine,* 

1 First produced at Baden Baden. Faure achieved a notable tovnr 
deforce therein, singing baritone on the stage and tenor behind 
the scenes. 



16 



FAUST 



FAUX-BOUKDON 



April 26, 1865, chosen for this part by Meyerbeer 
himself ; the Marquis de Posa in Verdi's ' Don 
Carlos,' in 1867 ; the title part in Thomas's 
'Hamlet,' 1868; Mephistopheles on the first 
performance of ' Faust ' 1 at the Opera, March 3, 
1869 ; Paddock in Diaz's 'Coupe du Roi de 
Thule,' and Charles VII. in Mermet's 'Jeanne 
d'Arc,' in 1873. He made his final appearance 
there on May 13, 1876, in his great part 
Hamlet, in which his acting was founded on 
his boyish recollections of Macready in that 
part in Paris. (Musical World.) 

In London he first appeared at Covent Garden, 
April 10, 1860, as Hoel, and returned there 
every season until 1866, excepting 1865. His 
parts included Don Juan, Figaro in ' Le Nozze,' 
Tell, Assur, Fernando in 'La Gazza Ladra,' 
Alfonso XL, Pietro in ' Masaniello,' Rudolph in 
' Sonnambula,' St. Bris, Peter the Great, and, on 
July 2, 1863, Mephistopheles on production of 
' Faust,' in which he has never been surpassed. 

In 1870 he played, at Drury Lane, Iago in 
the revival of Rossini's ' Otello ' ; Lotario on 
the production in England of 'Mignon,' etc. 
From 1871 to 1875 inclusive he was again at 
Covent Garden, for the first time there as Ham- 
let, Caspar, and the Cacique on the production of 
Gomez's 'Guarany.' In 1876 he sang at Drury 
Lane ; and in 1877 at Her Majesty's for the 
first time in England as De Nevers, and Alfonso 
in 'Lucrezia,' which part he played, May 19, 
1877, on the occasion of the last appearance on 
the stage of Therese Titiens. In 1857 he was 
for a short time Professor of singing at the Paris 
Conservatoire. In 1870-72 he sang with great 
success in opera at Brussels, and on Jan. 27, 
1872, was appointed Inspector of the singing 
classes at the Conservatoire there. 2 In 1861 
he appeared at Berlin at Meyerbeer's request, 
but the tremolo in his voice did not please the 
Germans. In 1878, however, he sang in Italian 
at Vienna with the greatest success in two of his 
best parts, Don Juan and Mephistopheles, etc., 
and was appointed by the Emperor of Austria 
'Imperial Chamber Singer.' He also sang in 
concert tour of the French provinces, but for a 
long time past he has lived in retirement.] 

Faure is a good musician and a fine actor. 
He is also a collector of pictures and a man of 
great culture. His voice is a baritone of great 
extent and of very fine quality. In 1859 he 
married Mademoiselle Lefebvre (1828-1905), 
the chief actress of DugazOn roles at the Opera 
Comique. He has published two books of songs 
(Heugel), and a TraiU in 1886. g. ; additions 
by a. c. 

FAUST. Music to Goethe's ' Faust' was com- 
posed by Lindpaintner, and appears to have been 
produced at Stuttgart in June 1832; also by 
Prince Radziwill, the score of which was published 
in 1836. Spohr's' Faust' (words by Bernhard), a 

1 He had previously played this part in London, during four 
seasons, 1863-66. 
* Isnardon's ThSAtre de la Monnaie. 



romantic opera in two acts, is in no respect con. 
nected with Goethe's play. It was composed at 
Vienna in 1813 for the Theater an der Wien, but 
was first performed at Frankfort in March 1818, 
and was for many years a great favourite. It 
was produced in London by a German company 
at the Prince's Theatre, May 21, 1840; and in 
Italian at Covent Garden under Spohr's baton, 
July 15, 1852. g. 

The musical settings that are now best known 
are the following : — (i.) Faust, opera in five acts; 
words after Goethe, by Barbier and Carre ; music 
by Gounod. Produced at the Theatre Lyrique, 
March 19, 1859 ; at the Grand Opera, March 
3, 1869; Her Majesty's Theatre, as 'Faust,' 
June 11, 1863 (selections had previously been 
sung at the Canterbury Music Hall, West- 
minster) ; at the Royal Italian Opera, Covent 
Garden, as ' Faust e Margherita,' July 2, 1863 ; 
in English (by Chorley), as 'Faust,' at Her 
Majesty's, Jan. 23, 1864. In Germany some- 
times known as ' Margarethe. ' 

(ii.) La Damnation de Faust, dramatic 
legend in four parts ; the words partly adapted 
from Gerard de Nerval's version of Goethe, partly 
written by M. Gandonniere, and partly by Berlioz 
himself. Composed by Berlioz (op. 24). Per- 
formed (as a concert) at the Opera Comique, Paris, 
Dec. 6, 1846 ; two parts given under Berlioz 
at Drury Lane, London, Feb. 7, 1848, selections 
at the same place, June 29 of the same year, and 
at the New Philharmonic Concert of June 9, 
1852 (in Chorley 's translation). First complete 
performance in England under Halle at the Free 
Trade Hall, Manchester, Feb. 5, 1880. In 
1903 it was put upon the stage at Monte Carlo, 
but the experiment, though tried in various 
theatres, has happily not been permanently 
adopted. f. g. e. 

(iii.) Mefistofele. Grand opera in a pro- 
logue and five acts, words (after Goethe) and 
music by Arrigo Boito. Produced at Milan, 
March 5, 1868. Remodelled and brought out 
again, in a condensed form (prologue and four 
acts), at Bologna, Oct. 4, 1875 ; at Her Majesty's 
Theatre, July 6, 1880. [See also Liszt, PiersotT, 
and Wagner.] m. 

FAUX-BOURDON, or Falsobordone, a simple 
kind of Counterpoint to the Church plain-song ; 
in other words, a harmony to the ancient 
chant. The first kind of variation from strictly 
unisonous singing in the Middle Ages was the 
' Organum, ' or the addition of octaves above 
and below the plain -song or melody. Other 
parallel concords were also (as in the 'mixture' 
organ-stops) blended with the octaves — as the 
fifth, and even the fourth. These appear to have 
been used as early as the 8th century. After the 
Organum the next improvement was the Dia- 
phonum and Discant, and by the 14th century 
there are historical intimations that these had 
led, by a natural development, to the use of 
' Faux bourdon,' at Avignon, whence it was 



FAUX-BOURDON 



FAUX-BOURDON 



17 



taken to Rome on the return of the Papal Court 
after its seventy years' absence from that city. 
Hawkins (History, ch. 56) mentions an English 
MS. tract, by one Chilston, preserved in the 
1 Manuscript ofWaltham Holy Cross, 'most likely 
of the 14th century, giving rules and directions 
'for the sight of descant . . . and of Fcdmrdm.' 
Gaforius (1451-1522), who is justly considered 
the father of the artistic music of the great 
school which culminated in Counterpoint a la 
Palestrina, as also Adam da Fulda, about the 
same period , are among the earliest writers who 
speak of this kind of harmony. M. Danjou 
discovered, in the library of S. Mark, Venice, 
treatises by Gulielmus Monachus, from which 
it is plain that in the loth century the faux- 
bourdon was held in equal honour in England 
and in France. 

The English term Fa-burden is evidently a 
corruption from the French and Italian. Burden, 
or Burthen, is used both for the refrain of a part- 
song or chorus, and for a vocal accompaniment 
to dancing — 

Foot it featly here and there, 
And let the rest the burden bear. 

The word Bordone, and Bourdon, in its pri- 
mary sense, is (in both languages) a pilgrim's 
staff; hence, from similarity in form, the bass- 
pipe, or drone, of the bagpipe ; and thence again 
simply a deep bass note. As the earliest Falsi 
bordoni of which we have specimens are prin- 
cipally formed, except at their cadences, by suc- 
cessions of fourths and sixths below the plain- 
song melody, such an accompanying bass, to 
those who had hitherto been accustomed to use 
the low octaves of the organum, and to consider 
thirds and sixths inadmissible in the harmonised 
accompaniment of the Gregorian chant, would 
sound false ; and this application of the meaning 
of the /also and faux seems a more rational 
derivation than that sometimes given from fal- 
setto and falsette, as implying the combination 
of the high voices with the low in Falso Bordone 
harmony. 

The following example, from a MS. 1 copied 
from authentic sources at Rome, 2 will give a 
better idea of the nature of this kind of Counter- 
point than any verbal description. It is a Faux- 
bourdon, of the 15th century, on the second tone 
(transposed from D to G) ; originally written for 
three voices with the canto fermo in the alto part ; 
and with a soprano part, ad libitum, added by 
Baini : — 




C.F. 



~22 — er 



:s> g? 



£3 



<2_.C2_ 



■& — & ts — & <s» — - Q h Sg & — ^ 



Glo 



Pa 



tri et Fi - li 



1 'Octo Melodiae octo Modorum harmonice factae ut modula- 
bantur saeculo VII., ad praescriptum Adami de Fulda, et Franchini 
Oaforii.' 

2 For this and similar specimens of harmonies to other tunes, see 
•Accompanying Harmonies of Plain-Song,' by Eev. T. Helmore, 
Brief Directory, p. ▼. 

VOL. II 



i 



m 






■tS>- 



"BT 



i==s*lili 



jCSI 



EE^ 



et Spi - ri - tu - i San • cto. 

The same harmony (in four parts) is given by 
Alfieri (1840) a fifth higher. A Faux-bourdon 
on the same tone (transposed into Fjf) is given 
by M. C. Frank, Paris, 1857 :— 

Et ex - ill - ta - vit Spi - ri - tus me - us 

U j J- J* J j JL 




m 



in De • o sa - lu • ta - ri me 



i 



i j -l^li J £^=£=A =£ 



nrTTTTrr 

J_'j_J_JLJ_J. ' 



dk 



7*rh-<S>- 



i" v r r r r^nrp 

Falsi bordoni by Vittoria, Bernabei, de Zacha- 
riis , and Viadana will be found in Proske's Musica 
Sacra, torn. iii. , Liber Vesperarum. T. H. 

The treatises by Gulielmus Monachus referred 
to in the above article are printed in the third 
volume of Coussemaker's Scriptores, at pp. 273, 
290, and 299. He speaks of Faux-bourdon as 
a peculiarly English form of counterpoint (288&, 
292a), sung by three voices, treble, alto, and 
tenor. The following is his example : — 



fe=5=f2iE^§li 



zzz: 



- o <* ? — s? ^J £? —r &- 



«: 



Here the open notes on the lower stave represent 
the plain-song melody, which was not sung. The 
open notes above represent the tenor part, the 
upper row of black notes are the alto part, and 
the lower row of black notes the treble, which 
was of course sung an octave higher. The actual 
notes to be sung are therefore : — 
m 8 ve lower. I i I i 



gagg^gggg 



Thus we see that in faux-bourdon the canto 
fermo, or an embellished form of it with syn- 
copations and cadences introduced, is to be 
found in the treble part : the alto sings at the 
fourth below, and the tenor sings at the sixth 
below, taking the octave on the first and last 
notes and at any intermediate cadences. The 
unadorned plain- song melody was usually set 
out at the beginning of the composition. The 
alto part was not, as a rule, written, but was left 
to the extempore skill of the singer. If this 
be borne in mind, the apparently involved 
language of Gulielmus Monachus and of Chilston 



18 



FAVORITE, LA 



FAYRFAX 



(if he be the author of the second short treatise 
on discant inMS. Lansdowne763 : seeCmLSTON) 
becomes at once intelligible. Chilston writes 
thus: — 'Faburden (i.e. the tenor part) hath 
but two sights (i.e. sites or positions), a third 
above the plain-song in sight, the which is a 
sixth from the treble in voice : and an even with 
the plain-song in sight, the which is an eighth 
from the treble in voice. These two accords 
(i.e. the sixth and eighth below the treble) the 
faburdener must rule by the mean (i.e. the alto) 
of the plain-song, for when he shall begin his 
faburden, he must attend to the plain-song and 
set his sight even with the plain-song and his 
voice in a fifth below the mean * and after that 
set his sight always above the plain-song in a 
third : and, as oft as he will, he may touch the 
plain-song (i.e. descend to the octave below the 
treble) and void therefrom, except twice together, 
for that may not be, inasmuch as the plain-song 
sight is an eighth to the treble and a fifth to 
the mean (alto), and so to every degree he is a 
perfect accord, and two perfect accords of one 
nature may not be sung together in no degree 
of discant.' 

In the Trent Codices are numerous examples 
of faux-bourdons by Dufay, Binchois, and other 
composers of the 15th century. An example 
by Dufay, printed at p. 163 of Dr. Adler's first 
volume of transcripts from these MSS., illus- 
trates very clearly the method employed, the 
introduction of embellishments and cadences 
in the plain -song of the treble part, the move- 
ment of the tenor from the octave below to 
the sixth and vice versd, and the manner in 
which the alto supplied the inner harmony 
extempore. j. f. r. s. 

FAVORITE, LA. Opera in four acts ; words 
by Royer and Waetz, music by Donizetti. Pro- 
duced at the Academie Royale, Dec. 2, 1840 ; 
in London, as 'La Favorita,' at Her Majesty's, 
Feb. 16, 1847. 

FAWCETT, John, born at Wennington, 
Lancashire, Dec. 8, 1789, was originally a 
shoemaker, but abandoned that calling to follow 
the profession of music, at Bolton-le-moors. He 
composed three sets of Psalm and Hymn Tunes, 
published at various periods under the titles of 
TJie Voice of Devotion, The Harp of Zion, The 
Cherub Lute, and Miriam'' s Timbrel (1862), which 
are still very popular in Lancashire. In 1840 
he edited and arranged the accompaniments to 
a collection of psalm and hymn tunes and other 
pieces selected by Joseph Hart, the music pub- 
lisher, entitled ' Melodia Divina.' An oratorio 
of his composition, called 'Paradise,' was pub- 
lished in 1853. He died at Bolton, Oct. 26, 
1867. His third son, 

John Fawcett, jim., Mus.Bac, was born 
about 1824, and when only eleven years old 
obtained the appointment of organist at St. 
John's Church, Farnworth. Seven years later 

1 The MS. reads ■ plain-song,' an obvious slip. 



he succeeded an elder brother as organist of the 
parish church, Bolton. In 1845, leaving a sister 
to discharge his duties at Bolton, he came to 
London and entered the Royal Academy of 
Music, where he studied under Sterndale Ben- 
nett. During his stay in London (about twelve 
months) he officiated as organist of Curzon 
Chapel. On Nov. 4, 1852, he was admitted 
to the degree of Bachelor of Music at Oxford, 
his exercise, a cantata, entitled ' Supplication 
and Thanksgiving,' performed on the previous 
day, being highly commended by the Professor 
of Music, Sir H. R. Bishop. Fawcett died, after 
a short illness, at his residence in Manchester, 
July 1, 1857. w. h. h. 

FAY. See Dufay. 

FAYOLLE, Franqois Joseph Marie, born 
in Paris, August 15,1774; after a brilliant career 
at the College de Juilly, entered the corps des 
ponts et chaussees in 1792, and became 'chef 
de brigade ' of the 6cole polytechnique on its 
foundation in 1794. Here, under the instruction 
of Prony, Lagrange, and Monge, he studied the 
higher mathematics, but without neglecting 
literature, and with Fontanes' assistance trans- 
lated a great part of the JEneid. Of his verses 
the following line has alone survived : — 

Le temps n'epargne pas ce qu'on a fait sans lui. 

Though forgotten as a mathematician and a 
poet, Fayolle has acquired a solid reputation for 
his services to musical literature. He studied 
harmony under Perne, and the violoncello under 
Barni, but abstained from printing his composi- 
tions ; and contented himself with publishing 
Les quatre Saisons du Pamasse (Paris, 1805-9), 
a literary collection in sixteen vols. 12mo, for 
which he wrote many articles on music and 
musicians. He also furnished the greater part 
of the biographical notices in the Dictionnaire 
historique des Musiciens, published under the 
names of Choron and himself (two vols. Paris, 
1810-11), a work to which Fetis is much indebted. 
In 1813 he published Sur les drames lyriques et 
leur execution. He collected materials for a 
History of the Violin, of which, however, only 
fragments appeared, under the title Notices sur 
Corelli, Tartini, Gavinies, Pugnani, et Viotti, 
extraites d'une histoire du violon (Paris, 1810). 
After the fall of Napoleon, Fayolle came to 
England, where he taught French, and wrote 
for the Harmonicon. On the eve of the Revolu- 
tion of 1830 he returned to Paris, and resumed 
his old occupation as a musical critic. Among 
his later works may be mentioned a pamphlet 
called Paganini et Beriot (Paris, 1830), and the 
articles on musicians in the supplement to 
Michaud's Biographie Universelle. He died 
Dec. 2, 1852, at Ste. Perrine, a house of refuge 
in Paris. g. c. 

FAYRFAX, Robert, Mus.Doc, is believed 
to have been descended from the ancient York- 
shire family of that name. He is said to have 



FAYRFAX 



FEIS CEOIL 



19 



been of Bayford in Hertfordshire, and was prob- 
ably born in the last half of the 15th century, 
but nothing is known of his early life. Anthony 
Wood is no doubt correct in saying that he was 
Organist or Informator Chori at the Abbey of 
St. Albans, with which place he was evidently 
closely connected. He was at St. Albans on 
March 28, 1502, when he received 20s. from 
Queen Elizabeth of York, ' for setting an Anthem 
of oure lady and Saint Elizabeth.' At the 
beginning of this year (1501-2) he took his 
degree of Doctor of Music at Cambridge. The 
words of the Grace for the degree, ' conceditur 
Magistro Fayerfax erudito in musica quod post 
gradum bacallariatus sua erudicione possit stare,' 
etc., may imply that he was already a member 
of the University ; they certainly show that he 
had made his reputation as a musician at that 
date [Abdy Williams, Degrees in Music]. The 
exercise ' for his forme in proceadinge to bee 
Doctor ' was a five-part Mass, '0 quam glorifica,' 
which is still in existence [Lambeth, Cod. 1]. 
He was incorporated at Oxford in 1511, being 
the first recorded Doctor of Music there. 

Fayrfax seems to have enjoyed the favour of 
Henry VIII., after whose accession he was 
granted an annuity of £9 : 2 : 6 (June 22, 1509), 
being described as 'gentleman of the Chapel.' 
At Christmas, 1510, and the two following 
years, he was paid for the board and instruction 
of two choir-boys, 'the King's scholars.' On 
March 6, 1512-13, John Fyssher, gentleman of 
the Chapel, received a Corrody in the Monastery 
of Stanley, on its surrender by Robert Fayrfax. 
In Nov. 1513, Fayrfax resigned his annuity of 
£9:2:6, which was granted afresh ' in survivor- 
ship ' to Robert Fayrfax and Robert Bythesee. 
On Sept. 10, 1514, he was appointed one of the 
Poor Knights of Windsor, with 12d. a day. 
Other entries in the State Papers between 1516 
and 1519 relate to sums paid to Fayrfax ' for a 
book ' (£13 : 6 : 8) ; ' for a book of anthems ' 
(£20) ; ' for a prick songe book ' (£20) ; ' for a 
balet boke limned ' (£20) ; showing that he 
found employment as a writer and illuminator 
of MSS. : the celebrated Fayrfax MS. (Brit. 
Mus. Add. MS. 5465) may well have been one 
of these (see Diet. Nat. Biog. for reference to 
State Papers). In 1520 Fayrfax, with the rest 
of the Chapel, attended the King to the Field 
of the Cloth of Gold, being named at the head 
of the singing men. His death probably took 
place before Jan. 1, 1525-26, as his name does 
not then appear in the list of gentlemen of the 
King's Chapel ; he was certainly dead before 
Feb. 12, 1528-29, when Bythesee surrendered 
the annuity granted in 1513. He was buried 
in St. Albans Abbey, his tombstone being after- 
wards covered by the Mayoress's seat, according 
to the Fayrfax MS. 

Fayrfax was in his day (as Anthony Wood 
says) ' in great renowne and accounted the prime 
musitian of the nation.' He is the chief repre- 



sentative of the school of music which prevailed 
in England from the time of Edward IV., and 
which may be said to have culminated in him. 
His music was soon superseded by that of the 
succeeding generation of composers headed by 
Tye, and is now for the most part of purely 
antiquarian interest. 

The following is a list of his chief composi- 
tions, mostly in MS. : — 

Masses a 5 : (1) ' Regalis ' ; (2) ' Albanus ' ; (3) ' Tecum principium ' ; 
(4) ' O bone Jhesu ' ; all in the Oxford Music School Collection and 
elsewhere. (5) "O quam glorifica,' Lambeth and Cambridge. (6) 
'Sponsus amat sponsam,' lute arrangement in Brit. Mus. Add. 
MS. 29,246. An unnamed Mass at Peterhouse, Cambridge, may 
be identical with one of these. 

Motets : (1) ' Ave Dei Patris,' a 5 ; Bodleian, etc. (2) * Maria plena 
virtute,' a 5; Bodleian, etc. (3) 'Salve Regina,' a 5; Eton MS. 
(4) 'Lauda vivi Alpha et O,' Peterhouse, etc. (5) 'Eterr.ae laudis 
lilium,' a 5 ; Peterhouse, etc. (6) ' O Maria Deo Grata,' Peterhouse. 
(7) ' Ave lumen gratiae,' a 4 ; Brit. Mus. Addl. MS. 5054. (8) ' In Deo,' 
K. Coll. Music. 'Ave 3Uinme eternitatis,' printed by Hawkins 
(Hist. ii. 516), is an extract from No. (1) ' Ave Dei Patris.' 

A Magnificat a 5, called ' Regalia,' is at Peterhouse, and (without 
composer's name) at Lambeth ; a second Magnificat is at Lambeth. 
Magnificats at Caius Coll. and St. Michael's Coll., Tenbury, may be 
identical with one or other of these. In the Eton MS. were formerly 
'Quid cantemus Innocentes,' 'Stabat Mater,' 'Ave lumen grade,' 
and 'Ave cujus concepcio.' Lute versions of three of the above- 
named compositions are in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 29,246. An in- 
strumental piece a 3, apparently a Canon, is in Add. MS. 31,922. 

Two songs by Fayrfax were printed in Wynkyn de Worde's Song- 
book, 1530 : ' Ut re mi fa sol la,' a 4, and ' My heartes lust,' a 3. A 
fragment of a song, ' Welcome fortune,' is preserved at Ely Cathedral. 
In the Fayrfax MS., Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 5465, are (1) ' That was my 
woo,' a 2 ; (2) ' Most clere of colour,' a 3 ; (3) ' I love, loved and loved 
wolde I be,' a 3 ; (4) ' Alas for lak of her presens,' a 3 ; (5) ' Sumwhat 
musyng,' a 3. The title-page also indicates two other songs as being 
by Fayrfax, though his name is not written against them. (6) 
' Benedicite, what dremyd I,' a 3 ; (7) ' To complayne me, alas,' a 3. 

Burney printed 'That was my woo,' which 
he thought (for no good reason) may have been 
addressed to Henry VII. after the battle of 
Bosworth (Hist. ii. 547) ; also extracts from 
some of the Masses. The songs numbered 2, 3, 
4, 5, and 7 were printed by Stafford Smith in 
A Collection of English Songs. No. 3 is also 
printed by the Plain-song and Mediaeval Music 
Society in Songs and Madrigals of the 15th 
Century. g. e. p. a. 

FEEN, DIE. Opera in three acts: words 
and music by Wagner. Written at Wurzburg 
in 1833 (the plot adapted from Gozzi's ' Donna 
Serpente '), excerpts tried in the following year, 
but never performed complete until it was 
produced at Munich in 1888. 

FEIS CEOIL, THE (Irish Musical Festival), 
was inaugurated in Dublin on May 17-22, 1897. 
The event takes place annually in Ma} 7 , and occu- 
pies a week. It consists of concerts (orchestral and 
ballad), and public competitions in choral and 
solo singing, and in ensemble and solo instru- 
mental playing in all branches, which are adjudi- 
cated upon by prominent musicians living out 
of Ireland. Competitions also in various classes 
of musical composition are held, previous to the 
actual festival, the works which obtain prizes 
being performed at the concerts. The objects 
of the Association are, briefly : (1) To promote 
the study and cultivation of Irish music. (2) To 
promote the general cultivation of music in 
Ireland. (3) To hold an annual Musical Festival, 
or Feis Ceoil. (4) To collect and preserve by 
publication the ancient music of Ireland. The 
Association has its headquarters in Dublin. 
The second and fourth festivals (1898 and 



20 FELDLAGER IN SCHLESIEN, EIN 



FENTON 



1900) were held at Belfast; all the others in 
Dublin. e. o. 

FELDLAGER IN SCHLESIEN, EIN. Opera 
in three acts, words by Rellstab, music by 
Meyerbeer ; written and composed in memory 
of Frederick the Great for the reopening of the 
Berlin Opera - house — burnt August 18, 1843 ; 
reopened Dec. 7, 1844. It was performed with 
extraordinary applause at Vienna, Feb. 17,1847, 
with Jenny Lind as Vielka ; eighty florins were 
given for places, and Meyerbeer was called on 
ten times. The ' Feldlager ' appears never to 
have been played either in France or England, 
but some of the music was afterwards used up 
in the ' Etoile du Nord.' G. 

FELIX MERITIS, an institution in Amster- 
dam that included with the performance of music 
the cultivation of letters, art, and science. It 
occupied a building architecturally important, 
with a large concert-room, library, and obser- 
vatory, situated on the Keizersgracht, one of the 
larger canals. Orchestral concerts took place in 
the winter, similar to those of the London 
Philharmonic and the Crystal Palace. The 
usual number was ten, and the subscription 
was equivalent to £5. The early history of 
Felix Meritis has been narrated by Professor 
Jorisson on the occasion of the Centenary, Nov. 
2, 1877. It was founded in 1777, beginning 
its existence on the Leliegracht of Amster- 
dam. The founders intended it to be ' for 
the furtherance of laudable and useful arts 
and sciences ; the augmentation of reason and 
virtue ; the increase and prosperity of trade, 
navigation, agriculture, and fishery,' etc. etc. 
But Felix began at once with music and fine 
art, adding literature to the scheme two years 
later. The original locale soon proved to be too 
small, and in May 1782 the members removed 
to the Vorburgwal. In 1785 continued increase 
determined the erection of the present building 
on the Keizersgracht, completed three years after, 
and with 400 members, instead of, as at first, 
40. (On May 1, 1876, the number of members 
of all classes was 324. ) The wave of disturbance 
caused by the French Revolution washed over 
Felix Meritis, and in 1792, through want of 
funds, the concerts ceased. However, the leaders 
of the institution would not allow it to sink in 
the vortex of political speculation ; and, in the 
abolition of societies throughout Holland this 
one was exempted. During the clatter of weapons 
the Muses were silent, but in 1800 the comple- 
ment of members was again full, and in 1806 
the reading-room, long closed during the pro- 
hibition of newspapers, opened again. In that 
year Louis Bonaparte, made King of Holland, 
offered his protection, which was declined, as 
was also the proposal that the public business 
of the country should be carried on in the 
building. Napoleon I. and Marie Louise, were, 
however, later received in it. In these troubled 
times the music of Felix Meritis tended to soften 



the feelings of distress and almost despair of 
the Amsterdam patriots ; yet that solace ceased 
once more towards the close of 1813, the country 
being in a state of insurrection against the 
French. After 1815 came peace and the gentle 
arts again, and during a great part of the 19th 
century great was the spiritual harvest of the 
' happy through their deserts ' ! The society 
ceased to exist in 1888. 

The name Felix Meritis was more than once 
applied by Robert Schumann to Felix Mendels- 
sohn ; see Gesammelte Schriften (Leipzig, 1854), 
i. 219 ; also i. 191, 192, and 193. A. J. h. 

FELTON, Rev. William, born 1713, [B.A. 
Cambridge, 1738, M.A. 1745, vicar-choral and 
sub-chanter of Hereford Cathedral in 1741, 
custos of the vicars-choral in 1769, and chaplain 
to the Princess - Dowager of Wales]. He was 
distinguished in his day as a composer for, and 
performer on, the organ and harpsichord. He 
published three sets of concertos for those 
instruments in imitation of those of Handel. 
Burney, in the life of Handel prefixed to his 
account of the Commemoration, relates (p. 32), 
on the authority of Abraham Brown, the violinist, 
a droll anecdote of Felton's unsuccessful attempt, 
through Brown, to procure the name of Handel 
as a subscriber to the second set of these 
concertos. Felton also published two or three 
sets of lessons for the same instruments. He 
was one of the stewards of the Meeting of the 
Three Choirs at Hereford 1744, and at Gloucester 
1745. He was vicar of Norton Canon, 1751-69. 
' Felton's Gavot ' was long highly popular ; it 
was introduced into Ciampi's ' Bertoldo ' in 
1762. He died suddenly, Dec. 6, 1769, and 
was buried in the vestibule of the Lady Chapel 
in Hereford Cathedral. w. H. H. ; additions 
from Diet, of Nat. Biog. 

FENELL (name also written ffinell), 
Thomas, was an Irish musician, and was Vicar- 
Choral of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, in 
1677, of which he was organist from 1689 to 
1694, with the exception of the year 1691-92, 
when William Isaac took his place. Dr. 
Cummings says that there are some MS. works 
by Thomas Fenell of Dublin, dated 1689, in 
the music library of Chester Cathedral. From 
1694 to 1698 he was organist and vicar- choral 
of Christ Church Cathedral. In 1698 he re- 
signed, and died about the year 1708-9. He 
was constantly in difficulties owing to his 
temper. w. h. g. f. 

FENTON, Lavinia, born in London, 1708, 
whose real name was Beswick, was an actress 
and singer who first appeared in 1726 at the 
Haymarket Theatre as Monimia in Otway's 
1 Orphan, ' and afterwards at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields Theatre, July 15, 1726, as Lucilla in 
Sir W. Davenant's comedy, ' The Man's the 
Master.' She attracted no particular atten- 
tion until she appeared as Polly Peachum in 
1 The Beggar's Opera,' on the first night of its 



FEO 



FERRABOSCO 



21 



performance, Jan. 29, 1728, when she 'became 
all at once the idol of the town ; her pictures 
were engraven and sold in great numbers ; her 
life written ; books of letters and verses to her 
published ; and pamphlets made of even her 
very sayings and jests.' This success led to 
her being entrusted with more important parts 
than had before been assigned to her. At the 
end of the season, after she had played Polly 
upwards of sixty times, she withdrew from the 
stage and went to live with Charles, third Duke 
of Bolton. On Oct. 21, 1751, his wife, from 
whom he had been separated many years, hav- 
ing died, the Duke married Lavinia Beswick at 
Aix, in Provence. She became a widow in 1 754 ; 
died Jan. 24, 1760, at West Combe Park, 
Greenwich, and was buried in Greenwich 
Church, Feb. 3, 1760. w. H. H. 

FEO, Francesco, one of the masters of the 
Neapolitan school, was born at Naples about 
1685. The traditions of Greco and Scarlatti 
were still fresh there, and it was at the sug- 
gestion of the last named that Domenico Gizzi 
had opened the private school at which Feo 
learnt the art of singing and the principles of 
composition. His bent was essentially dramatic, 
as indeed was that of nearly all the Neapolitans 
of his epoch, with the exception of Durante, 
whose colder and gloomier temperament predis- 
posed him towards the ecclesiastical severities 
of the Roman style. Feo, like Durante and 
Leo, passed some time at the Vatican as the 
pupil of Pitoni, but the influence of his master 
was not sufficient to divert him from Opera. 
His ' Ipermestra, ' 'Ariana,'and 'Andromache' 
were all published at Rome itself, and appar- 
ently during his residence there. [The MSS. 
in the Real Collegio di Musica at Naples in- 
clude two other operas, ' L' Amor tirannico ' 
(1713), and ' Siface ' (1723). Various oratorios, 
masses, etc., are mentioned in the Quellen- 
Lexikon.~\ In 1730 he was director of the 
Conservatorio de' Poveri di Gesu Cristo at 
Naples, and did much to establish the school 
as a nursery of great singers. Though addicted 
to the stage, Feo did not altogether neglect 
Church music, and his work is distinguished by 
elevation of style and profound scientific know- 
ledge. But a certain sensuousness, even in his 
sacred pieces, is suggested by the fact that 
Gluck borrowed the subject of a Kyrie by him 
for a chorus in one of his operas. [According 
to Florimo he was living in 1740.] e. h. p. 

FERIAL and FESTAL. In the Christian 
Church from very early times the term Feria 
secunda was used to denote Monday, Feria tertia 
Tuesday, and so on. Hence the word Feria, or 
Ferial day, came to denote a day marked by 
no special observance, either of a festal or a 
penitential character. So far as music is con- 
cerned, the chief difference is that on the ferial 
days the music is less elaborate and ornate than 
on festal days, when it is more florid, for more 



voices, accompanied by the organ, etc. The 
two kinds are known respectively as the ferial 
use and festal use. g. 

FERLENDIS, Signora, daughter of an 
architect named Barberi, born at Rome about 
1778. Her voice was a strong contralto, but 
somewhat hard and inflexible. Having studied 
with a teacher called Moscheri, she made her 
debut at Lisbon. Here she had the advantage 
of some lessons from Crescentini, and here also 
(1802) she married Alessandro Ferlendis, the 
oboist, member of a very distinguished Italian 
family of players on the oboe and English horn 
She appeared at Madrid in the next year, at 
Milan in 1804, and in 1805 at Paris (Theatre 
Louvois) in Fioravanti's ' Capricciosa pentita. ' 
She achieved there, however, no success in any 
other role but that one. Soon after this, she 
made her first appearance in London with 
Catalani in Cimarosa's ' Orazi e Curiazzi.' She 
was ' a pretty good actress, and at that time first 
buffa ; she was less liked than she deserved, for 
she had a very good contralto voice, and was far 
from a bad buffa. She would have been thought, 
too, to have acted the part of Orazia well, had 
it not been for the comparison with Grassini, 
and for Catalani's then eclipsing everybody.' 
(Lord Mount- Edgcumbe.) She accompanied her 
husband to Italy in 1810 ; her later career is 
not known. j. m. 

FERMATA is the Italian name for the sign 
«\, which in English is commonly called a 
Pause, and signifies that the note over which it 
is placed should be held on beyond its 
natural duration. It is sometimes E 
put over a bar or double bar, in which — 
case it intimates a short interval of silence. 
Schumann, in the first movement of his 
' Faschingsschwank in Wien ' for the pianoforte, 
has the sign over the double bar in this manner, 
where the key changes from two flats to six 
sharps, and has also written ' Kurze Pause.' 
[In the older music the sign for the fermata is 
used, as frequently by Bach, merely as indicat- 
ing the end of the piece, after a Da Capo, when 
modern composers usually write the word 
' fine.' It does not then imply any pause in the 
music between the first and second part of the 
number.] c. h. h. p. 

FERNAND CORTEZ, OU LA CONQU^TE 
DU MEXIQUE. Opera in three acts ; words 
by Esmenard and De Jouy, after Piron ; music 
by Spontini. Produced at the Academie Im- 
periale, Nov. 28, 1809 ; at Dresden, March 
1812; after revision by the composer, at Paris, 
May 28, 1817 ; Berlin, April 20, 1818. 

FERRABOSCO,ALFONSo(I),generallyknown 
in England as Master Alfonso, was one of the 
sons of Domenico Maria Ferabosco, maestro di 
cappella to the church of St. Petronio at Bologna. 
He was already settled in England in 1562, at 
which date he was in receipt of a pension of 
100 marks a year, payable during the Queen's 



22 



FEERABOSCO 



FERRABOSCO 



pleasure. It is possible that he had arrived 
some years earlier, for in 1564 he speaks of ' his 
long service ' and of ' his youth and health spent 
in the Queen's service,' but it would probably 
be a mistake to attach much importance to 
phrases of this kind. In a letter to the Earl of 
Leicester he states that he had left Bologna 
without the necessary licence from the Inquisi- 
tion, which had consequently confiscated the 
property which his father had left him. His 
father, however, was alive for some years after- 
wards, and it is probable that his letters (of 
which many exist written to Leicester, Sussex, 
and Sir William Cecil) were rather intended to 
excite the interest and generosity of his patrons 
than to contain an exact narrative of facts. 
These letters (dating from Oct. 1564), besides 
excuses for non-attendance at Court on account 
of ill-health, etc., are chiefly taken up with 
reasons why the Queen's bounty should be further 
extended to him. On Sept. 10, 1567, he heard 
that the Queen had granted him a pension for 
his life so long as he remained in her service, 
and wrote to ask that this might be secured to 
him in case of her death by the insertion into 
the Patent of the words ' heredibus et succes- 
soribus nostris. ' Perhaps partly on this account, 
but also on account of the unfriendly construc- 
tion which his enemies put upon a visit paid by 
him to the French Ambassador, on Sept. 23 he 
was in disgrace, and the Queen refused to see 
him. To add to his troubles, a young foreign 
musician of Sir Philip Sidney's household was 
murdered as he was going to Court to exhibit 
his skill, and Court gossip accused Ferrabosco 
of killing him out of jealousy. He indignantly 
wrote to Sussex to protest his innocence (Oct. 13, 
1567), s lying that the young man was a friend 
of his, and that he was in the country when the 
affair happened. In a later letter (Dec. 28) he 
complains that until the Queen consented to 
receive him, it was generally supposed abroad, 
as well as in England, that lie was guilty of the 
murder. After some delay the matter was 
settled, and in March 1568-69, Ferrabosco, in 
writing, bound himself to the Queen's service 
for life, and received a pension of £100 a year. 
The Patent dated March 26, 1569, contains the 
words 'heredibus et successoribus nostris.' At 
the same time Alfonso obtained leave (after pledg- 
ing himself to return) to visit Italy in order to 
settle his affairs. Accordingly, on June 25, he 
writes from Paris where he was delayed, partly 
by business which he was arranging with a 
brother who was to accompany him to Italy, and 
partly through having been robbed of all his 
property by his English servant. He writes 
from Bologna on Oct. 30 of this year, promising 
to return with as little delay as possible, but in 
September of the following year he is still mak- 
ing excuses from Bologna ; besides ill-health and 
business, he is delayed by the difficulty in obtain- 
ing the Pope's licence, without which he did not 



dare to travel in prohibited places, for fear of 
leaving his family at the mercy of the Inquisi- 
tion. He did, however, eventually return to 
England, and in June 1572, was concerned in 
a Masque presented before the Queen and the 
French Ambassador. He appears to have re- 
mained in England (probably living at Green- 
wich, where his son Alfonso was born) till the 
year 1578, when he finally quitted the country, 
and (in spite of having bound himself never to 
enter any other service than that of the Queen) 
entered the service of the Duke of Savoy, at 
whose Court he was given some appointment, 
for he describes himself as 'Gentil'huomo dell' 
Altezza di Savoia.' He left his two children 
in England, where they remained in the charge 
of Gomer van Austerwyke, one of the Queen's 
Musicians. Six years later he sent for them, 
but the Queen refused to let them go (perhaps 
regarding them as hostages for the return of 
their father), and Austerwyke was still unpaid 
for their keep at the date of Ferrabosco's death, 
which took place at Turin in 1588. 

The eldest Alfonso Ferrabosco was the most 
important of the Italian musicians who lived 
in England in the 16th century, and was held 
in high estimation among his contemporaries. 
'For judgment and depth of skill,' says 
Peacham in 1622, 'he was inferior to none: 
what he did was most elaborate and profound, 
and pleasing enough in Aire, though Master 
Thomas Morley censureth him otherwise. That 
of his I saw my Ladie weeping, and the Nightin- 
gale (upon which Dittie Master Bird and he in 
a friendly aemulation exercised their invention) 
cannot be bettered forsweetnesse of Aire or depth 
of judgement.' Morley tells us of another 'ver- 
tuous contention ' between him and Byrd ' made 
upon the plaine song Miserere, which contention 
of theirs (specially without envie) caused them 
both to become excellent in that kinde, and 
winne such a name, and game such credit, as 
will never perish so long as Musick endureth.' 
The results of this contention, in which each 
composer set the plain-song in forty different 
ways, were printed by East in 1603, under the 
title of ' Medulla Musicke ' ; no copy of it, how- 
ever, is now known to exist. 

His other printed works are : a five-part 
madrigal 'Tu dole' anima,' contributed to Pever- 
nage's ' Harmonia Celeste' (Antwerp, 1583). 

Two Sets of five-part madrigals by him ap- 
peared at Venice in 1587 ; the first set contain- 
ing twenty madrigals is dedicated to the Duke 
of Savoy ; the second set containing nineteen 
madrigals is dedicated to the Duchess of Savoy. 

Many of his madrigals found their way into 
English collections: 'MusicaTransalpina' (1588) 
contains fourteen by him ; ' Musica Transal- 
pina' (1597) contains six ; five are in Morley's 
collection of 1598. Many of these are taken 
from the two Sets of 1587. 

Two pieces for the lute ' by the most Artificial! 



FERRABOSCO 



FERRABOSCO 



23 



and famous Alfonso Ferrabosco of Bologna ' were 
printed by Robert Dowland in his ' Varietie of 
Lute-lessons,' 1610. 

A large number of MS. works by him, chiefly 
Motets, are in the British Museum ; Bodleian 
and Music School, Oxford ; St. Michael's College, 
Tenbury ; Buckingham Palace ; and Royal 
College of Music Libraries. g. e. p. a. 

FERRABOSCO, Alfonso (II), son of the 
first Alfonso, was born at Greenwich, and no 
doubt was one of the children left behind in 
England when their father returned to Italy in 
1578. 'He was trained up to Musick,' says 
Anthony Wood, apparently at the Queen's ex- 
pense ; at any rate, after Oct. 11, 1592, he was 
in receipt of an annuity of £26 : 13 : 4, which 
was paid up to Midsummer 1601. After James 
I.'s accession he appears as one of the King's 
Musicians for the Violins, a year's salary of £7 
being paid him at Michaelmas 1603. He held 
his place as one of the violins until his death, 
by which time his salary had been raised to 
£40. [Audit Office, Declared Accounts.] 

' At man's estate he became an excellent com- 
poser for instrumental musick,' says Anthony 
Wood, ' he was most excellent at the Lyra Viol, 
and was one of the first that set lessons Lyra- 
way to the Viol, in imitation of the old English 
Lute and Bandora. The most famous man in 
all the world for Fantazias of 5 or 6 parts.' 
' The lyre is in high favour with them, ' writes 
Andre Maugars from Rome in 1639, 'but I 
have heard none who could be compared with 
Farabosco in England.' But it is chiefly as 
composer of the music to some of Ben Jonson's 
Masques that he is now remembered. Those 
for which he is known to have written music 
were 'The Masque of Blackness' (Twelfth Night, 
1604-5), 'Hymemei' (1605-6), 'The Masque 
of Beauty' (1607-8), 'The Masque for Lord 
Haddington's Marriage' (1607-8) and 'The 
Masque of Queens' (1608-9). The printed 
description of the ' Hymensei ' (in which Ferra- 
bosco appeared as singer as well as composer) 
contains a testimony to the friendship existing 
at that date between him and Jonson, in a warm 
eulogy of the composer, which, however, was 
omitted in the folio edition of 1616. In 1604 
(Nov. 27) he was entrusted with £20 to buy 
two viols for Henry, Prince of Wales, to whom 
he was appointed music-master, with a pension 
of £50 a year for life (dating from Christmas, 
1604) ; on the death of Henry in 1612 his 
services were transferred to Charles, the new 
Prince of Wales. To these sources of income 
was added in 1619 a share in a valuable property, 
a grant for twenty-one years to him, Innocent 
Lanier and Hugh Lydiard ' for cleansing the 
Thames of flats and shelves ' with power to sell 
the sand and gravel ; with, in addition, ' an 
allowance to them of one penny per ton of 
strangers' goods and merchandises imported or 
exported into or out of the Port of London.' 



Ferrabosco is said to have sold his share ' for a 
great sum of money. ' 

On the accession of Charles I. Ferrabosco re- 
tained his former appointments, and was also 
made Composer of Music in Ordinary to the 
King, with a salary of £40, from the death of 
John Coperario in 1626. He was also Composer 
of the King's Music, with an additional salary 
of £40. He died before March 11, 1627-28, 
when he was buried at Greenwich, where he 
seems to have lived at any rate after 1619. 
Entries relating to members of his family are 
to be found in the Greenwich parish registers 
(printed in the Musician, Sept. 20, 1897). 
Ferrabosco published two volumes of music in 
1609. The first, a book of ' Ayres,' dedicated 
to Prince Henry, contains twenty-eight songs 
with accompaniment for lute and bass viol, of 
which a large proportion are from Jonson's 
Masques. The other is a book of ' Lessons 
for 1. 2. and 3. Viols,' dedicated to the 
Earl of Southampton. They consist of short 
pieces, dances, etc., for the lyra viol, and are 
printed in lute tablature. Each of these volumes 
contains (amongst others) commendatory verses 
by Ben Jonson ; the fiist has also some verses 
by Campion, addressing Ferrabosco as ' Musick's 
maister and the offspring | Of rich Musick's 
Father | Old Alfonso's Image living.' He also 
contributed three compositions to Leigh ton's 
' Teares or Lamentacions ' in 1614. Com- 
positions in MS. (chiefly Fancies for the viols) 
are in the libraries of the Royal Coll. of Music ; 
the Music School, and Christ Church, Oxford ; 
and the British Museum. g. e. p. a. 

FERRABOSCO, Alfonso (III), son of 
Alfonso (II), succeeded on his father's death to 
the pension of £50, which he had enjoyed as 
former music-master to the Prince of Wales ; 
and also to his place as Musician for the Viols 
and Wind Instruments. The latter double 
appointment entitled the holder to two liveries 
of £16 : 2 : 6 each, which were secured to Ferra- 
bosco by a deed dated Feb. 7, 1627-1628. 
His name occurs as one of the musicians in 
1635, and again in 1641. He must have 
died before the re-establishment of the King's 
Musicians in 1660, when Child succeeded to 
' Ferabosco's place — Alphonsus composer of 
Wind M. , ' and Hingeston ' for a viol place of 
Alphonso Ferabosco.' g. e. p. a. 

FERRABOSCO, Henry, son of Alfonso (II), 
and brother of Alfonso (III), succeeded his 
father as Composer of the King's Music, and as 
one of the King's Musicians, receiving a salary 
of £40 for each place. On Feb. 7, 1627-28, he 
secured his double livery as Musician for the 
Voices and for the Wind Instruments. His 
name appears as one of the Musicians at different 
dates up to 1645, when he signed receipts on 
behalf of the Musicians, the Court being then 
at Oxford. His daughter Elizabeth, baptized 
at Greenwich, Dec. 3, 1640, may possibly have 



24 



FERRABOSCO 



FERRARI 



been the Mrs. Ferrabosco whom Pepys thought 
of engaging as gentlewoman for his wife, who 
'sings most admirably' {Diary, Sept. 4, 1664). 
She was afterwards in the suite of the Duchess 
of Newcastle (Diary, May 30, 1667). Henry 
Ferrabosco may be identified with the Captain 
Henry Ferribosco who took part in the expedi- 
tion to Jamaica where he was killed. The 
committee appointed to report on arrears of pay, 
etc., due to relatives of those who fought there 
recommend (June 10, 1658) that a sum of £240 
should be paid ' for five small children of Capt. 
Henry Ferribosco, lately slayne by the Enemy 
in Jamaica, his wife being also dead since his 
departure from England.' His place as Musi- 
cian was filled by Thomas Bates at the 
Restoration. G. E. p. A. 

FERRABOSCO, John, was probably the son 
of Alfonso (II), who was baptized at Greenwich, 
Oct. 9, 1626. There is a warrant dated Jan. 
17, 1631, for delivery of Chamlett and other 
necessaries yearly to John Ferrabosco, one of 
His Majesty's Musicians for the wind instru- 
ments, in the room of Henry Ferrabosco, during 
His Majesty's pleasure. As Henry was still 
holding his place as Musician for the "Wind 
Instruments in 1634, this must have been a 
temporary arrangement, made solely with a view 
to providing for the child of a favourite musician ; 
it is possible, however, that there were two 
musicians of this name. John Ferrabosco was 
appointed organist of Ely Cathedral in 1662 ; 
many anthems and services by him still exist 
there in MS. In 1671 he took the degree of 
Mus.B. at Cambridge 'per literas regias ' 
(Dickson's Catalogue of Music at Ely). The 
registers of Trinity Church, Ely, show that he 
married Anne Burton on June 28, 1679 ; their 
child John was baptized in the following August, 
and was buried May 8, 1682 ; John Ferrabosco 
himself was buried Oct. 15, 1682. g. e. p. a. 

FERRARA. The earliest and best -known 
musical academy in Ferrara was that of the 
' Intrepidi,' founded in 1600 by Giambattista 
Aleotti d'Argenta for dramatic musical repre- 
sentations. The magistrates of the city allowed 
the academicians 100 scudi a year for public 
celebrations in their theatre. Previous to the 
founding of this academy, Ferrara could boast 
one of the most magnificent theatres of Italy, 
opened in 1484 by Ercole I., Duke of Ferrara, 
in which were celebrated the ' Feste Musicali, ' 
those earliest forms of the musical drama universal 
in Italy in the 15th century. While the 'Orfeo' 
of Poliziano was represented at Mantua, the 
theatre of Ferrara witnessed the ' Cefalo ' of 
Niccol6 da Correggio, the 'Feast of Anfitrione 
and Sosia,' and others. The 'Intrepidi' in 1607 
represented with great pomp the Pastorale called 
' La Filla di Sciro ' by Guidubaldo Bonarelli. 

Frescobaldi was a native of Ferrara, and made 
his studies there. c. M. P. 

FERRARESE DEL BENE, the sobriquet of 



Francesca Gabrielli, an Italian singer, native of 
Ferrara. When Burney was in Venice, in August 
1770, he heard at the Ospedaletto an orphan girl 
la Fcrrarese with an 'extraordinary compass' and 
a ' fair natural voice.' She sang in London from 
1784 to 1787 in Cherubini's 'Giulio Sabino' and 
other parts, but without much success. In 1789 
she was prima donna in Vienna. Mozart wrote 
for her the Rondo ' Al desio, ' introduced into 
the part of the Countess in ' Figaro' on its revival 
August 1789, and she played Fiordiligi in 'Cos! 
fan tutte' at its production, Jan. 26, 1790. 
Mozart did not think much of her, for in speak- 
ing of Allegrandi he says, ' she is much better 
than the Ferrarese, though that is not saying 
a great deal.' She probably owed her good 
fortune to her pretty eyes and mouth, and to 
her intrigue with da Ponte, with whom she 
lived as his mistress for three years. In the 
end she quarrelled with the other singers, and 
was sent from Vienna by the Emperor. G. 

FERRARI, Benedetto, called 'dallaTiorba,' 
an Italian musician, and composer of words and 
music for the species of Italian dramas called 
'dramme per musica,' was born at Reggio about 
1597 ; [as according to a portrait prefixed to 
his 'Andromeda' (printed 1637) he was forty 
years old at that time. ] From a letter, now in 
the archives of Modena, written by him to the 
Duke of Modena in 1623, we learn that his 
reputation as a musician, and especially as a 
player on the theorbo, was by that time con- 
siderable. It was largely owing to him that 
the ' dramma musicale ' took such deep root in 
Italy and Germany, and herein lies his chief 
interest for us. His opera ' Andromeda, ' set 
to music by Manelli and brought out at the 
Teatro San Cassiano at Venice in 1637, was the 
first opera performed before a mixed audience. 
Inl639 followed his ' Adone,' set byMonteverde, 
and 'Armida,' of which he wrote both words 
and music. Its success induced Ferrari to 
devote himself more to composition than before. 
He remained in Venice till 1645, when he [was 
in the Court band at Modena : in 1651 he] was 
invited to Vienna by the Emperor Ferdinand, 
and remained in his service till 1653. A ballet 
by him was performed at the Diet of Ratisbon 
in 1653. In the same year he was appointed 
maestro di cappella to Duke Alfonso of Modena, 
on whose death in 1662 he was dismissed, but he 
was reappointed in 1674, and died in possession 
of the post Oct. 22, 1681. His librettos were 
collected and printed at Milan and Piacenza, 
and passed through several editions ; none of 
these collections, however, are complete. The 
library at Modena contains several of his MSS., 
including the ballet ' Dafne in alloro ' (Vienna, 
1651). [This is not mentioned in the Quellen- 
Lexikon as still extant, but an oratorio ' Sansone ' 
is noted as at Modena.] We have not sufficient 
materials to form any opinion on the style of 
his music. He published at Venice in 1633, 



FERRARI 



FERRI 



25 



1637, and 1641, three books of 'Musiche varie 
a voce sola,' in which, according to Burney, the 
term ' Cantata ' occurs for the first time, although 
the invention of this kind of piece was claimed 
by Barbara Strozzi twenty years later, f. g. 

FERRARI, Domenico, an eminent Italian 
violin player, born at Piacenza at the beginning 
of the 18th century. He was a pupil of Tartini, 
and lived for a number of years at Cremona. 
About the year 1749 he began to travel, and 
met with great success at Vienna, where he was 
considered the greatest living violin player. 
In 1753 he became a member of the band of 
the Duke of Wiirtemberg at Stuttgart, of which 
Nardini was at that time leader. If Ferrari 
was a pupil of Tartini, he certainly, according 
to contemporary critics, did not retain the style 
of that great master in after life. He had an 
astonishing ability in the execution of octave- 
runs and harmonics, and appears altogether to 
have been more a player than a musician. He 
twice visited Paris, at first in 1754, and played 
there with great success. He died at Paris 
in 1780, according to report, by the hand of 
a murderer. Ferrari published sets of six 
Violin-Sonatas (Paris and London), and some 
for two violins and bass which, however, are 
now forgotten. p. d. 

FERRARI, Giacomo Gotifredo, a cultivated 
and versatile musician, son of a merchant at 
Roveredo, born there 1759. He learned the 
pianoforte at Verona, and the flute, violin, oboe, 
and double-bass at Roveredo, and studied theory 
under Pater Marianus Stecher at the convent of 
Mariaberg near Chur. After his father's death 
he accompanied Prince Lichtenstein to Rome 
and Naples, and studied for two years and a half 
under Latilla on Paisiello's recommendation. 
Here also he made the acquaintance of M. 
Campan, Marie Antoinette's master of the house- 
hold, and went with him to Paris, where he was 
appointed accompanist to the new Theatre 
Feydeau. In 1793 the company was dispersed, 
and Ferrari shortly afterwards left France. 
Having travelled for some time he finally settled 
in London, where he composed a very large 
number of works, including four operas and two 
ballets. In 1804 he married Miss Henry, a 
well-known pianist. From 1809 to 1812 he 
suffered from loss of sight. In 1814 he went 
to Italy with Broadwood the pianoforte-maker, 
and visited Naples, Venice, etc., returning in 
1816. He died in London, Dec. 1842. He was 
an active teacher of singing, and published a 
Treatise on Singing in 2 vols., of which a 
French translation appeared in 1827. His 
Studio di musica prattica e teorica (London) is 
a useful treatise. Two of his French songs, 
' Qu'il faudrait de philosophic ' and ' Quand 
l'amour nacquit a Cy there,' were extremely 
popular in their day. His acquaintance with 
almost every contemporary musician of im- 
portance gives a historical value to his book 



Aneddotti . . . occorsi nella vita di G. G. Ferrari, 
2 vols. London, 1830. Besides the operas, ballets, 
and songs already named, Ferrari composed an 
extraordinary quantity of music for the voice, 
pianoforte, flute, and harp. [See Quellen- 
Lexikon.] f. g. 

FERREL, Jean Francois, musician in Paris 
about the middle of the 17th century, wrote 
a small pamphlet, A savoir que les maistres 
de dance, qui sont de vrays maistres larrons a 
Vendroit des violons de France, n'ont pasroyale 
commission d'incorporrer es leur compagnie les 
organistes et austres musiciens, comme aussy de 
leur f aire paler redevance, demonstre par J. F. 
Ferrel, praticien de musique a Paris, natif de 
VAnjou (Paris, 1659). This was the signal for 
a contest lasting for 100 years, between the 
French musicians and thedancing-masters,whose 
chief, the ' roi des menetriers,' claimed jurisdic- 
tion over all musicians. Hard words were ex- 
changed on both sides, and after several law-suits , 
a decree of the Paris Parliament in 1750 settled 
the question in favour of the musicians. Some 
of the pamphlets had curious titles ; for example, 
La cloche felee, ou le bruit faict par un musicien 
qui ne veult etre maistre de dance parce qu'il ne 
sait sur quel pied se tenir, and Discours pour 
prouver que la danse dans sa plus noble partie 
n'a pas besoin des instrumens de musique, et 
qu'elle est en toute independante du violon. [See 
Fetis.] m. c. c. 

FERRETTI, Giovanni, born at Venice about 
1540 [lived in Ancona from 1569, where he 
was maestro di cappella at the cathedral from 
1575 to 1585], composed five books of ' Canzoni ' 
in five parts (Venice, 1567-91), two books in six 
parts (Venice, 1573-86), and another of five-part 
madrigals (Venice, 1588), all excellent examples 
of their kind. Amadrigalof his, ' Siat' avertiti,' 
for five voices, is included in Webb's madrigals, 
and in vol. iii. of Novello's Glee Hive. m. c. c. 

FERRI, Bald ass are, one of the most extra- 
ordinary singers who ever lived, was born at 
Perugia, Dec. 9, 1610. He owed to an accident 
in his boyhood the operation by which he became 
a sopranist. At the age of eleven he entered the 
service of the Bishop of Orvieto as a chorister, 
and remained there until 1625, when Prince 
Vladislas of Poland, then on a visit at Rome, 
carried him off to his father's Court. In 1665 
he was transferred to Ferdinand III., Emperor 
of Germany, whose successor, Leopold I., loaded 
him with riches and honours. This prince had 
a portrait of Ferri, crowned with laurels, hanging 
in his bed-chamber, and inscribed, ' Baldassare 
Perugino, Re dei Musici.' At the age of sixty- 
five he received permission to retire to his native 
country, with a passport, the terms of which 
indicated sufficiently the consideration in which 
he was held. He reached Italy in 1675, and 
died at Perugia, Sept. 8, 1680. 

Ferri was made a knight of S. Mark of 
Venice in 1643; and, therefore, probably visited 

c 



26 



FERT6 



FESTA 



Italy at that time. He aroused the greatest 
enthusiasm wherever he appeared ; hundreds of 
sonnets were written in his honour, he was 
covered with roses in his carriage after simply 
singing a cantata, and at Florence a number of 
distinguished persons went three miles out of 
the town, to escort him into it. (Ginguene'.) 
He is said also to have visited London, and to 
have sung here the part of Zephyr: but this 
must be a fable, as Italian opera did not begin in 
England till 1692,— twelve years after his death. 
It is true that in M. Locke's 'Psyche' (1671) 
there is a character called Zephyr ; but he has 
only four lines to speak, and none to sing. 
Ferri had, nevertheless, made one journey (before 
1654) to Sweden, to gratify Queen Christina's 
wish to hear him. Ginguene says that his 
portrait was engraved with the inscription ' Qui 
fecit mirabilia multa ' ; but such a portrait (as 
far as the present writer knows) has never been 
seen. A medal was struck, bearing on one side 
his head crowned with bays, and on the other 
the device of a swan dying by the banks of 
Meander. Ferri was tall and handsome, with 
refined manners ; and he expressed himself with 
distinction. He died very rich, leaving 600,000 
crowns for a pious foundation. 

His voice, a beautiful soprano, had an inde- 
scribable limpidity, combined with the greatest 
agility and facility, a perfect intonation, a 
brilliant shake, and inexhaustible length of 
breath. Although he seems to have surpassed 
all the evirati in brilliance and endurance, he 
was quite as remarkable for pathos as for those 
qualities. (Bontempi, Historia Musica.) j. m. 

FERTli:, Papillon de la, born in Feb. 1727 
at Chalons; became in 1777, by purchase, 'In- 
tendant des Menus-plaisirs ' to Louis XVI., and 
as such had the direction of the ' Fjcole Royale 
de Chant' founded by the Baron de Breteuil, 
and of the opera after the municipality had given 
up the administration of it. In 1790 he pub- 
lished a reply to a pamphlet by the artists of 
the opera — ' Memoire justificatif des sujets de 
l'Academie royale de musique ' — in which they 
demanded a reform of the administration. He 
died in Paris, July 19, 1794. His son occupied 
the same post after the Restoration. m. c. c. 

FERVAAL. Opera in three acts, words and 
music by Vincent d'Indy. Produced at the 
Theatre de la Monnaie, Brussels, March 12, 
1897; at the Opera Comique in Paris, May 
10, 1898. 

FESCA, Friedrich Ernst, composer, born 
at Magdeburg, Feb. 15, 1789. His father was 
an amateur, and his mother a singer, pupil of 
J. A. Hiller, so he heard good music in his 
youth, and as soon as he could play the violin 
had taste enough to choose the quartets and 
quintets of Haydn and Mozart in preference to 
Pleyel's music, for which there was then a 
perfect rage in Germany. Having completed 
his elementary studies, he went through a course 



of counterpoint with Pitterlin, conductor of the 
Magdeburg theatre. On Pitterlin's death in 
1804 he became a pupil of August Eberhardt 
Miiller at Leipzig. Here he played a violin con- 
certo of his own with brilliant success. In 1806 
he accepted a place in the Duke of Oldenburg's 
band, but in the following year became solo 
violinist under Reichardt at Casssl. where he 
passed six happy years and composed his first 
seven quartets and first two symphonies, in- 
teresting works, especially when he himself 
played the first violin. In 1814, after a visit to 
Vienna, he was appointed solo violin, and in the 
following year concert-meister, to the Duke of 
Baden at Carlsruhe. During the next eleven 
years he wrote two operas, ' Cantemir ' and 
' Leila,' overtures, quartets, quintets, chorales, 
psalms and other sacred music. He died at 
Carlsruhe, May 24, 1826, of consumption, after 
many years' suffering, which, however, had not 
impaired his powers, as his last works contain 
some of his best writing. His 'De Profundis,' 
arranged in four parts by Strauss, was sung at 
his funeral. Fesca was thoughtful, earnest, and 
warm-hearted, with occasional traits of humour 
in striking contrast to his keen sensibility and 
lofty enthusiasm for art. He appreciated suc- 
cess, but steadfastly declined to sacrifice his own 
perceptions of the good and beautiful for popu- 
larity. Fesca's rank as a composer has been 
much disputed. There is a want of depth in 
his ideas, but his melodies are taking and his 
combinations effective. His quartets and quin- 
tets, without possessing the qualities of the 
great masters, have a grace and elegance peculiar 
to himself, and are eminently attractive. His 
symphonies are feebly instrumented, but his 
sacred works are of real merit. In richness of 
modulation he approaches Spohr. A complete 
edition of his quartets and quintets (twenty and 
five in number) has been published in Paris 
(Rimbault). His son, Alexander Ernst, 
born at Carlsruhe, May 22, 1820, died at 
Brunswick, Feb. 22, 1849, was a pupil of 
Rungenhagen, Wilhelm Bach, and Taubert, 
and composer of trios for pianoforte, violin, and 
violoncello, and other chamber-music popular in 
their day. The best of his four operas was ' Der 
Troubadour' (Brunswick, 1854). m. c. c. 

FESTA, Costanzo, one of the earliest com- 
posers of the Roman School, was born somewhere 
towards the close of the 15th century. He was 
elected a member of the Pontifical choir in 1517, 
and died April 10, 1545. He eventually became 
maestro at the Vatican, and his nomination was 
so far singular that he was at that time the only 
Italian in a similar position throughout the 
Peninsula. His genius cannot be doubted, and 
Dr. Burney, who had been at the trouble of 
scoring a great number of his Madrigals, was 
astonished at the rhythm, grace, and facility of 
them. He calls one of Festa's Motetti, ' Quam 
pulchra es, anima mea,' a model of elegance, 



FESTING 



FESTIVALS, MUSICAL 



27 



simplicity, and pure harmony, and says that 
' the subjects of imitation in it are as modern, 
and that the parts sing as well, as if it were a 
production of the 18th century.' Festa, ac- 
cording to Baini, fell in his motets into a 
fashion too prevalent in his day, of setting 
distinct words to each voice. The Abbe {Life 
of Palestrina, vol. i. pp. 95-103) explains in 
great detail the lengths to which this absurd 
and undignified affectation was carried, and 
quotes with obvious and well -merited approval a 
rebuke administered by the Cardinal Capranica, 
in the pontificate of Niccolo V., to some singer 
who had asked him to admire the caprice. ' Mi 
pare,' said the Cardinal, ' di udir una mandra 
di porcelli, che grugniscono a tutta f orza senza 
profferire pero un suono articolato, non che una 
parola.' 

The principal repertories for Festa's music are 
the collections which flowed from the presses of 
Gardano and of Scotto at Venice in the middle 
of the 16th century, and for which the curious 
inquirer must be referred to the Bibliographie 
of Eitner, or the Quellen-Lexikon. [His first 
book of madrigals for three voices was published 
in 1537, and various editions appeared down to 
1568. Two masses are in the Sistine Chapel, a 
four-part Magnificat was published in 1554, and 
a book of Litanies for double choir in 1583.] 
The archives of the Pontifical chapel are rich 
in his MSS., and a celebrated Te Deum of his 
(published 1596) is still sung by the Pontifical 
choir at the election of a new Pope. Burney, 
in his History (iii. 245, 6), prints a motet and 
a madrigal of Festa's; and a Te Deum and 
motet are given in Bock's collection (vi. 31, 40). 
His madrigal ' Down in a flow'ry vale ' (' Quando 
ritrovo la mia pastorella ') long enjoyed the dis- 
tinction of being the most popular piece of this 
description in England. e. h. p. 

FESTING, Michael Christian, an eminent 
performer on, and composer for the violin, was 
the son of a flautist of the same names, who was 
a member of the orchestra of the King's Theatre, 
in the Haymarket about 1727. Festing was at 
first a pupil of Richard Jones, leader of the band 
at Drury Lane, but subsequently studied under 
Geminiani. He first appeared in public about 
1724. He became a member of the king's private 
band in 1735 and first violin at an amateur 
association which met at the Crown and Anchor 
Tavern in the Strand, under the name of the 
Philharmonic Society. [In 1737 he was ap- 
pointed director of the Italian Opera.] On the 
opening of Ranelagh Gardens in 1742 he was 
appointed director of the music as well as leader 
of the band. 

Festing was one of the originators of the 
Society of Musicians. Being seated one day at 
the window of the Orange Coffee-house in the 
Haymarket in company with Weidemann, the 
flautist, and Vincent, the oboist, they observed 
two very intelligent-looking boys driving milch 



asses. On inquiry they found them to be the 
orphans of Kytch, an eminent but imprudent 
German oboist, who had settled in London and 
then recently died, literally in the streets, from 
sheer want. Shocked by this discovery Festing 
consulted with Dr. Greene, his intimate friend, 
and other eminent musicians, and the result was 
the establishment of the Society of Musicians 
for the support and maintenance of decayed mu- 
sicians and their families. [See Royal Society 
of Musicians.] Festing for many years per- 
formed gratuitously the duties of secretary to 
this institution. He died July 24, 1752. In 
September of that year his goods, books, and 
instruments were sold at his house in Warwick 
Street, Golden Square. He left an only son, 
the Rev. Michael Festing, rector of Wyke Regis, 
Dorset, who married the only child of his lather's 
friend, Dr. Greene. From this union sprang 
many descendants to perpetuate the name of 
Festing, and not many years since an Hertford- 
shire innkeeper, bearing the names of Maurice 
Greene Festing, was living. Festing's composi- 
tions consist of several sets of solos for the violin ; 
sonatas, concertos, and symphonies for stringed 
and other instruments ; part of the third chapter 
of Habakkuk, paraphrased ; Addison's Ode for 
St. Cecilia's day ; Milton's Song on May morning; 
an Ode on the return of the Duke of Cumberland 
from Scotland in 1745 ; an Ode ' For thee how 
I do mourn ' ; and many cantatas and songs for 
Ranelagh. Sir John Hawkins says that ' as a 
performer on the violin Festing was inferior to 
many of his time, but as a composer, particularly 
of solos for that instrument, the nature and 
genius whereof he perfectly understood, he had 
but few equals.' Festing had a brother of the 
name of John, an oboist and teacher of the flute, 
whose success in his profession was such that he 
died in 1772 worth £8000, acquired chiefly by 
teaching. w. H. h. 

FESTIVALS, MUSICAL. The earliest 
musical festivals of which any trustworthy 
record exists were held in Italy. At an inter- 
view between Francis I., King of France, and 
Pope Leo X. at Bologna in 1515, the musicians 
attached to their respective courts combined 
and gave a performance, but no details of the 
programme have been preserved. In the early 
part of the 17th century there was a thanksgiving 
festival at St. Peter's at Rome on the cessation 
of the Plague, when a mass by Benevoli for six 
choirs was sung by more than 200 voices with 
organ accompaniment, the sixth choir occupying 
the highest part of the cupola. In France the 
first festival recorded is that which took place 
as a thanksgiving, for the recovery of the eldest 
son of Louis XIV., when Lulli's ' Te Deum' 
(written to celebrate a similar happy event in 
His Majesty's own life in 1686) was performed 
by 300 musicians. In Bohemia the earliest 
festival was held at Prague in honour of the 
coronation of the Emperor Charles VI. as King 



28 



FESTIVALS, MUSICAL 



FESTIVALS, MUSICAL 



of Bohemia, when the opera of ' Costanza e 
Fortezza' by Fux was performed in the open 
air by a band of 200 and a chorus of 100 voices 
— a somewhat singular proportion of orchestral 
to vocal resources — and of this an account is 
given by Barney in his German Tour, vol. ii. 
p. 178. French musicians united at Paris in 
1764 in a solemn service at the funeral of 
Rameau; and at Naples in 1774, at the burial 
of Jommelli, the service was performed by 300 
musicians. In Austria the earliest festivals 
were given by the Musical Institution at Vienna 
(Tonkiinstler-Societat) , by whose members, to 
the number of 400, oratorios were performed 
twice annually, in Advent and Lent, for charit- 
able purposes, beginning with 1772. 1 In the 
same city there was a festival in honour of 
Haydn in 1808, at which the ' Creation ' was 
performed, and at which the composer bade 
farewell to the world. More important, and in 
its dimensions approaching more nearly to the 
modern festival, was a performance given at 
Vienna in 1811, also in Haydn's honour, when 
the numbers are said to have been upwards of 
700. [See also Beaulieu, Cincinnati, and 
Niederrheinische, for important festivals 
other than British.] c. m. 

British Festivals 

The following musical festivals are described 
under their own headings : Birmingham, 
Bristol, Cecilia, St., Charity Children, 
Chester, Eisteddfod, Feis Ceoil, Foundling 
Hospital, Handel Festival, Leeds, Liver- 
pool, Manchester, Norwich, Sons of the 
Clergy, Three Choirs, and York. 

Bradford. — In connection with the opening 
of St. George's Hall, a festival was held in 1853, 
when a MS . Credo by Mendelssohn was performed 
for the first time. In 1856, J. L. Hatton's 
' Eobin Hood,' and G. A. Macfarren's ' May 
Day,' were produced on August 26 and 28 re- 
spectively ; and in 1859, on August 26, Jackson's 
' The Year,' received its first performance. All 
three festivals were conducted by Costa. 

Bridlington. — This festival, inaugurated, 
financed, and conducted by Mr. A. W. M. 
Bosville,D. L.,of Thorpe Hall, near Bridlington, 
was first held in 1895 ; with one exception 
(1902) it has been continued annually until 
1903. Works have been specially composed for 
the Bridlington festival by the following local 
musicians — Mr. John Camidge, Mr. Arthur C. 
Edwards, and Mr. G. T. Patman. Further 
details will be found in the Musical Times of 
June 1903, p. 383. 

Cardiff. — In spite of the fact that Wales is 
credited with a true love for music, no festival 
on an adequate scale took place in the Princi- 
pality until 1892. Since then and up to the 
present time (1905) four meetings have been 

1 Hanslick's Concert* Wesen in Wien, p. 18. 



held (all at Cardiff) as hereunder set forth, 
with the principal works performed : — 

1892. ' Messiah,' ' Elijah,' ' Hymn of Praise,' ' Golden Legend ' 
(Sullivan), ' Dream of Jubal ' (Mackenzie), 'Faust' (Berlioz), 
'Stabat Mater' (Dvorak), 'Blest Pair of Sirens' (Hubert 
Parry), 'Revenge' (Stanford), in addition to an oratorio, 
'Saul of Tarsus,' composed for the festival by Dr. Joseph 
Parry. Conductor, Sir Joseph Barnby. 

1895. ' Messiah,' ' St. Paul,' ' Last Judgment,' ' Requiem ' (Verdi), 
'The Light of the World' (Sullivan), 'Faust' (Berlioz), 
'Choral Symphony,' 'St. Francis' (Edgar Tinel), first per- 
formance in England ; and for the first time, ' The Bard ' 
(Stanford), and ' A Psalm of Life ' (David Jenkins). Con- 
ductor, Sir Joseph Barnby. (An interval of seven years 
elapsed before the next festival was held.) 

1902. 'Orpheus' (Gluck), 'Elijah,' 'Song of Destiny' (Brahms), 
'Faust' (Berlioz), 'Stabat Mater' (Rossini), 'Samson and 
Delilah' (Saint-Saens), 'Ruth' (Cowen), 'Flying Dutchman' 
(Acts 1 and 2), ' The Beatitudes ' (Cesar Franck), for the first 
time in England ; aud, for the first time, two orchestral pieces 
'On the Heights,' and 'On the March,' by Arthur Hervey. 
Conductor, Dr. F. H. Cowen. 

1904. ' Elijah,' ' Hymn of Praise,' ' Eve ' (Massenet), ' Faust ' (Schu- 
mann), 'Samson and Delilah' (Saint-Saens), 'Requiem' 
(Verdi), ' Dream of Gerontius' (Elgar), ' The Desert' (David), 
'Lohengrin' (Act 3), 'Midsummer Eight's Dream' music 
(Mendelssohn) ; and, for the first time, ' John Gilpin ' (Cowen), 
' The Victory of St. Gannon ' (Harry Evans) , 'Welsh Rhapsody ' 
(German), and overture 'In the East,' Hervey, the two last 
named being orchestral works. Conductor, Dr. F. H. Cowen. 

Diocesan Choral Festivals. See below. 

Dublin. — A festival comprising seven con- 
certs was held in 1831, when Sir George Smart 
and Ferdinand Ries conducted, the latter being 
represented by his oratorio ' The Triumph of 
Faith.' Mendelssohn's ' Midsummer Night's 
Dream ' overture was played from MS. parts, 
and Paganini appeared. (See also Feis Ceoil, 
ante, p. 19.) 

Edinburgh. — The first festival in the Scot- 
tish capital was held in 1815 (seven concerts), 
of which a full account (published) was written 
by George Farquhar Graham (Edinburgh, 1816). 
The two succeeding meetings, in 1819 and 1824, 
were conducted by Sir George Smart. In 1843, 
on the occasion of the opening of the new Music 
Hall in George Street, a festival was held (Oct. 
9-14) , conducted by the Reid Professor of Music, 
Sir Henry R. Bishop. No new works were pro- 
duced on any of these four occasions, nor have 
any subsequent festivals been held. (See Music 
for the People, by Robert A. Marr, Edinburgh, 
1889, for further information.) 

Glasgow. — In 1860 the first festival took 
place in Glasgow, when the four concerts in- 
cluded performances of ' Messiah,' ' Elijah,' and 
the production of a new oratorio by Charles 
Edward Horsley, entitled ' Gideon.' The next 
music-meeting (six concerts) was held in 1873, 
at which were given ' Messiah,' ' Elijah,' ' Eli' 
(Costa) ; and, for the first time, an oratorio, 
' Jacob,' composed by Henry Smart, and a 
psalm, ' Bow down thine ear,' by H. A. Lam- 
beth, who, with Costa, shared the duties of 
conductor. No other festival has since been 
held in Glasgow. The opening of St. Andrew's 
Halls, however, in Nov. 1877, partook of the 
nature of a musical festival. For that occasion 
Sir G. A. Macfarren composed his cantata ' The 
Lady of the Lake.' (See Mr. Marr's book men- 
tioned above, under ' Edinburgh.') 

Hanley. See North Staffordshire, below. 

Hovingham. — The festival (not quite an 
annual one) in this remote Yorkshire village 



FESTIVALS, MUSICAL 



FESTIVALS, MUSICAL 



29 



was founded in 1887 by Canon T. P. Pemberton 
(formerly Hudson), and has always been con- 
ducted by him, the twelfth meeting taking place 
in 1903. A list of the works that have been 
performed is given in the Musical Times of 
December 1903 (p. 792). Those produced at 
Hovingham have been composed by Dr. Alan 
Gray, Dr. E. W. Naylor, Mr. T. Tertius Noble, 
Miss Alexandra Thompson, and Dr. Charles 
Wood. Dr. Joachim has taken part in nearly 
all the festivals. 

Peterborough and Lincoln. — Originating 
at Peterborough in 1882 as an oratorio service, 
this festival assumed its twin-cathedral form 
in 1889, when Lincoln became joint partici- 
pator in the scheme. The meetings have been 
held as follows: Peterborough in 1882, 1885, 
1888, 1891, 1894, 1898, and 1901: Lincoln 
in 1889, 1892, 1896, 1899, and 1902, while 
one is announced to be held at Lincoln in 1905. 
Thus it will be seen that since 1901 the festivals 
have been exclusively at Lincoln. The perform- 
ances have been conducted (with the exception 
of that in 1882) by the respective organists 
of the two cathedrals — Dr. Haydn Keeton, of 
Peterborough; (the late) J. M. W. Young and 
Dr. George J. Bennett, both of Lincoln. 

North Staffordshire. — These festivals 
take rank for at least two new works produced 
thereat, and for the excellence of the chorus 
singing for which the Potteries are noted. Since 
their foundation (in 1888) five meetings have 
been held, all taking place at Hanley. The 
dates are 1888, 1890 (first performance of 
Swinnerton Heap's 'Fair Rosamond'), 1893, 
1896 (first performance of Elgar's ' King Olaf '), 
and 1899 (first performance of Coleridge-Taylor's 
'Death of Minnehaha,' the second section of 
the 'Hiawatha' triology). The late Dr. Swin- 
nerton Heap conducted all these five festivals. 

Scarborough. — Two festivals have hitherto 
(1905) been held — in 1899 and 1902, both 
conducted by Dr. F. H. Cowen. The works 
performed at the first meeting included ' St. 
Paul,' 'The Golden Legend,' and 'Ode to 
the Passions ' (Cowen) ; and at the second (in 
1902), 'Messiah,' 'Elijah,' 'Faust' (Berlioz), 
and 'Revenge' (Stanford). 

Sheffield. — Although one of the youngest 
of British festivals, Sheffield has rapidly come 
into the first rank, by reason of its magnificent 
chorus-singing, due to the exceptional choir- 
training skill of Dr. Henry Coward. This nota- 
ble Yorkshire music-meeting originated in a 
very modest way, nothing more than a per- 
formance of Mendelssohn's 'Elijah,' in 1895, 
conducted by Dr. Coward. In the following 
year (1896) the first festival proper, lasting two 
days, was held, when the works performed in- 
cluded ' Elijah,' ' The Golden Legend,' ' Faust ' 
(Berlioz), and 'Job ' (Hubert Parry). 

It was not, however, until the meeting of 
1899 (three days) that the singing of the chorus 



made the fame of the Sheffield Festival. On 
that occasion the programme included the ' Mes- 
siah,' 'King Olaf (Elgar), 'Samson and Deli- 
lah' (Saint-Saens), 'The Golden Legend,' ' The 
Choral Symphony,' 'King Saul' (Parry), and 
the ' Hymn of Praise.' Sir (then Mr.) August 
Manns conducted on both occasions. 

At the festival of 1902 the following works 
were performed, under the conductorship of 
Mr. Henry J. Wood: 'Elijah,' ' Gareth and 
Lynette ' (a cantata composed for the occa- 
sion by Dr. Coward), ' Triumphlied ' (Brahms), 
' The Dream of Gerontius ' and ' Coronation 
Ode ' (Elgar) , ' Wanderer's Sturmlied ' (Richard 
Strauss), ' Israel in Egypt' (Selection), ' Stabat 
Mater' (Dvorak), ' Jesu, priceless Treasure' 
(Bach), 'Meg Blane' (Coleridge-Taylor), 'Easter,' 
symphonic poem for organ and orchestra (Fritz 
Volbach), ' Blest Pair of Sirens' (Parry), and 
' The Hymn of Praise.' Ever since the inception 
of the Sheffield Musical Festival Dr. Coward has 
held the post of chorus-master. For the fes- 
tival of 1905, Herr F. Weingartner is appointed 
conductor. 

Wolverhampton. — Started in 1868, this 
festival was held triennially until 1886, when, 
owing to lack of financial support, it ceased to 
exist. The first meeting (1868) was conducted 
by Mr. Alberto Randegger, the following four 
festivals being under the direction of Mr. W. C. 
Stockley, of Birmingham. In 1883, with the 
appointment of Dr. Swinnerton Heap as con- 
ductor, the concerts occupied two days, instead 
of one as formerly. The most important pro- 
ductive feature of the Wolverhampton Festivals 
is associated with that last held (in 1886) , when 
two cantatas, ' The Maid of Astolat,' by Dr. 
Heap, and ' The Bridal of Triermain,' by Mr. 
Frederick Corder, were performed for the first 
time, both works having been written for the 
occasion and conducted by their respective 
composers. 

Diocesan Choral Festivals 

These widely spread festivals, known not only 
all over Great Britain, but in Britain beyond the 
seas and also in America, originated in the diocese 
of Lichfield, in, or about, the year 1856, when 
the Lichfield Diocesan Choral Association was 
formed. The first festival was held, upon the 
invitation of the Dean and Chapter, in Lichfield 
Cathedral, on Oct. 14, 1856, and was attended 
by twenty-six church choirs coming from various 
parishes in Staffordshire. But the germ of 
these important and beneficial choral gatherings 
can be traced to the parish of Cheadle, in Staf- 
fordshire, where, in (or about) 1849, was founded 
' The Cheadle Association for the promotion of 
Church Music ' — a society, which not only organ- 
ised festivals of church choirs in the district, 
but published its own music. ' One of the 
first acts of this Association was to gather 
together several neighbouring choirs in the. 



30 



FETIS 



fetis 



parish church of Cheadle, for the purpose of 
practising chanting and singing ' ( The Organist 
and Choirmaster of Nov. 15, 1896, in an article 
on ' Choral Festivals ')• In the following year 
(August 29, 1850) a similar festival service was 
held in Leigh church, nine choirs, comprising 
100 voices, taking part. Such gatherings came 
to be known, and they were speedily recog- 
nised and encouraged by the Lichfield Cathedral 
authorities. Thereupon the movement rapidly 
spread and became firmly rooted in the various 
dioceses and rural deaneries, not only here, 
but in the Colonies and in America. These 
Choral Associations hold their annual festivals 
either in the Cathedrals of their several dio- 
ceses, or in some large Parish Church. On such 
occasions the singing of the combined choirs, 
numbering hundreds of voices, is always of an 
imposing and soul-stirring nature. f. g. e. 

FETIS, Francois Joseph, born March 25, 
1784, at Mons, died March 26, 1871, at Brussels, 
the most learned, laborious, and prolific musical 
litterateur of his time. He was the son of an 
organist at Mons, and early learned to play the 
violin, piano, and organ, completing his studies 
at the Paris Conservatoire. Boieldieu and 
Pradher were his masters for the piano, but he 
only succeeded in gaining the harmony prize in 
1803, and the second ' second prix ' for com- 
position in 1807, scarcely as much as might have 
been expected from one who delighted to style 
himself the pupil of Beethoven. He married 
in 1806, and in 1811 pecuniary difficulties, 
caused by the loss of his wife's fortune, com- 
pelled him to retire to the Ardennes, where he 
remained till his appointment as organist and 
professor of music at Douai in Dec. 1813. In 
1818 he returned to Paris, and in 1821 he suc- 
ceeded Eler as professor of counterpoint and 
f ague at the Paris Conservatoire, becoming libra- 
rian of that institution in 1827. For an account 
of the historical concerts he inaugurated in Paris, 
see vol. i. pp. 575-76. [In 1828 he was for three 
months in England. (See the Harmonicon for 
July 1829.) He came to England in 1829 for 
the purpose of giving a course of lectures on 
musical history. The season was too far ad- 
vanced to allow of his doing so, and the plan was 
abandoned, a single lecture being given at Sir 
George Warrender's, on May 29, when illustra- 
tions were given by Camporese, Malibran, 
Mme. Stockhausen, Donzelli, Begrez, Labarre, 
De Beriot,etc] In March 1833 he was appointed 
director of the Brussels Conservatoire and 
maitre de chapelle to the King of the Belgians, 
two important posts, which, besides ensuring 
him many gratifying distinctions, obliged him 
to take part in the labours of the Belgian 
Academie Royale, for which he wrote several 
interesting memoirs. 

Fetis must be considered separately in his 
various capacities of composer, author of theo- 
retical works, historian, and critic. As a 



composer he wrote much pianoforte music fo* 
two and four hands, chamber-music, duos, a 
quartet, quintets, and a sestet for piano (four 
hands) with string quartet, overtures and sym- 
phonies for orchestra, operas and sacred music. 
His operas ' L'Amant et le Mari ' (1820), « Marie 
Stuart en Ecosse' (1823), 'La Vieille' (1826), 
and ' Le Mannequin de Bergame ' (1832) were 
produced at the Opera Comique with some 
success, though they now seem feeble and 
antiquated. Among his sacred compositions 
we will only specify his ' Messes faciles pour 
l'orgue,' and his ' Messe de Requiem ' composed 
for the funeral of the Queen of the Belgians 
(1850) . The greater part of his church music 
is unpublished. Fetis's fame, however, rests 
not upon his compositions, but upon his writings 
on the theory, history, and literature of music. 
His Methode elementaire . . . dliarmonie et 
d'accompagnemejit (1824, 1836, 1841), which 
has been translated into English (Cocks & Co.) 
and Italian ; his Solfeges progressifs (1827) ; 
Manuel des principes de musique (1837) ; Traite 
elementaire de musique (Brussels, 1831-32) ; 
Traite du chant en chozur (1837) — translated by 
Helmore (Novello) ; Manuel des jeunes com- 
positeurs (1837) ; Methode des methodes de piano 
(1837) ; Methode des methodes du chant (1840) ; 
and Methode elementaire de Plain Chant (1843), 
have been of great service to teachers, though 
some of them bear traces of having been written 
in haste for the publishers. Far above these 
must be ranked his Traite de V ' accompagnement 
de la partition (1829) ; his Traite complet de la 
theorie et de la pratique de Vharmonie (1844), 
which has passed through many editions and 
been translated into several languages ; and his 
Traite du contrepoint et de la fugue (1824), a 
really classical work. These two last Fetis con- 
sidered his best original productions, and looked 
to them for his permanent reputation. They 
were the more important in his eyes because he 
believed in the infallibility of his doctrines. 
Outside his own peculiar system of harmonic 
generation — the ' omnitonic ' system, whose 
main principle is that harmonic combinations 
exist by which any given sound may be resolved 
into any key and any mode — he saw nothing 
but error and confusion. As a historian he was 
equally systematic and equally impatient of 
contradiction. Nevertheless, in his Biographie 
universelle des Musiciens, and in his Histoire 
generate de la Musique, errors of detail and 
mistakes in chronology abound, while many of 
the opinions he advances are open to question. 
Easy as it may be, however, to find fault with 
these two standard works, it is impossible to 
do without them. The first edition of the 
Biographie (Paris, 1835-44) is especially de- 
fective, but it contains a remarkable introduc- 
tion founded on the writings of Forkel, Gerber, 
Kiesewetter, Hawkins, and others. Fetis in- 
tended to use this introduction as material for 



f£tis 



FEVIN 



31 



a Philosophie de la Musique, but had not time 
to accomplish it. The second edition of the 
Biographie (Paris, 1860-65), though more com- 
plete and more satisfactory than its predecessor, 
should still be consulted with discretion ; its 
dates are still often wrong, and there are mis- 
takes, especially in the articles on English 
musicians, which are almost ludicrous, and might 
have been avoided. The two supplementary 
volumes edited by Arthur Pougin in 1878 and 
1880, added much to the value of the book. 
Fetis unfortunately allows his judgment to be 
biassed by passion or interest. It is a pity that 
in his Histoire generate de la Musique (Didot, 5 
vols. 1869-76) he is not more just to some of his 
predecessors, such as Villoteau and Adrien de la 
Fage, whom he quotes freely but never without 
some depreciatory remark, thus forgetting the 
poet's words : — 

'Ah! cloit-on heriter de ceux qu'on assassine ? ' 

In spite of this defect, and of a strong ten- 
dency to dogmatism, the Histoire generate de la 
Musique, although a fragment — for it ceases 
at the 15th century — exhibits Fetis at his best. 
Another useful work is La Musique raise a la 
portee de tout le monde (Paris, 1830, 1834, 1847), 
which has been translated into German, English, 
Spanish, and Russian. The same elevation and 
clearness appear in his innumerable articles and 
reviews, which were all incorporated in the 
Biographie, the Curiosites historiques de la 
Musique (Paris, 1830), the Esquisse de V histoire 
de Vharmonie (Paris, 1840, now very scarce), 
and otber works already named. The Revue 
musicale which he started in 1827, and con- 
tinued till 1833, was the foundation of the 
musical press of France. [Among his other 
works may be mentioned biographies of Paganini 
(1851), and Stradivari (1856), Me'moires sur 
Vharmonie simultanee chez les Grecs et les Ro- 
mains (1858) ; catalogues of the musical exhibits 
in the Paris Exhibitions of 1855 and 1867.] This 
short resume of Fetis's labours will suffice to 
show the immense services he rendered to musi- 
cal instruction and literature. Had he been a lit- 
tle less one-sided, and a little more disinterested 
and fair, he would have been a model critic and 
litterateur. [After his death his library was 
bought by tne Belgian Government, and is now 
in the Brussels Conservatoire.] 

His eldest son, IiIdouard Louis Francois, 
born at Bouvignes near Dinant, May 16, 1812, 
at an early age assisted his father, and edited 
the Revue musicale from 1833 to 1835. He was 
art critic of the Independance Beige, edited 
the 5th vol. of Histoire generate de la Musique, 
and published Legende de Saint Hubert (Brus- 
sels, 1847), Les Musiciens beiges (Brussels, 1849), 
a useful work, Les Artistes beiges a Vetranger 
(1857-1865), and a Catalogue raisonne (1877) of 
his father's valuable library purchased by the 
Government. He was also professor of aesthetics 
to the Brussels Academie des Beaux-Arts and 



is a member of the Academie Royale in Brussels. 
[He is still (1904) active as Couservateur en 
chef de la Bibliotheque Royale. A younger 
son of the historian, Adolphe Louis Eugene, 
born in Paris, August 20, 1820, died there 
March 20, 1873, was a clever and successful 
pianist and teacher, and composed a good deal 
of music of little value.] g. c. 

FEUILLET, Raoul Auger, a dancing-mas- 
ter of Paris, was the author of an ingenious sys- 
tem by which dance steps could be noted down 
in diagrams showing the position and movement 
of the feet corresponding to each bar of the 
music. Something of the sort had been pre- 
viously attempted by a M. Beauchamp, but 
Feuillet carries out the idea with a degree of 
elaboration which tends to defeat itself owing 
to the bewildering complexity of the diagrams 
which result. His book was first published in 
1701, and is entitled Choregraphie, ou L'Art de 
de'crire La Dance par caracteres figures et signes 
demonstratifs. It was translated into English 
by John Weaver in 1706, but was not found 
to be of much assistance in practice. Signor 
Gallini, who wrote on the Art of Dancing in 
1772, speaks of choregraphie as ' an inextricable 
puzzle or maze of lines and characters, hardly 
possible for the imagination to seize or for the 
memory to retain,' and concludes that diagrams 
such as those of Feuillet can only be intelligible 
to dancing-masters, who are just the persons 
who have no need of them. 

Feuillet published several collections of 
dances in this curious notation, and notably a 
'Recueil de Contredances mises en Choregraphie' 
(1706), which is of the highest value as estab- 
lishing the English origin of the French contre- 
danse. Such well-known English tunes as 
' Green Sleeves ' and ' Christchurch Bells ' appear 
here as ' Les Manches Vertes ' and ' Le Carillon 
d'Oxfort ' : see an article in the Musical Times 
of Feb. 1901. j. f. r. s. 

FEVIN, Antoine de, composer of the 16th 
century, whose works entitle him to a position 
amongst his contemporaries second alone to that 
of Josquin Despres. We have only a few vague 
conjectures as to the actual circumstances of his 
life. He was born at Orleans, for he is styled 
'Aurelianensis.' The existence of Fevin's com- 
positions in MS. in the cathedral at Toledo, 
and the opinion of Spanish musicians, have 
caused him to be considered a Spaniard, by such 
authorities as Gevaert and Eslava. There are 
some books of Masses in the Vienna library 
containing three by ' Anthonius Fevin, pie 
memorie.' Ambros, in his History of Music 
(iii. 274), shows that the date of these books 
lies between 1514 and 1516, and assuming 
that Fevin died about this time, and moreover 
(as Glarean leads us to infer) that he died quite 
young, places his birth about 1490. We may, 
at any rate, accept these dates as approximately 
true, and at once ceo that it is scarcely correct to 



82 



FEVTN 



FXBICH 



call Fevin a contemporary of Josquin. Although 
he died a few years before the great master, he 
was probably born forty years after the date of 
Josquin's birth. Had it not been for his pre- 
mature death, might not the 'Felix Jodoci 
{Emulator,' as Glarean calls him, have lived on 
to work by the side of Lassus and share with 
him the glory of a brighter period ? Surely there 
was in ' that noble youth, whose modesty was 
equal to his genius ' (again we quote Glarean) , 
every element of greatness, except perhaps phy 
sical strength, requisite for making his name 
stand with those of Clement and Gombert in 
the gap between Josquin and Lassus. But 
although Fevin can never be the hero of any 
chapter in musical history, there is little doubt 
that when the compositions of his time become 
once more generally known, the few works 
which he has left behind him will find favour 
as soon as any, on account of the peculiar charm 
which veils his most elaborate workmanship, 
and the simplicity of effect which seems to come 
so naturally to him, and so well agrees with the 
personal character for which Glarean admired 
him. We give the following list of his works, 
and the various collections in which they 
appear: — (1) Three masses, 'Sancta Trinitas,' 
' Mente tota,' and ' Ave Maria,' from a book of 
five masses (Petrucci, Fossombrone, 1515) . The 
only known copy of this work, with all the 
parts, is in the British Museum. Burney has 
given two beautiful extracts from the first mass 
in his History. (2) Three masses, 'Ave Maria,' 
'Mente Tota,' and ' De Feria,' in 'Liber quin- 
decim Missarum ' (Andreas Antiquis, Rom. 1516), 
a copy of which is in the Mazarin Library at 
Paris. (3) Six motets from the first book of 
the ' Motetti della corona ' (Petrucci, Fossom- 
brone, 1514) . (4) A motet, ' Descende in 
hortum meum,' and a fugue, ' Quae es ista,' 
from the ' Cantiones selectae ultra centum ' 
(Kriesstein, Augsburg, 1540). (5) Two lamen- 
tations, ' Migravit Juda ' and ' Recordare est,' 
from the collection by Le Roy and Ballard, 
Paris, 1557. (6) Detached movements from 
masses in Eslava's 'Lira-sacro-Hispana.' (7) 
One magnificat from Attaignant's fifth book for 
four voices, and two motets from his eleventh 
book (Paris, 1534). (8) One piece in the'Bi- 
cinia Gallica,' etc. (Rhau, Wittenberg, 1545). 
(9) Three masses, 'O quam glorifica luce,' 
* Requiem,' and ' Mente tota,' in the ' Ambraser 
Messen ' at Vienna, and three MS. motets in 
same library. (10) A mass, 'Salve sancta 
parens,' the only copy of which is in the Royal 
Library at Munich. There is a three-part song 
of his, ' Je le l'airray,' in Brit. Mus. Harleian 
MS. 5242; and fragments of two masses in 
Burney's musical extracts, Add. MSS. 11,581-2. 
For other MSS. see Quellen-Lexikon. j. r.s.-b. 
FEVIN, Robert de, born at Cambrai, was 
maestro di cappella to the Duke of Savoy at the 
beginning of the 16th century. A mass, on 



' Le vilayn jaloys ' was printed among those of 
Antoine de Fevin's, by Petrucci in 1515; this 
and other masses are in the Sistine Chapel in 
MS. and a mass on ' La sol fa mi ' in the Munich 
library. The composer was probably a relation 
of Antoine de Fevin. {Quellen-Lexikon and 
Riemann's Lexikon.) 

FIALA, Joseph, eminent oboist, born 1751 
at Lobkowitz in Bohemia. He taught himself 
the oboe, for which he had a perfect passion, 
but being a serf was compelled to menial labour 
in the Schloss. He ran away and was recaptured, 
upon which his mistress the Countess Lobkowitz, 
ordered his front teeth to be pulled out that he 
might be incapable of playing : but some of the 
nobility of Prague interceded for him with the 
Emperor, who commanded him to be set free. 
He first entered Prince Wallerstein's band, and 
in 1777 that of the Elector at Munich. He was 
afterwards in that of the Archbishop of Salzburg 
where he made the intimate acquaintance of the 
Mozarts. In 1785 he was suddenly discharged 
by the Archbishop, with a loss of 200 florins, on 
which Mozart not only urged him to come to 
Vienna, but offered him a good engagement. 
After a residence of some years in Russia he 
became in 1792 capellmeister to Prince Fiirsten- 
berg at Donaueschingen, where he died in 1816. 
He published [two symphonies (MS. in the Royal 
Library at Berlin)] two sets of quartets (Frank- 
fort and Vienna, about 1780-86), 'Six duos 
pour violon et violoncello ' (Augsburg, 1799), 
and two sets of trios for flute, oboe, and bassoon 
(Ratisbon, 1806) , besides MS. concertos for flute, 
oboe, bassoon, and violoncello. He played 
several other instruments well, especially the 
violoncello and double bass, and was evidently 
a man of mark. m. c. c. 

FIASCO (a flask). ' Faire fiasco,' 'to make 
a fiasco,' i.e. a complete failure — a phrase of 
somewhat recent introduction. The term, though 
Italian, is not used by the Italians in this sense, 
but first by the French and then by ourselves. 
The date and origin of the expression are un- 
known to Littre ; but it is tempting to believe 
the image to be that of a flask falling and 
breaking - or, as our own slang has it, ' coming 
to utter smash.' g. 

FIBICH, Zdenko, son of the chief forester af 
Vseboric near Czaslau in Bohemia, was born there 
on Dec. 21, 1850. After pursuing general studies 
in Vienna and Prague (where his natural incli- 
nation for music showed itself so emphatically 
that at fourteen he had not only composed a 
symphony in E flat but actually conducted a 
first performance of part of it), Fibich entered 
the Leipzig Conservatorium in 1865. There he 
remained until 1867, studying under Moscheles, 
Richter, and Jadassohn, and there he produced a 
G minor symphony among a great number of 
compositions. But of more importance to him 
than the composition of such works at this time 
was the immense influence upon him of Schu- 



FIDDLE 



FIDELIO 



33 



mann. A year in Paris (1868-69) was followed 
by a stay at Mannheim, where Vincenz Lachner 
was his teacher. In 1870 he returned home, 
and shortly afterwards (1874) his first opera 
1 Bukovin,' a melodramatic work, influenced by 
Weber and Mozart, was produced. From 1873 
to 1874 he was a music teacher at Wilna, and 
on returning to Prague in the latter year he 
became in 1 8 7 5 second conductor of the Bohemian 
Theatre. This post he occupied till 1878, when 
he was conductor of the choir in the Russian 
Church at Prague till 1881. After this Fibich 
retired into private life in order to devote himself 
entirely to composition. He died at Prague, 
Oct. 10, 1900. 

That Fibich was a very prolific composer the 
list of his compositions testifies. His works 
amount to about 700, written in some thirty-five 
years. Of these the most important, quantita- 
tively, are his six melodramas, six operas, and 
three ' scenische melodramen ' (the latter quite 
distinct from the other melodramas) ; the melo- 
dramatic trilogy ' Hippodamia ' (' Pelops Braut- 
werbung,' Vienna, 1892 ; 'Die Suhne des Tan- 
talus ' : ' Hippodamia's Tod,' 1892) ; the operas 
'Der Sturm' (after Shakespeare, 1895) ; 'Hady' 
(1896) ; ' Sarka ' (1897) ; and ' Helga,' the first 
part of the opera ' Der Fall Arkunas. ' A string 
quartet in G, op. 8 ; a pianoforte quartet in E 
minor, op. 11 ; and a quintet, with clarinet, horn, 
pianoforte, and strings, op. 42, represent the 
best of his chamber music, while his orchestral 
works include the overture ' Eine Nacht auf 
Karlstein' (1886), probably his most familiar 
work, the ' Komensky - Festouvertiire ' (1892) ; 
symphonies in F (op. 17, 1883) ; and E flat (op. 
38, 1892); and seven symphonic poems, some 
352 pianoforte pieces for two hands, and four 
sets of duets, besides a host of songs and 
vocal duets, and three compositions for chorus 
and orchestra. 

Fibich's fame has been largely overshadowed 
by that of Smetana and Dvorak, but in some of 
his pianoforte music especially there is much 
that is full of charm if not great originality ; and 
a good deal of his music deserves to be better 
known, though it would appear that none is 
destined to survive for any great length of 
time. r. h. l. 

FIDDLE. The old English word, before 'viol ' 
came in, and still more idiomatic than Violin 
(q.v.). Both are possibly derived from the same 
root— vitula, a calf, from the springing motion of 
dancers (Murray, Oxford Dictionary, and Littre ; 
and compare the connection of Geige and jig). 
Fiddlestick is the violin-bow, as in the Epi- 
gram on a Bad Fiddler : — 

Old Orpheus play'd so well he mov'd Old Nick, 
Whilst thou mov'st nothing — but thy fiddlestick. 

The Germans have three terms for the instru- 
ment — Fiedel, Geige, and Violine. G. 

FIDELIO, ODER DIE EHELICHE LIEBE. 
Beethoven's single opera (op. 72) ; the words 
VOL. II 



adapted by Joseph Sonnleithner from Bouilly's 
' Leonore, ou 1' Amour conjugal.' He received 
the text in the winter of 1804, and composed 
the opera at Hetzendorf in the summer. It was 
produced (1 ) at the Theatre ' an der Wien, ' Vienna, 
on Wednesday, Nov. 20, 1805, in three acts ; the 
overture was probably that known as ' Leonora 
No. 2.' Cherubini was in the house. (2) It 
was played again on the 21st and 22nd, and 
then withdrawn. (See vol. i. pp. 241-242.) The 
libretto was then reduced by Bre lining to two acts ; 
three pieces of music — said to have been an air 
for Pizarro with chorus ; a duet, Leonore and 
Marzelline ; and a terzet, Marzelline, Jaquino, 
and Rocco — were sacrificed, and the overture 
' Leonora No. 3 ' composed. It was played again 
at the Imperial private theatre on Saturday, 
March 29, 1806, and April 10, and again with- 
drawn. (3) After the death of Guardasoni, 
the Italian Director of the Prague opera, in 1806, 
the appointment of Liebich, and the adoption 
of the German opera there, Beethoven, with 
the view to a probable performance of ' Fidelio, ' 
wrote the overture known as 'Leonora, No. 1,' 
as an ' easier work ' than either of the two 
preceding. The performance, however, did not 
come off, and the overture remained in MS. and 
unknown till after Beethoven's death, when it 
was sold in the sale of his effects and published 
in 1832 (Haslinger) as ' Overture in C, op. 138 ' 
(Aul. ' Characteristische Ouverture '). See Sey- 
fried, p. 9 ; Thayer, iii. 25. (4) Early in 1814 
the opera, as again revised by Treitschke, was 
submitted to Beethoven ; he at once set to work, 
and it was produced a third time, in two acts, at 
the Karnthnerthor Theatre, Vienna, on May 23, 
1814, as 'Fidelio.' The overture was that of 
the ' Ruins of Athens,' but on the 26th the over- 
ture in E, known as the ' Overture to Fidelio, ' 
was first played. Nottebohm's researches in the 
sketch-books have made it clear that for the 
revival of the opera in 1814, Beethoven's first 
intention was to recast the Prague Overture 
No. 3 (op. 138), changing the key to E. Of 
this various drafts exist, and some are given 
in Beethoveniana, p. 74. Had this intention 
been carried out the overture would have borne 
the same relation to op. 138 that ' Leonora No. 
3 ' does to ' Leonora No. 2,' and we might then 
have possessed five overtures to the opera ! It 
was Beethoven's wish that the opera should be 
called ' Leonora, ' but it was never performed 
under that name. (5) It was produced in Paris, 
at the Theatre Lyrique, translated by Barbier 
and Carre, and in three acts, May 5, 1860. In 
London by Chelard's German company (Schroder, 
etc.) at the King's Theatre, May 18, 1832. In 
English (Malibran) at Co vent Garden, June 12, 
1835. In Italian (Cruvelli and Sims Reeves, 
Recitatives by Balfe) at Her Majesty's, May 20, 
1851. (6) The chief editions are— a PF. 
score of the second arrangement (by Moscheles 
under B.'s direction) without Overture or Finale, 

D 



34 



FIELD 



FIELD 



1810 ; with them, 1815 ; both entitled 'Leonore.' 
A ditto of the third arrangement, entitled 
'Fidelio,' August 1814. A critical edition by 
Otto Jahn of the complete work as ' Leonora,' in 
PF. score, showing the variations and changes 
(Breitkopf & Hartel, 1851). An English 
translation by Oliphant (Addison & Hollier), 
and another by Soane, with Preface (Boosey). 
The four overtures are given in the Royal Edition 
(Boosey). For the whole evidence as to the name 
of the opera see ' Leonore oder Fidelio ?' in Otto 
Jahn's Gesamm. Schriften, p. 236, and Thayer's 
Chron. Verzeichniss, p. 61. 

It may be well here to give a list of the over- 
tures to the opera in the order of their com- 
position. 



Title. 


Date and Occasion. 


Date of publica- 
tion of Score. 


Leonore No. 

2, in C. 

Leonore No. 

3, in 0. 

Leonore No. 
1, in C (op. 
138). 

Fidelio, in E. 


For production of 
opera, Nov. 20, 1805. 

For production of 
modified opera, Mar. 
29, 1806. 

For a performance of 
the opera at Prague 
in May 1807, which 
never came off. 

For the second and 
final revision of the 
opera ; first played 
May 26, 1814. 


Breitkopf, 1842 
and 1854. 

Breitkopf, 1828. 
Haslinger, 1832. 

Breitkopf, 1864. 



G. 

FIELD, Henry Ibbot, called 'Field of 
Bath,' was born Dec. 6, 1797, and died May 
19, 1848. Pupil of Coombs of Chippenham. 
Beyond these facts, and that he was a careful 
pianist and greatly esteemed as a teacher, there 
is nothing to explain why he should require to 
be distinguished from his greater namesake, 
unless his appearance at the Philharmonic Con- 
certs in 1822 and 1840, both times in concertos 
by Hummel, be accepted as a reason. G. 

FIELD, John, known as ' Russian Field ' to 
distinguish him from Henry Field. Born at 
Dublin, July 26, 1782 ; died Jan. 11, 1837, at 
Moscow. To a modern pianist who is aware of 
Chopin and Liszt, the name of John Field recalls 
little or nothing beyond ' Field's Nocturnes,' — 
not the seven concertos so much admired in 
their day, nor the three sonatas dedicated to his 
master Clementi, nor the pianoforte quintet with 
strings, nor the ' Airs varies, ' or ' Polonaise en 
rondeau,' or similar more or less sentimental 
inanities, — but Field's Nocturnes pure and 
simple. And here again, not the entire lot of 
twenty little sentimental effusions bound up 
into a nocturnal sheaf, but about half-a-dozen 
delicate little lyrics — the nocturnes in A, Efc>, 
C minor, Ab, and Bb (Nos. 4, 7, 2, 3, and 5, 
in Liszt's edition), the very essence of all idylls 
and eclogues, • Poesies intimes ' of simple charm 
and inimitable grace, such as no undue popu- 
larity can render stale, no sham imitation 
nauseous. Both as a player and as a composer 



Chopin, and with him all modern pianists, are 
much indebted to Field. The form of Chopin's 
weird nocturnes, the kind of emotion embodied 
therein, the type of melody and its graceful 
embellishments, the peculiar waving accompani- 
ments in widespread chords, with their vaguely 
prolonged sound resting on the pedals, all this 
and more we owe to Field. 

Field's method of playing, as was to be ex- 
pected from dementi's best pupil, was distin- 
guished by the most smooth and equable touch, 
the most perfect legato, with supple wrists and 
quiet position of the hands, a suave and singing 
tone, capable of endless modifications and 
delicate shades of expression. He is reported to 
have played his nocturnes with an inexhaustible 
variety of embellishments, and, like Chopin after 
him, is said to have preferred the smaller square 
and upright pianofortes to grands. Schuberth 
& Co.'s edition of his Nocturnes is prefaced 
by a charming essay in French on Field and 
his musical ways, by Franz Liszt, well worth 
reading. 

Field came of a family of musicians. He was 
the son of a violinist engaged at a theatre in 
Dublin, who again was the son of an organist. 
His grandfather taught him the rudiments of 
music and grounded him on the piano. He told 
Fetis that both his father and grandfather forced 
him to practise so unmercifully, that he at- 
tempted to run away from home — to which, 
however, abject misery soon brought him back. 
The elder Field, who was subsequently engaged 
as violinist at Bath, and afterwards at the 
Haymarket Theatre, brought young John to 
London and apprenticed him (for a premium of 
100 guineas) to Clementi, with whom he 
became a sort of musical salesman in the piano- 
forte shop of Clementi & Co., and from whom, 
up to his twenty-second year, he received regular 
instruction in pianoforte playing. .[He made his 
debut in London in 1794. w. H. g. f.] In 
1802 Clementi took Field to Paris, where his 
admirable rendering of Bach's and Handel's 
fugues astonished musicians ; thence to Germany, 
and thereafter to Russia. Here he was en- 
countered by Spohr, who gives a graphic account 
of him. Clementi kept him to his old trade of 
showing off the pianos in the warehouse, and 
there he was to be found, a pale melancholy 
youth, awkward and shy, speaking no language 
but his own, and in clothes which he had far 
outgrown ; but who had only to place his hands 
on the keys for all such drawbacks to be at once 
forgotten (Spohr, Selbstbiographie, i. 43). 

On dementi's departure in 1804 Field settled 
at St. Petersburg as a teacher, where his lessons 
were much sought after and extraordinarily well 
paid. In 1823 he went to Moscow, and gave 
concerts with even greater success than in Peters- 
burg. After further travelling in Russia he 
returned to London and played at the Philhar- 
monic — a concerto of his own in E(? — Feb. 27, 



FIELITZ 



FIGURE 



35 



1832. From thence he went to Paris, and in 
1833 through Belgium and Switzerland to Italy, 
where at Milan, Venice, and Naples his playing 
did not please the aristocratic mob, and his 
concerts did not pay. Habits of intemperance 
had grown upon him ; he suffered from fistula, 
and his situation at Naples became worse and 
worse. He lay in a hospital for nine months in 
the most deplorable condition, from which at 
last a Russian family named Raemanow rescued 
him, on condition that he should consent to 
return with them to Moscow. On their way 
back Field was heard at Vienna, and elicited 
transports of admiration by the exquisite play- 
ing of his Nocturnes. But his health was gone. 
Hardly arrived at Moscow he succumbed, and 
was buried there in Jan. 1837. 

Field's printed compositions for the piano are 
as follows : — Seven Concertos (No. 1, Eb ; No. 
2, Ab ; No. 3, Eb ; No. 4, Eb ; No. 5, C, 
' L'incendie par l'orage ' ; No. 6, C ; No. 7, 
C minor) ; two Divertimenti, with accompani- 
ment of two violins, flute, viola, and bass ; a 
Quintet and a Rondo for piano and strings ; 
Variations on a Russian air for four hands ; a 
grand Valse, four Sonatas, three of which are 
dedicated to Clementi ; two ' Airs en Rondeau' ; 
Fantaisie sur le motif de la Polonaise, ' Ah, quel 
dommage ' ; Rondeau Ecossais ; Polonaise en 
forme de Rondo ; deux airs Anglais, and ' Vive 
Henry IV.' varies ; and twenty pieces to which 
in recent editions the name of Nocturnes is 
applied, though it properly belongs to not more 
than a dozen of them. E. r>. 

FIELITZ, Alexander Von, born in Leipzig, 
Dec. 28, 1860, his father being half Polish, and 
his mother a Russian. He studied in Dresden 
under Edmund Kretschmer for composition, and 
Julius Schulhoff for pianoforte. In 1886 and 
1887 he conducted under Nikisch, and then 
went to Italy for ten years, owing to delicate 
health, where he composed most of the music 
by which he is known, consisting of several 
piano pieces, songs, two suites for orchestra, and 
two operas, one of which, ' Das stille Dorf,' was 
produced at Hamburg, March 13, 1900, and has 
been played in Bremen, Liibeck, Ulm, etc. 
Von Fielitz is at present a Professor in the 
Stern Conservatorium at Berlin, and was ap- 
pointed conductor at the Theater des Westens in 
1904. He is chiefly known in England by his 
songs, of which the most important is a cycle 
called 'Eliland.' w. R. c. 

FIERRABRAS. An opera in three acts by 
Schubert, words by Kupelwieser. It was com- 
missioned by Barbaja, but owing to his failure 
was never performed, and remains in MS. in 
the Library of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde 
at Vienna. Act 1, 304 pages, is dated at be- 
ginning and end 25th and 31st May (1823) ; 
Act 2, 31st May and 5th June. The overture 
is occasionally played at concerts. The full 
score forms the sixth volume of series xv. 



of Breitkopf & Hartel's complete edition of 
Schubert. G. 

FIFE. The name commonly given to the 
chief instrument, or Bb Flute, in the Drum and 
Fife Band. More particularly considered, the 
designation signifies an early and simple form 
of small transverse flute (see Flute), the bore 
of which was cylindrical throughout, and the 
intonation in consequence very faulty, but 
which was in some cases used in Drum and 
Fife Bands until the last fifteen or twenty 
years. This form of the instrument is practi- 
cally obsolete, and the name now signifies a flute 
of the ' conical ' type, intermediate in pitch 
between the ' concert ' flute and piccolo. This 
modern instrument has, in addition to the usual 
six finger-holes, four, five, or six keys. It is 
pitched in Bb (but occasionally in C), and in the 
Drum and Fife Band gives the mass of the tone, 
being assisted in the harmonies by piccolos and 
flutes in F or Eb of similar construction. It is 
interesting to note, as relating to the subject of 
Musical Pitch, that the pitch of Drum and Fife 
Bands until some time between 1880 and 1890 
remained the same as Sir Geo. Smart's pitch of 
1828, practically identical with the present low 
orchestral pitch (Philharmonic, 1896), although 
from about the middle of last century Military 
Bands, in accordance with the Queen's regula- 
tion, used, and still use the high orchestral, or 
' old ' Philharmonic pitch. This remains the 
official army pitch, as recognised by the Royal 
Military School of Music, Kneller Hall, and to 
it both the Military and the Drum and Fife 
Bands now conform. d. j. b. 

FIFTEENTH is a stop or set of pipes in an 
organ sounding two octaves, or fifteen notes, 
above the Open diapason. Thus when the 
Fifteenth and Open diapason stops are drawn 
out at the same time, and the finger is placed 
on the key of middle C, two notes are sounded 
— c' and c"'. 

FIFTH. A Fifth is the perfect consonance, 
the ratio of the vibrational numbers of the limiting 
sounds of which is 2 : 3. It is called fifth because 
five diatonic notes are passed through in arriving 
from one extreme of the interval to the other, 
whence the Greeks called it dia -rrivre, Diapente. 
The interval consists of three whole tones and a 
semitone. c. H. h. p. 

FIGARO. See Nozze di Figaro. 

FIGURANTE. A ballet-dancer who takes 
an independent part in the piece ; also, in France, 
a subordinate character in a play, who comes on 
but has nothing to say. 

FIGURE is any short succession of notes, 
either as melody or a group of chords, which pro- 
duces a single, complete, and distinct impression. 
The term is the exact counterpart of the German 
Motiv, which is thus defined in Reissmann's con- 
tinuation of Mendel's Lexikon : — ' Motiv, Ge- 
danke, in der Musik, das kleinere Glied eines 
solchen, aus dem dieser sich organisch entwickelt. ' 



36 



FIGURE 



FIGURE 



It is in fact the shortest complete idea in 
music ; and in subdividing musical works into 
their constituent portions, as separate move- 
ments, sections, periods, phrases, the units are 
the figures, and any subdivision below them will 
leave only expressionless single notes, as un- 
meaning as the separate letters of a word. 

Figures play a most important part in instru- 
mental music, in which it is necessary that a 
strong and definite impression should be produced 
to answer the purpose of words, and convey the 
sense of vitality to the otherwise incoherent suc- 
cession of sounds. In pure vocal music this is 
not the case, as on the one hand the words assist 
the audience to follow and understand what they 
hear, and on the other the quality of voices in 
combination is such as to render strong charac- 
teristic features somewhat inappropriate. But 
without strongly marked figures the very reason 
of existence of instrumental movements can 
hardly be perceived, and the success of a move- 
ment of any dimensions must ultimately depend, 
to a very large extent, on the appropriate de- 
velopment of the figures which are contained in 
the chief subjects. The common expression that 
a subject is very ' workable,' merely means that 
it contains well-marked figures ; though it must 
be observed, on the other hand, that there are 
not a few instances in which masterly treatment 
has invested with powerful interest a figure 
which at first sight would seem altogether de- 
ficient in character. 

As clear an instance as could be given of the 
breaking up of a subject into its constituent 
figures for the purpose of development, is the 
treatment of the first subject of Beethoven's 
Pastoral Symphony, which he breaks up into 
(a) (b) (c) 



P 



^»=r=^BEaEp^ 



g33S§E^££=gB 



r 



three figures corresponding to the first three 
bars. As an example of his treatment of (a) 
may be taken — 



^ 



SHe 



J±K 



etc.; 



(&) is twice repeated no less than thirty-six times 
successively in the development of the movement ; 
and (c) appears at the close as follows : — 



m^^^m 




ipum 




Examples of this kind of treatment of the 
figures contained in subjects are very numerous 
in classical instrumental music, in various degrees 
of refinement and ingenuity ; as in the first 
movement of Mozart's G minor Symphony ; in 
the same movement of Beethoven's Eighth Sym- 



phony ; and in a large number of Bach's fugues, as 
for instance, Nos. 2, 7, 16 of the Wohltemperirtes 
Clavier. The beautiful little musical poem, the 
eighteenth fugue of that series, contains as happy 
a specimen of this device as could be cited. 

In music of an ideally high order, everything 
should be recognisable as having a meaning ; or, 
in other words, every part of the music should 
be capable of being analysed into figures, so that 
even the most insignificant instrument in the 
orchestra should not be merely making sounds 
to fill up the mass of the harmony, but should 
be playing something which is worth playing in 
itself. It is of course impossible for any but the 
highest genius to carry this out consistently, but 
in proportion as music approaches to this ideal, 
it is of a high order as a work of art, and in the 
measure in which it recedes from it, it approaches 
more nearly to the mass of base, slovenly, or 
false contrivances which lie at the other ex- 
treme, and are not works of art at all. This 
will be very well recognised by a comparison of 
Schubert's method of treating the accompani- 
ment of his songs and the method adopted in the 
large proportion of the thousands of ' popular ' 
songs which annually make their appearance in 
this country. For even when the figure is as 
simple as in ' Wohin,' 'Mein,' or 'Ave Maria,' 
the figure is there, and is clearly recognised, and 
is as different from mere sound or stuffing to 
support the voice as a living creature is from 
dead and inert clay. 

Bach and Beethoven were the great masters 
in the use of figures, and both were content at 
times to make a short figure of three or four 
notes the basis of a whole movement. As ex- 
amples of this may be quoted the truly famous 
rhythmic figure of the C minor Symphony (d), 
the figure of the Scherzo of the Ninth Symphony 
(e), and the figure of the first movement of the 
last Sonata, in C minor (/). As a beautiful ex- 
ample from Bach may be quoted the Adagio from 
the harpsichord Toccata in D minor (g), but it 
must be said that examples in his works are 




fe^ggSj^p^ 



££: 



-k*-f 



rape 



(sO. 



^ife^S 



sf 

almost innumerable, and will meet the student 
at every turn. 

A very peculiar use which Bach occasionally 
makes of figures, is to use one as the bond of 
connection running through a whole movement 
by constant repetition, as in Prelude No. 10 of 
the Wohltemperirtes Clavier, and in the slow 
movement of the Italian Concerto, where it serves 
as accompaniment to an impassioned recitative. 
In this case the figure is not identical on each 
repetition, but is freely modified, in such a way 
however that it is always recognised as the 



FIGUEE 



FIGURED BASS 



37 



same, partly by the rhythm and partly by the 
relative positions of the successive notes. This 
manner of modifying a given figure shows a 
tendency in the direction of a mode of treatment 
Avhich has become a feature in modern music : 
namely, the practice of transforming figures in 
order to show different aspects of the same 
thought, or to establish a connection between 
one thought and another by bringing out the 
characteristics they possess in common. As a 
simple specimen of this kind of transformation, 
may be quoted a passage from the first move- 
ment of Brahms's PF. Quintet in F minor. 
The figure stands at first as at (h), then by 
transposition as at (i). Its first stage of trans- 
formation is (J) ; further (k) (I) (m) are pro- 
gressive modifications towards the stage (n), 

(>0___ 



, L ff) 7 




(fc) 



(9- . (™)^~'(n) 



etc. 



i 



. £ gpSfr L jt+im . £-e+l £* 



which, having been repeated twice in different 
positions, appears finally as the figure imme- 
diately attached to the Cadence in D|?, thus — 




A similar very fine example — too familiar to 
need quotation here — is at the close of Beet- 
hoven's Overture to ' Coriolan. ' 

The use which Wagner makes of strongly 
marked figures is very important, as he 
establishes a consistent connection between the 
characters and situations and the music by using 
appropriate figures (Leitmotiven), which appear 
whenever the ideas or characters to which they 
belong come prominently forward. 

That figures vary in intensity to an immense 
degree hardly requires to be pointed out ; and it 
will also be obvious that figures of accompaniment 
do not require to be so marked as figures which 
occupy positions of individual importance. With 
regard to the latter it may be remarked that 
there is hardly any department in music in which 
true feeling and inspiration are more absolutely 
indispensable, since no amount of ingenuity or 
perseverance can produce such figures as that 
which opens the C minor Symphony, or such 
soul-moving figures as those in the death march 
of Siegfried in Wagner's ' Gotterdammerung. ' 

As the common notion that music chiefly 
consists of pleasant tunes grows weaker, the 



importance of figures becomes proportionately 
greater. A succession of isolated tunes is always 
more or less inconsequent, however deftly they 
may be connected together, but by the appropriate 
use of figures and groups of figures, such as real 
musicians only can invent, and the gradual un- 
folding of all their latent possibilities, continuous 
and logical works of art maybe constructed ; such 
as will not merely tickle the hearer's fancy, but 
arouse profound interest, and raise him mentally 
and morally to a higher standard, c. h. h. p. 

FIGURED. A translation of Figurato, an- 
other word for Florid. Figured Counterpoint 
is where several notes of various lengths, with 
syncopations and other ornamental devices, are 
set against the single notes of the Canto fermo ; 
and Figured melody, or Canto figurato, was the 
breaking up of the long notes of the church 
melodies into larger or more rapid figures or 
passages. The figurirter Choral, or Figured 
chorale, of the German school was a similar 
treatment of their church tunes, in which either 
the melody itself or its accompaniments are 
broken up into ' figures ' or groups of smaller 
notes than the original. Of this numberless ex- 
amples may be found in the works of J. S. Bach. 
See Chorale- Arrangements. 

FIGURED BASS is a species of musical short- 
hand by which the harmony only of a piece is 
indicated. It consists of the bass notes alone, 
with figures to represent the chords. It seems 
to have been first employed by Peri, Caccini, 
Viadana, and Monteverde, about 1600, in the 
accompaniments of their Recitatives and Songs, 
and was afterwards for some time in universal 
use for accompaniment ; songs such as the col- 
lection of the Orpheus Britannicus, and anthems 
such as Boyce's collection, and great works like 
Bach's 'Passion' and Handel's 'Messiah,' having 
accompaniments indicated in this manner. The 
bass line consisted of the lowest part of whatever 
was going on at the time, whether treble, or 
tenor, or bass, and in choral works it often leapt 
about promiscuously in a manner that would be 
very harassing to a player unaccustomed to the 
process, as for example 



^g^j^ gsgHg 



etc. 

from the last chorus of the ' Messiah.' 

The figures represented the diatonic intervals 
counting upwards, without reference to the nature 
of the chord ; thus 2 always meant the next 
diatonic note above — D above C, as in (a), and 
4 the next note but two, as (&), and so on up to 
the 9th, above which the figures of the lower 
octave were repeated ; and the choice of the par- 
ticular octave in which a note represented by a 
figure should be placed, as well as the progres- 
sion of the parts, was generally left to the 
discretion of the player. 

It was not customary to insert all the figures, 



38 



FILIPPI 



FILLUNGER 



as some intervals were looked upon as too familiar 
to require indication, such as the octave and 
the fifth and the third, or any of them in 
combination with other intervals ; thus a 7 by 
itself would admit of any or all of them being 
taken without being indicated, as (c) ; and a 9 
would admit of a fifth and a third, as (d) ; and 
a 6 of a third, but not of a fifth, as (e) ; and a 4 
of a fifth and an octave, as (/). When a 2 was 
written alone over a note it admitted also of a 
sixth and a fourth, as (g) ; but more commonly 
the 4 was written with the 2, and the sixth only 
was understood ; and this seems to be the only 
case in which notes other than the octave or fifth 
or third are left to be understood. 




When notes were chromatically altered the 
accidental was added by the side of the figure 
representing that note (7fc>), or for sharpening a 
note a line was drawn through the figure or by 
its side, as at (h), and as it was not customary to 
write the 3, when the third was to be chromatically 
altered the accidental was placed by itself with the 
bass note — thus a simple #, fc>, or t], implied a g, 
b, or tj, 3rd. When the bass moved and any or all 
of the notes of the harmony above it stood still, 
it was common to indicate this by a line drawn 
from the figures indicating the notes which 
remained stationary to the place where they 
moved again, and if the notes happened to be 
such as were usually left to be understood by 
the player, the lines were drawn over the bass 
from the point in which it began to move under 
the implied chord. Whenever the bass was to 
be unaccompanied by harmony, the words 'Tasto 
Solo ' were written. 

The figures were usually written in their 
numerical order, though for special purposes they 
might be reversed when the composer required a 
particular disposition of the notes, and similar 
emergencies often caused the 8 or the 5 or the 3 
to be inserted if it was indispensable that the 
notes represented by those figures should not be 
missed out. See Thoroughbass. c. h. h. p. 

FILIPPI, Filippo, born at Yicenza, Jan. 13, 
1830, studied law at Padua, and took his degree 
there in 1853. He had already taken up the 
cudgels on behalf of Verdi's 'Rigoletto,' and 
soon afterwards devoted himself entirely to music 
and musical criticism. He was editor of the 



Gazzetta Musicale of Milan, and critic of the 
Perseveranza, from 1859. His influence was 
strongly exerted on behalf of Wagner, and the 
early acceptance of Wagner in Italy must be 
ascribed in part to his writings ; his pamphlet, 
Riccardo Wagner, was translated into German 
and published in 1876 ; a series of musical 
essays, as Musica e Musicisti, appeared in 1879, 
and a monograph on the life and works of 
Fumagalli is of some value. He composed 
chamber-music, pianoforte pieces, and songs. 
He died at Milan, June 25, 1887. (Riemann 
and Baker's Dictionaries.) M. 

FILLE DU REGIMENT, LA. Opera in two 
acts ; words by Bayard and St. Georges ; music 
by Donizetti. Produced at the Opera Comique, 
Feb. 11, 1840. In London, as 'La Figlia di 
Reggimento,' at Her Majesty's (Jenny Lind), 
May 27, 1847 ; and as 'The Daughter of the 
Regiment ' (Fitzball) at Surrey Theatre, Dec. 21 , 
1847. 

FILLUNGER, Marie, born in Vienna, Jan. 
27, 1850, studied in the Vienna Conservatorium 
from 1869 to 1873 under Mme. Marchesi. On 
the advice of Brahms she went to the Hochschule 
in Berlin in 1874, remaining there until 1879, 
when she went to Frankfort, following Mme. 
Schumann. While still a student of the Hoch- 
schule, she appeared with great success in public, 
singing mainly in oratorio, in North Germany, 
Holland, and Switzerland. Early in 1889 she 
made her first appearance in London at a Popular 
Concert, where her singing of Schubert's songs 
stamped her at once as a great interpretative 
artist, while the exquisitely beautiful quality of 
her soprano voice gave peculiar charm to all she 
sang. Soon after her debut, she sang Beethoven's 
' Ah, perfido ! ' and Schubert's ' Die Allmacht,' 
at the Crystal Palace (Feb. 25), and at the same 
place undertook the soprano solo in the Choral 
Symphony (March 4, 1889), for which engage- 
ments she had in the first instance come to 
England. Her success both in orchestral music 
and in songs was so marked that she made London 
her home, and since that time has been recognised 
as one of the most highly accomplished singers of 
the best music. It is characteristic of her that 
she has never sung anything unworthy of the 
high artistic position she has won for herself, and 
her name will always be identified with music 
of the noblest class. She phrases with the 
delicacy and musicianship that are generally 
associated with the great violinists, and whether 
in Schubert, in which her first successes were 
made ; in Brahms, whose songs she sings with 
deep expression and beauty of style ; or in Bach, 
some of whose solo cantatas she has made her 
own, her singing is marked by the highest 
qualities. In 1891 she went with Sir Charles 
and Lady Halle to Australia and took part with 
them in forty-eight concerts ; in 1895 she ac- 
companied these artists to South Africa, singing 
in twenty-four concerts. In 1904 she accepted 



FILTSCH 



FINALE 



39 



a position as teacher in the Royal College of 
Music, Manchester. M. 

FILTSCH, Charles, born July 8, 1830, at 
Hermannstadt, Siebenbiirgen, Hungary. He 
appears to have received his earliest regular in- 
struction on the piano from Mittag at Vienna. 
In 1842 he was in Paris, studying under Chopin 
and Liszt. In the summer of 1843 he came to 
London, and appeared twice in public, once on 
June 14, at St. James's Theatre, between two of 
the plays, and again on July 4, at a matinee of 
his own at the Hanover Square Rooms. On 
the latter occasion, besides the Scherzo in B 
minor and other pieces of Chopin, he played a 
Prelude and Fugue of Bach's and a piece in A 
from the ' Temperaments ' of Mendelssohn. In 
the last of these he was peculiarly happy. 
'Presto de Mendelssohn,' said Spohr, the moment 
he saw Filtsch seated at the piano at Sir G. 
Smart's a few nights after. He also played at 
Buckingham Palace before the Queen and Prince 
Albert. He was then thirteen years old, and 
his playing is described as most remarkable 
both for execution and expression — full at once 
of vigour and feeling, poetry and passion. (See 
the Musical Examiner for June 17 and July 8, 
1843.) Every one who met him seems to have 
loved him. He was 'le petit' in Paris, and 
' little Filtsch ' in London. According to the 
enthusiastic vonLenz, Chopin said that he played 
his music better than he himself, while Liszt on 
one occasion exclaimed ' Quand ce petit voyagera 
je fermerai boutique.' (Lenz, Grosse PF. Vir- 
tuosen, p. 36 ; Beethoven et ses trois Styles, 
i. 229.) But he was not destined to fulfil the 
promise of so brilliant a childhood — the blade 
was too keen for the scabbard ; and, as Mos- 
cheles warned him, he practised too much for 
his strength ; consumption showed itself, and he 
died at Venice on May 11, 1845. G. 

FILTZ (also spelt FILS, FILZ, FILSL, and 
FIELTZ), Anton, born (possibly in Bohemia, as 
is suggested by the various spellings of his name), 
about 1725, entered the court band at Mannheim 
in 1754, and died in 1760. He was a violon- 
cellist of great renown, and as a composer ranks 
with the best of the Mannheim symphonists. A 
collection of his symphonies, together with some 
by Stamitz, was published in Paris soon after his 
death, another set was published at the Hague, 
' The Periodical Overture ' in London, and two 
books of trios in Amsterdam. A mass for four 
voices and orchestra is in MS. in the Royal Library 
at Berlin, and other MS. compositions exist in 
various libraries (see Quellen- Lexikon). The 
themes of thirty-nine symphonies are given in 
the volume of the Denkmaler der deutscher 
Tonkunst (Bayern), iii. 1, which also contains 
three of the symphonies — one called 'symphonie 
periodique ' — in score. M. 

FINAL. The equivalent, in the ecclesiasti- 
cal modes, to the tonic or keynote of the later 
scale. See Modes. 



FINALE. (1) The last movement of a sym- 
phony, sonata, concerto, or other instrumental 
composition. (2) The piece of music with which 
any of the acts of an opera are brought to a 
close. 

(1) The finales of the first great master of 
the symphony, Haydn, though developed with 
extraordinary skill and inexhaustible invention, 
are mostly of a somewhat playful character. 
Though their treatment is learned, their sub- 
jects are often trite. They are almost uniformly 
cast in the 'rondo,' as distinguished from the 
' sonata ' form. The finales of more recent masters 
exhibit a somewhat severer purpose, and are cast 
in forms for which, seeing their variety, no name 
has been, or seems likely to be, devised. In the 
finale to Mozart's so-called ' Jupiter Symphony ' 
every conceivable contrapuntal resource is em- 
ployed, with a freedom unsurpassed by the 
greatest masters of fugue, to give effect to ideas 
such as have been vouchsafed to few other com- 
posers. In those of Beethoven the great musical 
poet goes ' from strength to strength, ' and having, 
as he would seem to have thought, exhausted 
all the capabilities for effect of the instrumental 
orchestra, brings the chorus to bear on his latest 
symphony — a colossal monument of the inven- 
tion, and command of invention, of its composer; 
surpassing in scale, variety, and effect all former 
and indeed subsequent efforts of the kind. [In 
Brahms's fourth symphony in E minor, he 
adopts the form of the old ' Passacaglia,' using 
the ground-bass with the utmost freedom, and 
making various modifications in its treatment.] 

(2) In the earlier operas, of whatever nation, 
each act was commonly terminated by an aria 
or, at the most, a duet, constructed rather to 
exhibit the powers of the singer or singers 
employed in it, than to carry on or even 
emphasise the action. The last act was some- 
times brought to a close with a chorus, generally 
brief and always of the simplest character. 
The finale proper — the great concerted piece 
in the course of which the interest of each 
act culminates — is a modern addition to the 
musical drama, having its origin in the earlier 
Italian opera ouffa of the 18th century. The 
principal masters of this delightful variety of 
musical composition were Leo, Pergolesi, the 
Italianised German Hasse, and Logroscino ; and 
it is in the operas of the last of these, otherwise 
greatly distinguished for their inventiveness and 
spirit, that the finale first appears, though in 
a somewhat primitive form. To Piccinni its 
development, if not its perfectionment, is sub- 
sequently due. His opera ' La Cecchina, ossia 
la Buona Figliuola ' owed much of its extra- 
ordinary popularity to the introduction of finales 
in which the action was carried on, and which 
were first enlivened to the ear by the varieties 
of key and of rhythm given to the successive 
movements, and to the eye by the entrances and 
exits of the different persons of the drama. 



40 



FINALE 



FINCK 



Two of the finest specimens of this class form 
large portions of Mozart's ' Nozze di Figaro.' 
One of them — that to the second act — consists 
of no fewer than eight movements, as various in 
character as are the nine personages who are 
concerned in it, and whose several accusations, 
defences, protests, recriminations, and alterna- 
tions of success and failure are wrought into 
a work of musical art which, as has been well 
said, ' begins on an eminence and rises to the 
last note.' 

The great concerted piece, whether introduced 
at the end of an act or elsewhere, was not made 
an essential feature of modern opera without 
strong protest ; and this by the same writer 
whose amusing designation of barytones and 
basses has already been quoted. [Bass.] Lord 
Mount-Edgcumbe (Musical Reminiscences, Sect, 
vii.) attributes its introduction to no other 
cause than the decline of the art of singing, and 
the consequent necessity for making compensa- 
tion to the musical hearer for a deficiency of 
individual excellence by a superfluity of aggre- 
gate mediocrity. ' Composers, ' he says, ' having 
(now) few good voices, and few good singers to 
write for, have been obliged to adapt their 
compositions to the abilities of those who were 
to perform in them ; and as four, five, or six 
moderate performers produce a better effect 
jointly than they could by their single efforts, 
songs have disappeared, and interminable quar- 
tettos, quintettos, sestettos, etc., usurp their 
place. ' And again, ' It is evident that in such 
compositions each individual singer has little 
room for displaying either a fine voice or good 
singing, and that power of lungs is more essen- 
tial than either ; very good singers therefore 
are scarcely necessary, and it must be confessed 
that though there are now none so good, neither 
are there many so bad as I remember in the 
inferior characters. In these levelling days, 
equalisation has extended itself to the stage 
and musical profession ; and a kind of medio- 
crity of talent prevails, which, if it did not occa- 
sion the invention of these melodramatic pieces 
is at least very favourable to their execution.' 
The most extraordinary thing connected with 
this passage is that it was written half a century 
after the production of Mozart's ' Nozze di Figaro, ' 
with which the venerable critic was certainly 
well acquainted. From the most recent form 
of opera, that of Wagner, the finale, like the 
air, the duet, the trio or other self-contained 
movement, has entirely disappeared. Each act 
may be described as one movement, from the 
beginning to the end of which no natural pause 
is to be found, and from which it would be im- 
possible to make a connected, or in itself com- 
plete extract. It is difficult to conceive that this 
'system' should in its integrity maintain, or 
attain, extensive popularity ; but it will no doubt 
more or less affect all future musical dramas. 
[As a bright example of the set finale in modern 



times, may be cited the infinitely humorous 
fugue at the end of Verdi's ' Falstaff.'] j. h. 

FINCH, Hon. and Rev. Edward [fifth son 
of the first Earl of Nottingham, was born 1664, 
took the degree of M. A. in 1679, became a Fellow 
of Christ College, Cambridge, represented the uni- 
versity in Parliament in 1689-90, was ordained 
deacon in 1700, and became rector of Wigan. 
He was appointed prebendary of York in 1704, 
and of Canterbury 1710], He composed several 
pieces of church music. Of these a ' Te Deum ' 
and an anthem, 'Grant, we beseech Thee,' are 
included in Tudway's collection of church music 
in the British Museum (Harl. MSS. 1337-42). 
[A MS. Grammar of Thorough-Bass is in the 
Euing Library, Glasgow. Brit. Mus. Biog. ] He 
died Feb. 14, 1738, aged seventy-four. w. h. h. 

FINCK, Heinrich (1482-1519), passed the 
earlier years of his life in Poland, and received 
his education as one of the choristers of the 
Warsaw Hofcapelle. Later on the King's liber- 
ality enabled him to continue his studies at a 
university. There is a strong probability of his 
being the ' Henricus Finck de Bamberga, ' a ' bonus 
cantor,' who is entered as a student at Leipzig, 
in the Universitats-Matrikelbuch(f. 146) inl482 
(Monatshefte, 1890, p. 139). He must have 
returned to Poland, for he held the position of 
Musicus, perhaps also of Director in the Hof- 
capelle under Johann Albert (1492), Alexander 
(1501), andSigismund(1506). Soon after he went 
to Wiirtemberg, as the records of Duke Ulrich's 
Capelle at Stuttgart for the years 1510-11 state 
that Capellmeister Henricus Finck, called the 
' Singermeister,' received a yearly salary of sixty 
gulden, etc. His name appears only until 1513, 
but he probably remained there until 1519, when 
Joh. Siess was appointed Capellmeister (Sittard, 
Zur Oesch. clerMusikam Wiirttemb. Hofc, 1890, 
p. 8). He died June 9, 1527, at the Benedictine 
Schottenkloster, Vienna (E. Bienenfeld, Sam- 
melband of the Int. Mus. Ges. vi. 96). 

In Hermann Finck's Practica Musica, 1556, 
there are the following references to his great- 
uncle, Heinrich : ' Extant melodiae, in quibus 
magna artis perfectio est, compositae ab Henrico 
Finckio, cuius ingenium in adolescentia in 
Polonia excultum est, et postea Regia liberalitate 
ornatum est. Hie cum fuerit patruus mens 
magnus, gravissimam causam habeo, cur gentem 
Polonicampraecipuevenerer, quia excellentissimi 
Regis Polonici Alberti, et fratrum liberalitate 
hie meus patruus magnus ad tantum artis fasti- 
gium pervenit ' (p. 4 of dedication : ' There are 
melodies composed by Heinrich Finck which 
show great skill. As a youth he received his 
education in Poland, and by royal liberality 
was afterwards enabled to continue it. Since 
Heinrich Finck was my great-uncle, I have 
very great cause to venerate the Polish nation, 
for the height to which he attained in his art 
was owing to the liberality of the most excellent 
Polish King Albert and his brothers,') 



FINCK 



FINCK 



41 



'Circa annum 1480 et aliquanto post alii 
exstiterunt praecedentibus (musicis) longe prae- 
stantiores. Illi enim in docenda arte non ita 
immorati sunt, sed erudite Theoricam cum 
Practica conjunxerunt. Inter hos sunt Henricus 
Finck, qui non solum ingenio, sed praestanti 
etiam eruditione excelluit, durus vero in stylo.' 
(Ch. i. p. 3 : ' About and soon after 1480 musi- 
cians appeared far superior to their predecessors, 
who did not give so much time to teaching the 
art, but skilfully combined theory with practice. 
Among these were [others and] Heinrich Finck, 
who excelled not only in talent, but in learning. 
He was, however, hard in style.') 

Heinrich Finck's compositions were printed 
only twenty years before Practica Musica, 
with the title : Schbne ausserlesne lieder, des 
hochberumpten Heinrici Finckens, sampt andern 
newen liedern, von den fiirnemsten diser kunst 
gesetzt lustig zu singen, und auff die Instrument 
dienstlich. Vor nie im druck aussgangen. 
1536. (In the Tenor part-book only) Gedruckt 
zu Niirenberg durch Hieronymum Formschney- 
der. Four part-books, obi. 4to, in the Munich 
Hofbibl. and in Zwickau Ratsschulbibl. Of 
the fifty- five compositions, the first thirty are 
by Heinrich Finck ; only six are to sacred 
words. No. 1, 'Christ ist erstanden ' is for 
five, the others for four voices. In vol. 8 of 
the Publ. alterer prak. u. theoret. Musikwerke, 
1879, Eitner reprints these compositions in 
score, with the exception of No. 2, 'In Gottes 
Namen faren wir ' (publ. in score by R. Schlecht, 
Gesch. der Kirchenmusik, 1871, Musikbeilage, 
No. 44) ; No. 11, ' Freu dich du werte Christen - 
heit ' (publ. in score by C. v. Winterfeld, Der 
evang. Kirchengesang, 1843, I. Musikbeilage, 
No. 12) ; and No. 18, ' Ich stund an einem 
morgen ' (publ. in score by R. v. Liliencron, 
Die historischen Volkslieder, 1865, IV. Beilage 
7). Eitner notes that there is no Cantus firmus 
in Finck's secular songs, he composed his own 
Tenor, only in ' Ich stund an einem morgen ' 
and ' Greiner, zanner,' does he use the melodies 
of folk-songs. The German songs, of which 
' Ach hertzigs hertz ' is a characteristic example, 
are marked by great freedom of expression, 
sympathy, and feeling. The motets are more 
fettered by their century ; although the ' Christ 
ist erstanden ' for five voices is one of Finck's 
finest pieces of work, as a rule in his sacred 
music, ingenious handling of the counterpoint 
outweighs harmonious beauty. This perhaps 
accounts for Hermann Finck's stricture in 
Practica Musica ' durus vero in stylo.' 

Compositions in printed works : — 

1. Ein new geordnet kunstlich Lautenbuch. In zwen Theyl 
getheylt. Nurnberg. Hansen Newsidler. 1536. H. F.'s music in 
the second part includes ' Ich stund an einem morgen.' (Vogel, 
Eitner.) 

2. Secundus tomus novi operis musici, 6, 5, & 4 vocum. 1538. 
(Johannes Otto civis Noribergensis). No. 40, (i.) Magnus estu Domine, 
(ii.) Tupauperum refugium, for four voices. Although the music is 
here attributed to Finck, it is printed in Glarean's Dodecachordon, 
1547, p. 221, as the work of Josquin des Pres. It was also published 
by Petrucci in 1504, p. 25, but without the composer's name. Eitner 
includes it in vol. 8 of the Publikation, etc. 1879, but says the 
authorship is doubtful, 



3 Trium vocum carmina a diversis musicis composita. Niirenberg. 
Hieron. Fonnschneider. 1538. No. 22, for three voices, without 
words. 

4. Ein ausszug guter alter und newer Teutscher Liedlein (G. 
Forster). Nurnberg. Johan Petreio. 1539. No. 7, 'Ach hertzigs 
hertz ' (no composer's name) and No. 87, ' Kuntschaft mit dir ' (with 
composer's name P. Hoffheymer). They are Nos. 8 & 29 in Finck's 
Schone ausserlesne Lieder for four voices. 

Der ander Theil, kurtzweiliger guter frischer Teutscher Liedlein. 
Nurnberg. Johan Petreium. 1540. No. 63 ' Der Ludel und der 
Hensel ' (with composer's name L. Heidenhamer) is No. 10 in Schone 
ausserlesne Lieder. 

5. Sacrorum hymnorum. Liber primus. Vitebergae. Georg Ehaw. 
1542. Twenty-two motets, in which ancient church melodies form 
the Cantus firmus. Eitner reprinted five of them in Publikation, 
etc. 1879, vol. 8. 

6. Concentus 8, 6, 5, & 4 vocum omnium jucundissimi. (Sigis. 
Salblinger) Augustae Vindelicorum. Ph. Ulhardus. 1545. No. 23 ' O 
Domine Jesu Christe,' in seven movements, for four voices. Ambros 
describes this as an exceptionally beautiful work, the 'seven 
greetings of the suffering Redeemer ' are in fact seven short motets 
full of deep devotion and feeling ; in the last part two more voices 
join in a canon in ' Epidiapason post duo tempora.' 

7. Officiorum (ut vocant) de nativitate, etc. Tomus primus. Vite- 
bergae. G. Rhaw. 1545. f . 51 ' Puer natus est nobis ' — ' Cantate 
Domino ' — ' Grates nunc omnes reddamus ' — ' Huic oportet ut cana- 
mus,' for four voices. 

8. Erotemata musices practicae . . . collecta ab Ambrosio Wil- 
phlingsedero. Noribergae. Chr. Heussler. 1563, p. 160. One musical 
example from the mass ' Sub tuum praesidium ' for two voices. 

9. Suavissimae et jucundissimae narmoniae : 8, 5, & 4 vocum, ex 
duabus vocibus. . . Clemente Stephani Buchavense. Noribergae. 
Th. Gerlatzenum. 1567. No. 12, ' Dies est laetitiae ' for four voices. 
Reprinted by Eitner in Publikation, etc. 1879, vol. 8. 

In MS. : Augsburg Bibl. Codex 142a, one motet for four voices. 
(Schletterer's Cat. p. 3.) 

Basle Bibl. ' Ich stund an einem morgen ' for four voices. 

Berlin konigl. Bibl.Codex Z 21, motets for four voices : 1. Misereatur 
Dominus, 2. Ave Jesu Christe, 3.Deodicamus, 4. Gloria laus, 5.Lieber 
her santh peter. (Eitner.) 

Breslau Stadtbibl. MS. 93, Introit in four movements : Puer natus 
est nobis, etc. for four voices (Bohn's Cat.). See above, No. 7. 

Konigsberg Bibl. MS. 4. 24. Four motets, Nos. 43, 53, 89, and 90, 
for four voices. (Eitner.) 

Leipzig Universitatsbibl. Codex MS. 1494, Der Mensuralcodex 
des Magister Nikolaus Apel von Konigshof en . 1504. Described by Dr. 
Hugo Riemann, Kirchenmusikalisch.es Jahrbuch. 1897. Music by 
Heinricus Finck : — two copies of ' Et adhuc tecum sum ' (2nd part), 
'Domine probasti me' for four voices; and 'Wer ych ayn falck' 
for four voices, identical with music in the Berlin MS. Z 21, No. 95, 
without name of composer, to the Latin words ' Invicto regi jubilo.' 
Also five songs for four voices, without text, all initialled H. F. 

Liibeck Stadtbibl. Hymni : No. 91, Fit porta Christi, for four voices, 
tenor part missing (Stiehl's Cat. p. 9). In Sac. Ilym. 1542. No. 30. 

Munich Hofbibl. MSS. 42 and 65, two copies of a Missa Dominicalis 
for four voices ; in MS. 42 a motet for four voices. (Eitner.) 

Pirna Stadtkirche Bibl. MS. Chorbuch, Codex IV., ' Puer natus 
est : Cantate Domino,' and ' Te maneat semper ' (initialled H. F.) : 
Codex vi., ' Ecce devenit ' (initialled H. F.), and ' Borate coeli ' ; all 
for four voices. (Eitner. ) 

Proske bischofl. Bibl. ' Missa de beata virgine,' for three voices 
(publ. in score in Ambros's Geschichte der Musik, v. 247, No. 35). 
Motets— for four voices : 1. O Domine Jesu Christe, in seven move- 
ments (printed in Concentus, 1545, No. 23) ; 2. Nisi Dominus, in two 
movements. For five voices : 1. Christus resurgens, 2. Et valde 
mane, 3. Illuminare Hierusalem, 4. Ite in orbem, 5. Petre amas me, 
6. Verbum caro. For five and six voices : Beati estis sancti, in four 
movements. For seven voices : Reple tuorum corda. (Eitner.) 

Vienna Hofbibl. MS. 19,242, No. 56 ' O Domine Jesu Christe,' motet 
for four voices ; MS. 18,810, No. 24 ' Greiner, zanner ' for five voices. 
(Mantuani's Cat.) 

Zwickau Ratsschulbibl. MS. 4. Motets for five voices : 1. Ap- 
paruerunt apostolis, in two movements ; 2. Felix namque, in 
three movements ; 3. Illuminare Hierusalem, in three movements ; 
4. Verbum caro, in three movements. MS. 16. For four voices (altus 
part missing) 'DeEvangelistis' (an Alleluiaand Prose in ten sections); 
2. Apparuit gratia dei, in two movements ; 3. Ave praeclara maris 
stella, in six movements ; 4. Discubuit Jesus, in three movements ; 
5.Salve rex misericordie, in nine movements; 6. Veni creator spiritus. 
For four and six voices : O Domine Jesu Christe, in seven move- 
ments (see above). For five voices: Ecce Maria genuit, in two 
movements. For six voices : Grates nunc omnes reddamus, Huic 
oportet ut canamus. (Vollhardt's Cat.) q g 

FINCK, Hermann (1527-58), was born 
March 21, 1527, at Pirna, Saxony, and probably 
received his early education as a member of the 
Hofcapelle of King Ferdinand of Bohemia. He 
is entered as a student at Wittenberg University, 
September 1545, in the Album Academiae 
Vitebergensis, 1502-60, edited by Forstemann, 
1841 (see extract in Monatshefte fur Musik- 
geschichte, 1878, p. 54). On June 1, 1554, the 
Rector of the University formally announced 
that Hermann was at liberty to give instruction 
in music to the University students (Fiirstenau, 
Monatshefte, 1879, p. 11). That he remained 
there and was appointed organist in 1557, may 
be gathered from a statement made by Nicolas 

d 



42 



FINCK 



FINGER 



Selneccer in a work published in 1581 (Erk, 
Monatshefte, 1879, p. 63). Selneccer explains 
that in 1557, the organistship being vacant, at 
the request of the Praeceptores, he filled it 
for a month. Then through Court influence 
Hermann Finck was appointed to the post, ' der 
bald hernach elendiglich und jemmerlich zu 
Wittenberg gestorben ' (who soon after miserably 
died in Wittenberg). He may have stated this 
on the authority of Johannes Garcaeus, Astro- 
logiae mcthodus Basiliae, 1570, 'Hermannus 
Finckius Pirnensis. Insignis hie fuit Musicus et 
Organista, miserrime subitanea morte extinctus 
est. Nascitur 21 mart. 1527, etc.' But the 
suggestion is negatived by the discovery of the 
date of Hermann's death made by M. Fiirstenau, 
in the Wittenberg University records (Scrip- 
torum publice. Witebergae. 1559-62. See 
Monatshefte, 1879, p. 63), where it states that he 
died peacefully on Dec. 28, 1558, 'auf fromme 
Weise aus diesem Leben geschieden ist.' 

The important theoretical work by which 
Hermann Finck' s name is best known is entitled : 
'Practica musica Hermanni Finckii, exempla 
variorum signorum, proportionum et canonum, 
judicium de tonis, ac quaedam de arte suaviter et 
artificiose cantandi continens. Vitebergae ex- 
cudebant Haeredes Georgii Rhaw. 1556.' In one 
volume, 4 to. In British Museum, etc. The 
dedication is to the Count Gorca, and shows that 
Hermann must have visited Poland and been 
hospitably received by the Gorca family, to 
whom he expresses a warm sense of gratitude : 
1 Itaque in editione huius operis, praecipue ad 
Celsitudinem vestram scripsi, ut ostenderem me 
beneficiorum memoriam, quae in meam familiam 
a Regibus et Principibus Polonicis collata sunt, 
perpetua gratitudine et retinere et celebrare. 
Fuit eximia erga me quoque liberalitas Celsi- 
tudinis tuae Illustris Domine Stanislae. Quare 
et fratrum et tui nominis mentionem hie feci, et 
vobis hoc opus dedico, ut gratitudinem meam et 
observantiam erga vos perpetuam, ostendam.' 
The work is divided into five books. The first 
book ' De musicae inventoribus ' is of some 
historical interest owing to its mention of con- 
temporary musicians (see Heinrich Finck) and 
to the light it throws on the musical taste of 
that time. A long quotation from pp. 2, 3, 4, 
is given in the Diet. Hist. (Choron et Fayolle) 
with a French translation. In the third 
book ' de canonibus ' are numerous examples 
of canons : ' Clama ne cesses, ' four voices : 
'Misericordia & Veritas,' Bassus & Tenor; 'Jus- 
ticia et pax, ' Discant & Altus ; ' Gaude cum 
gaudentibus, ' four voices ; ' Qui se humiliat, 
exaltabitur ' — ' Languir me fais, ' four voices ; 
and ' Le desir croist quant et quant l'esperance ' 
— 'Amour parfaict m'a donne hardiesse,' four 
voices, with the French words. A German 
translation of the fifth book ' De arte eleganter 
et suaviter cantandi,' with music, was published 
in Monatshefte, 1879, p. 129, etc. Finck was 



a composer of some note. Few of his works are 
in existence, but they show that he was dis- 
tinctly in advance of his time, both in form and 
in expression. Eitner included three composi- 
tions in the Publikation alterer prakt. und 
theoret. Musikwerke, 1879, vol. 8: ' Pectus ut 
in sponso ' in three sections for four voices ; 
' Semper honorabile ' in two sections, for five 
voices, both wedding hymns ; and the motet 
for five voices 'Christ ist erstanden,' part 1, 
which it is interesting to compare with that com- 
posed by Heinrich Finck at a much earlier date. 
The score was carefully reconstructed by Otto 
Kade from a very defective MS. Chorbuch in 
the Pirna Stadtkirche Bibl. Codex VII. (date, 
1556) ; the last two movements of the motet 
were almost entirely destroyed. 
Compositions : — 

1. Melodia epithalamii . . . Johanno Friderico II Duel Saxoniae 
. . . composita ab Hermanno Finck PyrnetiBi. Quinque vocum. 
Vitebergae excuss typis haeredum Georgii Rhaw. 1555. Five part- 
books, obi. 4to. Text : ' Amore flagrantissimo sponsam,' and — ■ 
Melodia epithalamii . . . Henrico Paxmanno . . . composita ab 
Herm. Finck Piruensi. Quatuor vocum. Vitebergae. 1555. Four 
part-books obi. 4to. Text : ' Pectus ut in sponso ' by Philip Melanc- 
thon. In the Liegnitz konigl. Ritter-Academie Bibl. (Pfudel's Cat.). 

2. Melodia epithalamii . . . Johannis Schrammii . . . composita 
ab Herm. Finck. Quinque vocum. Vittembergae. Haeredes G. 
Rhaw. 1557. Text :' Semper honorabile.' Five part-books, obi. 4to. 
in the Brieg Gymnasialbibl. (Rutin's Cat.). 

3. Ein sen oner geistlicher Text : ' Was mein Gott wil : daa 
geschichtallzeit,' etc. von . . . Albrechten Marggraven zu Branden- 
burg . . . selber gemacht. Und, wie folget, auff viererley Art com- 
poniret durch Herm. Finck Musicum. Discantus primus, anno 1558. 
4to. This is, so far as is known, the only voice part in existence ; 
it is in a miscellaneous volume in the Weimar grossherzogl. Bibl. 
The Dedication is signed by Finck, Musicus, ' Wittenberg, den 25 
Dec. anno 1557.' (Eitner, Publikation.) 

Eitner mentions that in the Proske bischon. 
Bibl. MS. 940 (1557), four part-books, obi. 4to, 
there is a student's drinking-song for four voices 
by Herm. Finck, No. 169, 'Sauff aus und machs 
nit lang,' etc. c. s. 

FINE (Ital. ' end ') is generally placed above 
the stave at the point where the movement 
ceases after a ' Da Capo ' repetition. Its place 
is occasionally taken by a pause (see Fermata). 
It is often found, too, at the end of works which 
finish on the right-hand page {recto), and is 
placed there, apparently, in order to warn im- 
perfectly trained musicians that it is not worth 
while to turn over the last page. 

FINGER, Gottfried or Godfrey, a native 
of Olmiitz in Moravia, came to England about 
1685, and enjoyed the patronage of James II. 
In 1688 he published 'Sonatae XII. pro Diversis 
Instrumentis. Opus Primum,' and in 1690 
1 Six Sonatas or Solos, three for a violin and 
three for a flute.' In 1691, in conjunction 
with John Banister, he published ' Ayres, Cha- 
cones, Divisions and Sonatas for Violins and 
Flutes,' and shortly after joined Godfrey Keller 
in producing 'A Set of Sonatas in five parts for 
flutes and hautboys.' He subsequently pub- 
lished other sonatas for violins and flutes. In 
1693 Finger composed the music for Theophilus 
Parsons' Ode for the annual celebration of St. 
Cecilia's Day. In 1696, in conjunction with John 
Eccles, he composed the music for Motteux's 
masque, ' The Loves of Mars and Venus, ' and 
in the next year that for Ravenscroft's comedy, 



FINGER-BOARD 



FINGERING 



43 



The Anatomist, or, The Sham Doctor,' and 
(with D. Purcell) that for N. Lee's 'Rival 
Queens.' In 1701 he set to music Elkanah 
Settle's opera, ' The Virgin Prophetess, or, The 
Siege of Troy.' In the previous year he was 
awarded the fourth prize for the composition of 
Congreve's masque, ' The Judgment of Paris, ' 
the others being given to John Weldon, John 
Eccles, and Daniel Purcell. Finger was so 
displeased at the ill reception of his composition 
that he quitted England and returned to Germany, 
Avhere in 1702 he obtained the appointment of 
chamber musician to Sophia Charlotte, Queen 
of Prussia, and lived for some years at Breslau. 
Whilst at Berlin he composed two German 
operas, ' Sieg der Schonheit uber die Helden ' 
and ' Roxane,' both performed in 1706. [This 
latter is very possibly by Telemann. See Diet, 
of Nat. Biog.'] In 1717 he became chapel- 
master at the court of Gotha, [and in March 
1718 is mentioned by Walter as part-composer 
of the opera ' L' amicizia in terzo.' His name 
occurs in a list of 1723]. Nothing is known 
of his subsequent career. Besides the above- 
mentioned compositions Finger wrote instru- 
mental music for the following plays — 'The 
Wives' Excuse,' 1692 ; 'Love for Love,' 1695 ; 
' The Mourning Bride,' 1697 ; ' Love at a Loss,' 
'Love makes a Man,' 'The Humours of the Age,' 
and 'Sir Harry Wildair,' 1701. Some concertos 
and sonatas are mentioned in the Quellen- 
Lexikon. w. h. h. 

FINGER-BOARD. The finger-board is that 
part of the violin and other stringed instruments 
over which the strings are stretched, and against 
which the fingers of the left hand of the player 
press the strings in order to produce sounds not 
given by the open string. 

The finger-board of the violin is best made of 
ebony, as harder and less easily worn out than any 
other wood. Its surface is somewhat curved — 
corresponding to the top line of the bridge, but 
not quite so much — in order to allow the bow 
to touch each string separately, which would be 
impossible if bridge and finger-board were flat. 
On an average-sized violin it measures 10^ inches 
in length, while its width is about 1 inch nearest 
to the head of the violin and If inch at the 
bridge-end. It is glued on to the neck, and 
extends from the head to about three-fourths of 
the distance between the neck and the bridge. 
At the head-end it has a slight rim, called the 
'nut,' which supports the strings and keeps them 
at a distance sufficient to allow them to vibrate 
without touching the finger-board. This distance 
varies considerably according to the style of the 
player. A broad tone and an energetic treat- 
ment of the instrument require much room for 
the greater vibration of the strings, and conse- 
quently a high nut. Amateur players, as a rule, 
prefer a low nut, which makes it easier to press 
the strings down, but does not allow of the pro- 
duction of a powerful tone. 



The finger-board, getting worn by the constant 
action of the fingers, must be renewed from time 
to time. The modern technique of violin-playing 
requires the neck, and in consequence the finger- 
board, to be considerably longer than they were 
at the time of the great Cremona makers. For 
these reasons we hardly ever find an old instru- 
ment with either the original finger-board, bridge, 
sound-post, or bass-bar, all of which, however, 
can be made just as well by any good violin- 
maker now living as by the ancient masters. 

The finger-boards of the Violoncello and Double- 
bass are made on the same principle as that of 
the violin, except that the side of the finger-board 
over which the lowest string is stretched is 
flattened in order to give sufficient room for its 
vibration. Spohr adopted a somewhat similar 
plan on his violin by having a little scooping-out 
underneath the fourth string, which grew flatter 
and narrower towards the nut. 

In the instruments of the older viola-, gamba-, 
andlyra-tribe, the finger-board was provided with 
frets. p. d. 

FINGERING (Ger. Fingersatz, Applicatur ; 
Fr. DoigU), the method which governs the 
application of the fingers to the keys of any 
keyed instrument, to the various positions upon 
stringed instruments, or to the holes and keys of 
wind instruments, the object of the rules being 
in all cases to facilitate execution. The word is 
also applied to the numerals placed above or 
beneath the notes, by which the particular fingers 
to be used are indicated. 

(i.) Fingering of the Pianoforte (that 
of the organ, though different in detail, is 
founded on the same principles, and will not 
require separate consideration). 

In order to understand the principles upon 
which the rules of modern fingering are based, 
it will be well to glance briefly at the history of 
those rules, and in so doing it must be borne in 
mind that two causes have operated to influence 
their development — the construction of the key- 
board, and the nature of the music to be per- 
formed. It is only in comparatively modern 
times, in fact since the rise of modern music, 
that the second of these two causes can have 
had much influence, for the earliest use of the 
organ was merely to accompany the simple 
melodies or plain-songs of the Church, and when 
in later years instrumental music proper came 
into existence, which was not until the middle 
of the 16th century, its style and character 
closely resembled that of the vocal music of the 
time. The form and construction of the key- 
board, on the other hand, must have affected 
the development of any system of fingering 
from the very beginning, and the various changes 
which took place from time to time are in fact 
sufficient to account for certain remarkable differ- 
ences which exist between the earliest rules of 
fingering and those in force at the present time. 
Until the latter half of the 16th century there 



44 



FINGEEING 



FINGERING 



would appear to have been no idea of establish- 
ing rules for fingering ; nor could this have been 
otherwise, for from the time of the earliest 
organs, the keys of which were from three to 
six inches wide, and were struck with the closed 
fist, down to about the year 1480, when, although 
narrower, the octave still measured about two 
inches more than on the modern keyboard, any 
attempt at fingering in the modern sense must 
have been out of the question. The earliest 
marked fingering of which we have any know- 
ledge is that given by Ammerbach in his Orgel 
oder Instrument Tabulatur (Leipzig, 1571). 
This, like all the fingering in use then and for 
long afterwards, is characterised by the almost 
complete avoidance of the use of the thumb and 
little finger, the former being only occasionally 
marked in the left hand, and the latter never 
employed except in playing intervals of not less 
than a fourth in the same hand. Ammerbach's 
fingering for the scale is as follows, the thumbs 
being marked and the fingers with the first 
three numerals : — 



Right Hand. 




Left Hand. 

This kind of fingering, stiff and awkward as it 
appears to us, remained in use for upwards of 
a century, and is even found as late as 1718, in 
the third edition of an anonymous work entitled 
Kurzer jedoch griindllcher Wegiveiser, etc. 
Two causes probably contributed to retard the 
introduction of a more complete system. In the 
first place, the organ and clavichord not being 
tuned upon the system of equal temperament, 
music for these instruments was only written in 
the simplest keys, with the black keys but rarely 
used ; and in the second place the keyboards 
of the earlier organs were usually placed so high 
above the seat of the player that the elbows were 
of necessity considerably lower than the fingers. 
The consequence of the hands being held in this 
position, and of the black keys being but seldom 
required, would be that the three long fingers, 
stretched out horizontally, would be chiefly used, 
while the thumb and little finger, being too short 
to reach the keys without difficulty, would simply 
hang down below the level of the keyboard. 

But although this was the usual method of 
the time, it is highly probable that various 
experiments, tending in the direction of the use 
of the thumb, were made from time to time by 
different players. Thus Praetorius says {Syn- 
tagma Musicum, 1619), 'Many think it a matter 
of great importance, and despise such organists 
as do not use this or that particular fingering, 
which in my opinion is not worth the talk ; for 
let a player run up or down with either first, 
middle, or third finger, aye, even with his nose if 
that could help him, provided everything is done 
clearly, correctly, and gracefully, it does not much 



matter how or in what manner it is accomplished.' 
One of the boldest of these experimenters was 
Couperin, who in his work, L'art de toucher le 
clavecin (Paris, 1717), gives numerous examples 
of the employment of the thumb. He uses it, 
however, in a very unmethodical way ; for in- 
stance, he would use it on the first note of an 
ascending scale, but not again throughout the 
octave ; he employs it for a change of fingers 
on a single note, and for extensions, but in 
passing it under the fingers he only makes use 
of the first finger, except in two cases, in one of 
which the second finger of the left hand is passed 
over the thumb, and in the other the thumb is 
passed under the third finger, in the very un- 
practical fashion shown in the last bar of the 
following example, which is an extract from a 
composition of his entitled 'Le Moucheron,' and 
will serve to give a general idea of his fingering. 




12 5 12 612523342 



tr. 



:*:£ 



Pg^ 



3 6 

s ±tr. 2 







About this time also the thumb first came 
into use in England. Purcell gives a rule for 
it in the instructions for fingering in his Choice 
Collection of Lessons for the Harpsichord, pub- 
lished about 1700, but he employs it in a very 
tentative manner, using it only once throughout 
a scale of two octaves. His scale is as follows : — 



Bight Hand (thumb numbered 1). 

12 3 43434 3) 



U^ 



*J -*>- m 3 4 |__ I *g4 3 4 3 4 3 4 6 

1 2 3 * 



Left Hand (thumb numbered 5) 




Contemporary with Couperin we find Sebastian 
Bach, to whose genius fingering owes its most 
striking development, since in his hands it be- 
came transformed from a chaos of unpractical 
rules to a perfect system, which has endured in 
its essential parts to the present day. Bach 
adopted the then newly invented system of 
equal temperament for the tuning of the clavi- 
chord, and was therefore enabled to write in 
every key ; thus the black keys were in con- 
tinual use, and this fact, together with the great 
complexity of his music, rendered the adoption 
of an entirely new system of fingering inevitable,* 



FINGERING 



FINGERING 



45 



all existing methods being totally inadequate. 
Accordingly, he fixed the place of the thumb in 
the scale, and made free use of both that and 
the little finger in every possible position. In 
consequence of this the hands were held in a 
more forward position on the keyboard, the 
wrists were raised, the long fingers became bent, 
and therefore gained greatly in flexibility, and 
thus Bach acquired such a prodigious power of 
execution as compared with his contemporaries, 
that it is said that nothing which was at all 
possible was for him in the smallest degree 
difficult. 

Our knowledge of Bach's method is derived 
from the writings of his son, Emanuel, who 
taught it in his Versuch uber die wahre Art das 
Clavier zu spielen. But it would not be safe to 
conclude that he gave it literally and without 
omissions. At any rate there are two small 
pieces extant, the marked fingering in which is 
undoubtedly by Sebastian Bach himself, and yet 
differs in several respects from his own rules as 
given by his son. These pieces are to be found 
in the ' Clavier buchlein, ' and one of them is 
also published as No. 1 1 of ' Douze petits Pre- 
ludes, ' but without Bach's fingering. The other 
is here given complete : — 
&* 3 4 




i ^^ ^^mgpf 



^tr 



"3T 



In the above example it is worthy of notice 
that although Bach himself had laid down the 
rule, that the thumb in scale-playing was to be 
used twice in the octave, he does not abide by 
it, the scales in this instance being fingered 
according to the older plan of passing the second 
finger over the third, or the first over the 
thumb. In the fifth bar again the second finger 
passes over the first — a progression which is 
disallowed by Emanuel Bach. 

The discrepancies between Bach's fingering 
and his son's rules, shown in the other piece 
mentioned, occur between bars 22 and 23, 34 
and 35, and 38 and 39, and consist in passing 



the second finger over the first, the little finger 
under the third (left hand), and the third over 
the little finger (left hand also). 
Bar 22. 23. 

I 5 4 6 

H»" m M * Z - 3 5 3 112 



tNHri 



£E£ 



S^ 



m^i 



m 



B 



3 2 12 3 4 



Bfeg 



eS^E 



Bar 34 




i^ffS^f 



W^ 



1 2 3 S 2 



<MV 



r nf 



From these discrepancies it would appear that 
Bach's own fingering was more varied than the 
description of it which has come down to us, 
and that it was free in the sense not only of 
employing every possible new combination of 
fingers, but also of making use of all the old 
ones, such as the passing of one long finger over 
another. Emanuel Bach restricts this freedom 
to some extent, allowing for instance the passage 
of the second finger over the third, but of no 
other long finger. Thus only so much of Bach's 
method has remained in practical use to the 
present day as Emanuel Bach retained, and as 
is absolutely essential for the performance of 
his works. 

Emanuel Bach's fingering has been practically 
that of all his successors until almost recent 
times ; Clementi, Hummel, and Czerny adopted 
it almost without change, excepting only the 
limitation caused by the introduction of the 
pianoforte, the touch of which requires a much 
sharper blow from the finger than that of the 
clavichord or harpsichord, in consequence of 
which the gentle gliding of the second finger 
over the third, which was allowed by Emanuel 
Bach, has become unsuitable, and is now rarely 
used. 

In the teaching of all the above-named masters, 
one principle is particularly observed, — the 
thumb is not used on a black key except (as 
Emanuel Bach puts it) ' in cases of neces- 
sity,' and it is the abolition of this restriction 
which forms the latest development of fingering. 
Modern composers, and in particular Chopin and 
Liszt, have by their invention of novel passages 
and difficulties done once more for the thumb 
what Bach did for it, and just as he redeemed 



46 



FINGERING 



it from a condition of uselessness, so have they 
freed its employment from all rules and restric- 
tions whatsoever. Hummel, in his Art of 
Playing the Pianoforte, says, ' We must employ 
the same succession of fingers when a passage 
consists of a progression of similar groups of 
notes .... The intervention of the black key 
changes the symmetrical progression so far only 
as the rule forbids the use of the thumb on the 
black keys.' But the modern system of fingering 
would employ absolutely the same order of fingers 
throughout such a progression without consider- 
ing whether black keys intervene or no. Many 
examples of the application of this principle may 
be found in Tausig's edition of dementi's Gradus 
ad Parnassum, especially in the first study, a 
comparison of which with the original edition 
(where it is No. 16) will at once show its dis- 
tinctive characteristics. That the method has 
immense advantages and tends greatly to facili- 
tate the execution of modern difficulties cannot 
be doubted, even if it but rarely produces the 
striking results ascribed to it by Von Bulow, 
who says in the preface to his edition of Cramer's 
Studies, that in his view (which he admits may 
be somewhat chimerical), a modern pianist of 
the first rank ought to be able by its help to 
execute Beethoven's 'Sonata Appassionata ' as 
readily in the key of Ffl minor as in that of F 
minor, and with the same fingering ! 

There are two methods of marking fingering, 
one now used in England alone (though not by 
any means exclusively) , and the other in all other 
countries. Both consist of figures placed above 
the notes, but in the ' English ' system the thumb 
is represented by a X, and the four fingers by 
1, 2, 3, and 4, while everywhere else, the first 
five numerals are employed, the thumb being 
numbered 1, and the four fingers 2, 3, 4, and 5. 
This plan was probably introduced into Germany 
— where its adoption only dates from the time 
of Bach — from Italy, since the earliest German 
fingering (as in the example from Ammerbach 
quoted above) was precisely the same as the 
present ' English ' system, except that the thumb 
was indicated by a cipher instead of a cross. 
The same method came into partial use in Eng- 
land for a short time, and may be found spoken 
of as the ' Italian manner of fingering ' in a 
treatise entitled 'The Harpsichord Illustrated 
and Improv'd,' published about 1740. Purcell 
also adopted it in his ' Choice Collection ' quoted 
above, but with the bewildering modification, 
that whereas in the right hand the thumb was 
numbered 1, and so on to the little finger, in 
the left hand the little finger was called the first, 
and the thumb the fifth. [The rational system 
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) which is, rightly or wrongly, 
known as the 'continental,' has, for many 
excellent reasons, been widely adopted by the 
better English publishers, so that there is more 
unanimity in the present day than there was 
twenty years ago.] p. t. 



FINGERING 

(ii.) Fingering of Stringed Instruments. 
— Fingering, the exact placing of the fingers 
upon the strings in the order that musical notes 
are to be made. This order first suggests a scale 
as the fingers follow from first to second, second to 
third, third to fourth, and so on. Fingering also 
means the figures placed over notes to indicate 
the finger required to stop or press the string. 
The basis of sound technique is the scales and 
the arpeggi of the various chords fingered accord- 
ing to rule. The practice of these perfectly in 
tune, each note a true musical sound, is a sure 
means of technical advancement. Technique 
may be regarded as the handicraft of every 
practical artist, but it is only a means to an 
end, the highest technical education must go 
hand in hand with artistic cultivation, or the 
result at maturity is unsatisfactory. 

In violin fingering, the position and carriage 
of the hand are of the greatest importance ; the 
thumb should be underneath the violin neck 
below the first and second fingers, the tip bent 
outwards, the neck resting on the thumb near 
its first joint, the thumb will then give the 
necessary counterpressure to the force of the 
fingers. The violin should be held by the chin 
and shoulder, firmly, but not stiffly. In chang- 
ing position, the whole hand should go in one 
movement. 

It is necessary from the first to study an 
economy of finger movement. Taking the scale 
of A in three octaves as example beginning in 
the first position, first finger on the fourth string, 
the first, second, third, and fourth fingers should 
be played in succession, and held down until the 
first finger is used on the third string, when 
they should be raised and the same order 
followed on the third string and the second, 
second and first. The shift from first position 
to third goes between G# and A, first finger 
under second, the whole hand going forward in 
one movement, keeping exactly the same form 
in the third as it had in the first position. The 
next shift is from third to fifth position, and 
goes between B and C# ; this is a more difficult 
shift, as the hand has to pass the shoulder of the 
violin, the advantage given by the thumb under 
the neck will be at once seen, as it enables the 
player to move forward to the fifth position 
maintaining the same shape of the hand as in 
the first and third positions. The next shift 
lies between D and E, and brings the hand to 
the seventh position. The first finger is kept 
on the first string through all the shifting up- 
ward. In this case it begins at Ffl, and remains 
on the string up to E in the seventh position. 
The first finger must not smear the notes at the 
shift. The forward movement must be both swift 
and quiet; it should not be heard. This is one of 
the points of excellence in scale playing : there 
are three — intonation, equality of tone, one note 
after another, absolutely silent shifting. The 
movements descending are the reverse of those 






FINGERING 



FINGERING 



47 



ascending, second finger going over first ; the 
first is not held down. The movement described 
in the foregoing is a whole shift of the hand, 
first position to third, third to fifth, fifth to 
seventh. Whole shifts go also from second 
position to fourth, fourth to sixth, and so on. 
A half shift is from a position to its neighbour- 
ing one, viz., first to second, second to third, 
etc. 

This studied economy of finger and hand 
movement should be followed through all violin 
technical practice. 

A Position is the space on the finger-board 
which can be covered without moving the hand. 
A full command of the finger-board can only 
be attained by being well grounded in the 
different positions, which are eleven in number. 
In the first position, the first finger stands on 
F on the first string, and takes the correspond- 
ing notes on the other strings, B, E, A ; really 
in each position there are two half positions 
easily shown by playing in the first position 
the scales of B flat and B natural. The hand 
stands half a tone higher in the one than in the 
other. This occurs in all positions. In the 
second position the first finger stands on G on 
the first string, and takes also C, F, and B on 
the other strings. In the third position the 
first finger stands on A on the first string, and 
takes D, G, and C on the other strings. In the 
fourth position, the first finger stands on B on 
the first string, and takes E, A, D on the 
others. In the fifth position C on the first 
string, etc., and so on up to the eleventh 
position, in which it stops B, E, A, and D. 
The distance between notes gets gradually closer 
as the hand moves forward to the higher 
positions (the same interval measured an octave 
apart will show a considerable difference. F# 



to Btj on the first string, in the first position, 
measures 3 inches, the same interval in the 
eighth position measures 1^ inches). The ap- 
preciation of this gradually lessening distance 
has to become instinctive by practice ; it is too 
subtle to be thought out at the moment, and 
only careful practice will bring the instinct of 
true intonation. 

It will be found that the scales of G, G 
minor, Ab, Ab minor, A major, A minor, Bb, 
Bb minor, Bt|, B minor, and (with an extension 
of the fourth finger) C, lie in the first position. 
C, C minor, Cjf, Cfl minor lie in the second 
position. Db, Db minor, D, and D minor, in 
the third position. Eb, Eb minor, E, E minor 
in the fourth position. F, F minor, Ffl, Ffl 
minor, in the fifth position. Scales of two 
octaves through the twenty-four keys major and 
minor are therefore included in the first five 
positions. It will be well at this point to show 
the principle of fingering scales of two octaves, 
going through the keys in chromatic order, 
beginning on G. The fingering of scales of two 
octaves in the first position needs no explanation, 
as one finger follows the other, arriving at the 
scale of B, the fingering for that will carry the 
player through the rest of the keys by moving 
the hand forward a semitone for each major 
and minor scale, and following the order of 
positions until he arrives at Ftf, and Fjf minor, 
and so completes the cycle. The fingering for 
the minor scale is the same as the major in 
each case. The melodic form of the minor scale 
is of much greater musical importance than 
the harmonic ; both are necessary in modern 
music. 

Arpeggi in two octaves formed of common 
chords, major and minor, subdominant major 
and minor, diminished and do7ninant sevenths. 



Formula for Arpeggi working through the Keys. 




m^i 




^g g^l ii^ ^ffegi^ 



— Scales and arpeggi practised in this manner 
with a strict economy of finger movement give 
firmness to the stop, strengthen the hand, 
enabling it to keep a true position, and form the 
first step in training the fingers to feel the closer 
stops as the hand moves forward to the higher 
positions. 



etc. 

Intermediate scales between two and three 
octaves in compass, may follow the same order 
as those of two octaves, viz. , chromatic progres- 
sion of keys. The fingering for the scale of B 
will complete the round of keys as before, the 
fingering for those below B will be obvious. 



Intermediate Scale of B. 



m 



s^pH^r*"^ 




iSgpli^p 



48 



FINGERING 



FINGERING 



Intermediate Arpeggio Formula. 




Chromatic scales of two octaves in one position. 

The fingering for the scale beginning on B will 

suit all the rest. Below B the fingering varies 
somewhat. It is not claimed that this is the 



only way of fingering chromatic scales, but it is 
very direct, and is easily understood. There is no 
standard fingering. In actual playing it is usual 
to take the fingering that best suits the difficulty. 



Chromatic Scale beginning on B. 




The Double Note Scales which properly belong 
to the foregoing scale technique, should be one 
octave in compass and progress through the 
keys from major to relative minor. Beginning 
at C major and A minor, through the flat keys 
to Cb — enharmonic Bty, then through the sharp 
keys to complete the round. 

Double Scale in Thirds. 




All 



the scales on the same principle of fingering. 
Double Scale in Sixths. 



12 12 1 _^ 12 1 



-t_i-j-j-i*jg^& £ -f r e g m -4 



All on the same principle. 

Double Scale in Octaves. 



1 V 1 



m 



m 



£ 



+ 



t— i- 

The scales and arpeggi indicated above cover 
the compass required for the performance of 
works by the great masters of the violin from 
Corelli to Yiotti, excepting the six solo sonatas 
of Bach, which must await a more advanced 
technique able to grapple with difficult chords 
of three and four notes, and the power to play 
in two, three, and four parts. 

The famous opera quinta of Corelli — twelve 
sonatas for violin, the model for the solo sonatas 
of his contemporaries and followers, do not in 
any case go higher than E in the third posi- 
tion ; a few double notes in the first allegro of 
the sixth sonata must be taken in the fourth 
position, but in all other cases the third posi- 
tion is the limit. Corelli's brilliant passages, 
both in the opera quinta and other works, are 
invariably made up of broken chords, broken 
thirds and sixths, thirds and sixths in double 
notes. Arpeggi are numerous, but always in 
the first position. 

From the point of view of the modern player, 



fingering became a difficulty when the compass 
of the violin was augmented to three and four 
octaves. Paganini was the inventor of the 
modern violin technique, his genius opened out 
entirely new avenues for the violin, as Liszt did 
for the pianoforte. He added enormously to the 
resources of the instrument, as is fully shown 
in his masterpiece, twenty-four Caprices, op. 1, 
a real treasure of technical material. 

It will be interesting to give, as fully as may 
be in an article of this kind, the technical 
equipment of a violinist of the present day. 
In bulk it will seem enormous, its difficulty 
will dismay ; but worked at item by item these 
disappear, one step upward brings the next step 
within reach, and so on to the goal — a sound 
and masterly technique able to meet all the 
requirements of a great concerto, a light salon 
piece, or the intricate and beautiful work of the 
string quartet, and other ensemble pieces for the 
various combinations. 

Principles of fingering for scales and arpeggi 
of three octaves, etc. — Diatonic scales of three 
octaves compass in chromatic order of keys. 
Again the fingering for the scale of B will go 
through the rest of the keys. Below B the 
fingering needs no special mention. 

Three -octave scales in progression from major 
to relative minor, through the keys, each scale 
beginning in the first position. — The fingering 
falls into groups of C's, D's, E's, F's, G's, A's, B's. 
All the scales of C and E, and that of G flat, 
require exceptional fingering ; it includes a half- 
shift in ascending the scale, and in descending 
a shift on to the third finger in the third posi- 
tion. Each group has some slight difference 
of fingering, but the main principle is the same 
through all, viz. shifting forward on the first 
finger under second, with the reverse action down- 
ward. Arpeggi of common chords, three octaves 
compass: — these also fall into groups. The 
downward shift is a difficult one ; it is effected 
on the first finger, the hand has to descend 
generally two whole shifts in the one move- 
ment, a little sound of the glide of the first finger 
is admissible. Arpeggi of dominant sevenths 
belong equally to the major or minor keys, there- 



FINGERING 



FINGERING 



49 



fore there are but twelve of them. Arpeggi of 
diminished sevenths belong more properly to 
the minor keys ; there are twelve of these. 

Scales of broken thirds in three octaves. — The 
principle of fingering is the same through the 
twenty-four keys ; the shift is always made on 
the second finger both ascending and descend- 



ing. All scales of B, F, and D must start in 
the second position. 

Scales of broken sixths in two octaves. — 
Several scales require an extension of both the 
third and fourth fingers. 

Scales of broken octaves through all keys. 

Scales of broken tenths through all keys. 



Broken Tenths. 

Sva. 



1414 1414 «"*• 

3 14 \r*[ 3 14 _ ~ 



: etc. 



Chromatic scales, three octaves compass. — 
These need only be worked as high as D, in 
chromatic order of keys from G. Add the third 
octave to those already given in two octaves. 

Extension. — This subj ect is an important one, 
as the extension simplifies many passages that 
otherwise require much shifting, for instance, 
those that lie between first and third positions. 

Extension Forward. 



£5f^ 



^gli§yy ife 



The extension of the fourth finger is indis- 
pensable in the high scales ; the fourth finger 
thus employed easily takes the minor second at 
the top perfectly in tune, otherwise it is almost 
an impossible interval, even for the smallest 
finger-tips, owing to the closeness of the notes. 
The extension is needed in nearly all the three- 
octave arpeggi. Backward extensions of the 
first finger are also frequently used. 



Extensions Back- 
ward and Forward. 



Extension 
Backward. 



3 



J^-1- 




fm 



Double scales in thirds, two octaves compass. — 

The fingering follows the same principle through 

12 12 

the keys „ . , shift, «, . , shift, and so on to the 

top. Reverse the order for the descent. Some 
scales require an extension. A few chromatic 
scales of thirds should be worked. 

Double scales in sixths, two octaves compass. — 
The same principle of fingering throughout, 



2 3 

.. 2 , shift, and so on to the top, where, in most 

cases, the third and fourth finish the scales. 
Reverse the order for the descent. Some scales 
require an extension of both third and fourth 
fingers. An awkward cross movement of the 
second finger prevents sixths being played very 
rapidly, especially in the lower octave, but in the 
second half of the second octave they may be 
played quite rapidly by keeping the second and 
third fingers on the string and moving the whole 
hand in short jerks forward ; the fingers then 
merely adjust themselves to make the sixths 
major or minor. A few chromatic scales in 
sixths should be worked out entirely on the 
first and second strings in one octave. Two 
fingers are placed upon the strings stopping a 
sixth, the hand goes forward in little jerks, 
making this small, strong movement for every 
semitone perfectly in tune. The same thing 
can be done on any two strings. It should be 
worked in thirds, sixths, and octaves. An 
extraordinary rapidity can be attained on chro- 
matic scales from the highest note downwards, 
and is much used in compositions by Vieuxtemps 
and Wieniawski, and composers of the brilliant 
school. It may appropriately be called left- 
hand staccato. 

Chromatic octaves, two octaves compass, should 
be worked through all keys ; and in one octave 
compass up and down each pair of strings. 

Double tenths, two octaves, in chromatic 
progression of keys, beginning on G and work- 
ing up to F with the same fingering as broken 
tenths, the lower ones are the more difficult 
owing to the wider stretch. 

Double scales in fingered octaves are used 
rarely, and only for rapid ascending scales ; they 
require long fingers and a strong hand. 



Double Scale in Fingered Octaves. 



* 3 2 1 1 2 3 

2- £. £ 1_ :— t: j~ £ i 



2 3 2 1 I I I m -(•" -W- "F H -— «- -m- m J I 2 14 3 



Double note scales are an important feature 
in modern violin technique, as their practice 
strengthens the fingers and shapes the hand. 
VOL. II 



They should at first be taken very slowly, striv- 
ing always for an ideal intonation, giving each 
double stop a whole bow, with very even pressure 

E 



50 



FINGERING 



FINGERING 



on both strings, and listening attentively for 
the resultant tone. It has to be remembered 
that any two notes played together, whether in 
or out of tune, will produce a resultant tone ; 
the point is to produce the correct resultant 
and to hold it steady ; this is the most severe 
test of absolutely true intonation. The follow- 
ing simple tests will show the point clearly : — 



Examples 
( Double stops. 



IN 

Major 

THIRDS. [Resultant 



a te te 



IN 

Minor 
Thirds. 

in 

Perfect 
Fourths. 

in 
Perfect 
Fifths. 

IN 

Major 
Sixths. 

IN 

Minor 
Sixths. 



Double stops. 

Resultant. 
Double stops. 



I 



kg- te t^ 



*ac 



Resultant. 

Double stops 
, Resultant 
Double stops. 

-Resultant. 



mm 



¥ 






"CT" 






"SP" 



I 



:|^z 



fe 

-«©- 



9 



I7S7- 



Double stops. , 



Resultant. 



ffi 






"S? - 



The shifting in double stop playing is ex- 
tremely difficult, especially where a shift and a 
change of strings have to be made together. 
The stops must be firm and true, the shift made 
swiftly without smearing. 

The shake is undoubtedly the most beautiful 
of all the ornaments. A fine shake, brilliant, 
pearly, or limpid, as occasion may require, is a 
crowning glory to an artist. This command of 
the trill is not easily obtained, indeed it may 
be said to be most difficult, and requires long 
and patient study. Before Beethoven's time 
shakes were generally short, but in the first 
movement of his violin concerto long shakes 
and chains of shakes are given, producing a 
lovely effect ; this example has been followed 
by Spohr, Mendelssohn, Bruch, Saint - Saens, 
Brahms, and others. 

The shake must be practised with each finger, 
the beat should be firm but with not too much 



force. The finger should not be raised too high. 
The intonation should be true, a major shake 
or a minor shake as required. In chains of 
shakes it is a rule to attach a turn only to the 
last note, and any exception to this would be 
indicated by the composer. 

The double shake does not admit of the same 
rapidity as the simple shake ; a moderate pace 
with clearness of utterance should be attained 
by careful practice. The beat of the two shake 
fingers must be exact. 

Accompanied trills are very difficult. The 
accompaniment must not interfere with the 
regular beat of the trill, or the effect is spoiled. 
Considerable independence in both hands is 
required to be fully successful ; it is so easy to 
spoil with the bow what the left hand does well. 

Tremolo of the left hand is not exactly a trill, 
though it is of the same family. The Andante of 
the Concerto by Mendelssohn furnishes a beauti- 
ful example, and the Sixth Caprice by Paganini 
a difficult one requiring great regularity and 
rapidity of beat. 

The vibrato is one of the most important 
embellishments used by the player. It is a 
tremulous wavering of the tone obtained by a 
vibratory motion of the left hand, the finger 
rolling forward and backward on its tip, the 
centre of this roll an absolutely true note. The 
vibrato used slowly gives tender expression to 
long notes. Where a crescendo from p to/ has 
to be made on a long note, it should begin with 
a slow wave and gradually quicken in movement, 
so increasing the intensity of the sound to the 
highest point ; the reverse for a diminuendo. 
Used very rapidly, it intensifies passionate 
expression. The player should have at his com- 
mand, the quick, the slow, and the gradational. 

Scales and arpeggi of common chords in four 
octaves. — The compass of the violin in modern 
8va. 



times is from 



to 



; it is therefore pos- 



sible to play scales and arpeggi of G and G minor, 
Ab, Ab minor, A, A minor, B|>, B|? minor, 
B, B minor. The fingering given in the ex- 
amples will suit all the scales and arpeggi 
mentioned. 



Scale of G in Four Octaves. 

8va s 



,^n «-•--•-■£- • -a-* £-+-4-+- p'" #-» _ i F"P •-. 2 
4 - 3 ^g-4^H--.»*tf£t£«^ n 



Arpeggio. 

8va 

3 -i 

2 




^^* 



^^l^fa^l lfete ^p 



FINGERING 



FINGERING 



51 



Scale of A. 



8va. 




Arpeggio. 
8va .-... 






Scale of B. 



Sva 




Arpeggio. 
8va 




irf g^rffcas i 



Harmonics. See article under that heading. 

This system of fingering applies equally to the 
Viola, but as its compass is limited, the scales 
and arpeggi must be only of two octaves, and 
between two and three octaves. Scales of C, D, 
and E, with their arpeggi can be played in three 
octaves. The chief point of difference between 
the two instruments is the production of tone. 

The scales and arpeggi, the chief subject of 
this article, form the systematic fingering of 
the violin, and with some well-chosen exercises 
to develop the percussion of the fingers should 
be sufficient for their purpose. The great classi- 
cal studies should go hand in hand with them, 
Kreutzer, Fiorillo, Rode, Gavinies, the Solo 
Sonatas of Bach, and the Caprices of Paganini. 
The first requirement of interpretation is 
mechanical skill ; there is a time of life for 
working out difficult technical problems and 
playing compositions of extraordinary brilliancy 
and daring, but as the artist comes to maturity, if 
the true spirit animates him, these things having 
served their purpose in training him to overcome 
difficulties will no longer interest him, the great 
classical works will attract him more and more, 
and his artistic sensibility will be trained to the 
highest point of pure refined taste. A. g. 

Fingering of the Violoncello. — Besides 
the differences in size and length of hands and 
fingers, there are some other influences which 
modify the fingering in general use, such as : 
the strength of the fingers ; their stretching 
capacity, as gained by practice ; the example 
of the teacher ; the course adopted as to the 
kind of studies ; and the inevitable tendency 
towards what gives the least trouble. All com- 
plicated fingering, therefore, will be more or 



less individual, and will vary according to the 
ability, the experience, and taste of the player. 
The fingering of the violoncello was originally 
taken from that of the violin, as that of the 
Viol da Gamba was obviously not suitable, 
owing to the smaller intervals between the pitch 
of its seven strings. The principle of the 
present system is the normal distance of a semi- 
tone between two adjacent fingers. The inter- 
val of a whole tone is taken, either by leaving 
out one finger, which is kept in reserve for the 
semitone, or by the first and second fingers 
only (as in the A flat and E major scales, 
see page 52), very seldom by the second and 
third, or third and fourth fingers. The first 
and fourth fingers, therefore, take the interval 
of either a minor or a major third, in the 
' normal ' and ' extended ' positions of the hand 
respectively. Large hands may even take a 
fourth. 

According to the oldest school, Corrette, 1741, 
the fingering for the diatonic scale was : — 



1st position . 


. 1 


2 


4 




2nd ,, 


. 1 


2 


4 




3rd „ 


. 1 


2 


3 


4 


4th „ 


. 1 


2 


3 





The thumb acts as a moveable saddle in the 
higher positions, being placed across two strings. 
It was early in use for this purpose, but up to 
the end of the 18th century the fourth finger 
was not employed in the thumb-positions, being 
considered too weak. With the help of the 
thumb, thirds and octaves, fifths, sixths, and 
even tenths can be easily played, as the thumb 
affords a firm hold on the strings. It could be 
as easily used in the lower positions. 



52 



FINGERING 



The positions, as shown in the following 
table, contain of course in each case either a 
normal position of the hand or an extended 
position, as referred to above. 



Normal. 



Extended. 



Normal. Extended. 



Half Position. First Position. 

The Seven Positions with the 

Half-positions. t t 



*ife 



1 



Position J I II Hi III IHi IV V VJ VI VIJ VII 

This generally-recognised table of the posi- 
tions is based on the principle that each step 
of the C major scale on the first string, be- 
ginning with A, is a full position, and each 
accidental a half position. Davidov and 
Schroeder place the positions in accordance with 
the major scale of each string, the principle 
being uniformity of all positions on all four 
strings, the positions of the C major scale on 
the lowest string forming the basis. 1 x 

He 



Position i I IJ II III IIIJ IV IVJ V VJ VI VII 

The fingering of the scale of C is as follows : — 

4 
013 4 013 4 012 4 j>^T|#-p- _ 12 4 12" 




FINGERING 

The higher positions are taken with the 
thumb. 

Higher up, in some scales (G, D, A, F, Bb) 
from the fourth position upwards, the first and 
second fingers are used alternately, each scale 
of three or four octaves closing with 12 3. This 
system applies to all scales starting from the 
first position. Scales starting from another 
position have their fingering based on the three- 
finger system. 



£££§ 



5t ? 412412412413 4 



It took a very long time — nearly a century — 
before the fingering became fixed in a correct 
and methodical way, and the improvement was 
started by the French (Tilliere, Cupis, Muntz- 
berger). The best methods were : J. L. Duport's 
Essay on Fingering, an excellent work of lasting 
value ; and the M&hode de Violoncelle, by 
Baillot, Levasseur, Catel, and Baudiot (Paris, 
1804), the first method in use in the Paris 
Conservatoire. With the development of tech- 
nique in the 19th century by well-known 
masters the fingering was more and more de- 
finitely fixed. Absolute uniformity is even now 
lacking, as may be seen from a comparison of 
the different methods in one scale, as shown 
below. The reason for this lies in the fact that 
the instruments as well as the hand and fingers 
of the players will always vary, not to speak of 
other causes mentioned above. 



m^ 



Paris School, 1804 

2 4 1 
Duport — 

2 4 1 
Romberg — 

2 4 1 
Dotzauer — 

2 4 1 
Griitzmacher — 

2 4 1 
Davidov — 

2 4 

13 4 
Schroeder — 

2 4 

Lee — 

2 4 
Rabaud — 

2 4 

Abbiate — 

2 4 
Massau— 

2 4 1 



1} 



4 12 



4 12 







4 12 4 



4 1 



1 

2 4 

2 4 

1 



fefegj£ 



1 3 



1 3 



3 1 



4 
2 

4 

(1) 
4 

(1) 



JBfSLML 



& 



2 10 4 



14 2 1 







2 10 4 



i} 



: M5S2 



3 10 



{Si?} 



3 1 



3 1 



3 10 



^?g 



3 10 4 



3 1 



3 1 



3 10 4 



3^ 



1} 



A comparison of the above shows that for the 
more complicated scales in modern times the 
system of three fingers used in succession pre- 
vails. The sliding from the half into the first 
position by the first finger may still occur in 



certain scale-passages. Also the leaving- out of 
the fourth finger at times, and using instead 
of it the stronger first and third fingers more 
often. 

The chromatic scale was played formerly by 



FINGERING 



FINGERING 



53 



sliding from one to the other semitone with 
the nearest finger. Here also the change took 



place in favour of the first, second, and third 
fingers in succession. 



^- it— £ -^- jU- -•- • tf^ O llT 2 3 1230123 1230 123 

o" VI 2 T 



etc. 



In the higher positions the fingering of the 
chromatic scale may be alternately — 
1 and 2 going up and coming down. 
1, 2, 3, successively going up, and 3, 2, 1, 

coming down ; 
3 and 2 alternately coming down, as recom- 
mended by Servais. 
Thirds are comparatively easy in the upper 
positions, with the aid of the thumb. They 
are fingered thus, in both upper and lower 
positions : — Q 1 2 

2 3 4 
In the lower positions only, 1 and 4 are avail- 
able, or 2 and 3 with open strings (without the 
thumb). 

For sixths in the lower positions the fingers 
change more frequently-*- 

12 3 4 4 ,3 
112 3 rarel y 2 

12 3 

In the thumb- positions q i 9 

2 3 3 
In the higher positions without thumb - . „ 

Octaves in the thumb - positions are fingered 

either Q consecutively, or q 1 alternately. In 

the lower positions by the first and fourth 
fingers only. 

The fingering of arpeggios sometimes shows 
interesting combinations over four strings ; and 
the practice of sliding with one finger, or from 
one finger to another forward, backward, or 
crossing over a neighbouring finger, is an indis- 
pensable device of the violoncello player. Space 
will not permit the detailed explanation of 
these points in a dictionary. E. K. 

(iii.) Fingering of Wind Instruments. 
— The fact that the natural harmonic scale, or 
series of notes (referred to below as H.S.), 
although utilised in different ways, must be 
regarded as the basis of the intonation of all 
wind instruments, is briefly dealt with under 
Wind Instruments, but a slightly more ex- 
tended, although necessarily limited view of 
the scale fingering of all such instruments as 
have side-holes is here given. (For the scale 
schemes of brass instruments generally, see 
Horn, Trombone, and Valve.) 

The simplest basis for consideration is an 
instrument bored with six finger-holes as the 
common fife or flute without keys. Since the 
prevalence of the modern major diatonic scale, 
the holes have been placed in such positions as 
to give the six degrees of this scale which lie 
between the tonic and its octave, or second note 
in H.S. by the successive raising of the six 



fingers, the fourth fingers not being used. The 
tonic sounds from the full length of the tube, 
but with exceptions to be subsequently noticed. 
By over-blowing on the flute, all these notes are 
repeated an octave higher, and the production 
of the octave of the tonic can be facilitated by 
lifting the finger from the sixth hole. 

These six holes, therefore, supply all that is 
required for the production of a diatonic scale 
of two octaves in instruments of the flute class, 
and also in conical instruments played either 
with a reed, as the oboe, or with a cup mouth- 
piece, as the old zincke. In the oboe, and 
similar conical instruments, the production of 
the notes of the second octave is greatly facili- 
tated by the opening of one or more small 
tubular holes or ' pipes ' in the upper part of 
the instrument. 

On an instrument with six finger-holes, scales 
other than that in which it is set, and therefore 
requiring semitones foreign to the original scale, 
can be rendered only with a rough approxima- 
tion to accuracy by partly closing, and so flatten- 
ing the speaking hole, or by closing one or more 
holes below it. For a complete chromatic scale, 
or the cycle of twelve diatonic scales, five extra 
holes controlled by keys have been introduced ; 
these, with the six finger-holes, giving the eleven 
different lengths of tube required in addition to 
the total length, for the twelve degrees of the 
chromatic scale. On instruments which cannot 
be overblown, however, whether conical, as the 
chaunters of the various bagpipes, or cylindrical, 
as the rudimentary chalumeaux, a seventh hole 
is required for the completion of the scale of one 
octave, and this hole is usually controlled by 
the thumb of the left hand. 

In the ordinary flute-scale, as described above, 
the fundamental note of the tube is used ; and 
as the next note to this in the H.S. is the 
octave, the whole of the intermediate notes 
have to be obtained by means of variations in 
the length of tube. If, however, the fundamental 
note were not required, the original length with 
three variations would give the diatonic scale, 
as the second, third, and fourth notes of the 
H.S. are the octave, twelfth, and double octave 
of the prime. A diatonic scale in the second 
harmonic octave requires, therefore, only three 
finger-holes, giving the supertonic, mediant, and 
subdominant, the dominant or third note in 
H.S. being derived from the full length of the 
tube, and this was the usual arrangement in the 
tabor pipe and galoubet. 

Returning to the bagpipe chaunter, the six 
normal holes of the flute are supplemented not 
only by the seventh, or thumb-hole, to give the 



54 



FINGERING 



FINK 



octave, but by an eighth hole closed by the 
fourth finger of the right hand. This is required 
by a prolongation of the tube sufficient to give 
a note one tone lower than its keynote, the 
keynote itself now sounding from this eighth 
hole, instead of from the full length of tube. 
This simple case of extension of the scale down- 
wards is typical of many ; the point to be ob- 
served is that such extension does not affect the 
genera] scheme of fingering, and the natural, or 
characteristic scale established by the six finger- 
holes. In the same sense that the natural 
scale of the pianoforte is C, and is not altered 
by the extension of the compass downwards 
from CC to AAA, so the natural scale of a wind 
instrument is that determined by the six finger- 
holes, and is not altered by the extension of its 
compass. From this point of view the key or 
scale of the modern concert flute is D, although 
having downward extension to c', and in some 
cases to &t| or even &fc> ; the oboe is also in D, 
with extension to b$ or b}?. The bassoon with 
its six finger-holes closed, sounds G a twelfth 
lower than the oboe, but its natural scale is C 
major, the highest finger-hole sounding / and 
not/JJ as required in the scale of G. The holes 
for the left hand only being closed, the instru- 
ment gives c ; d, e, and / sound as the fingers 
are successively raised, and on the closing of 
the holes for the three fingers of the right hand, 
g is obtained, followed, on raising the fingers, 
by a, b, and c' all as octaves of their respective 
primes G, A, B, and C. The extension down- 
wards from G to BB|? is obtained chiefly by 
key-work. 

As the octave harmonic has no existence on 
instruments with cylindrical bore, no repetition 
of the scale in the octave, on such instruments, 
can be obtained. Therefore extra holes be- 
yond the normal six or seven are imperatively 
called for if the scale is to comprise more than 
eight notes. On some of such instruments, as 
the racket, much ingenuity was displayed in the 
doubling of the tube, so as to bring more than 
one hole under the control of a single finger or 
thumb. On others, as the sourdine and krumm- 
horn, key- work was used long before the evolu- 
tion of the modern clarinet. The distinctive 
feature of this instrument is not so much the 
addition of keys to extend the fundamental 
compass from an octave to a twelfth, as the 
peculiar use of the thumb or pipe-key, as a means 
of ensuring the production of notes, speaking as 
the fundamental notes do from the different 
lengths of the instrument as determined by side- 
holes, but in each case a twelfth higher than 
the fundamental. 

The foregoing remarks give a general indica- 
tion of the fundamental principles and develop- 
ment of fingering from a diatonic basis ; but as 
the free use of all scales necessitates working 
from a chromatic basis, modern improvements 
have been influenced by this principle. The 



most important of these is that known as the 
Boehm system (see Boehm, Theobald), the 
basis of which is that every speaking hole 
is vented by the hole giving the semitone 
immediately below it. To attain this result 
key -work of a somewhat elaborate descrip- 
tion is required, but is justified by the equality 
of tone and power obtainable in all keys. 
The system is seen at its best and simplest 
on the flute, but the use of it on the clarinet 
is increasing. 

This general summary of the scheme of finger- 
ing common to all instruments with side-holes, 
is given here rather than under the name of any 
one instrument, but certain details peculiar to 
each are, when possible, noticed under their 
respective articles. d. j. b. 

FINK, Christian, born August 9, 1831, at 
Dettingen in Wurtemberg, studied music until 
his fifteenth year with his father, who combined 
the offices of schoolmaster and organist. In 
1846 he was sent to the Waisenhaus- Seminar 
at Stuttgart, where he remained for three years, 
his musical education being in the hands of Dr. 
Kocher. Appointed in 1849 assistant music 
teacher in the seminary at Esslingen, he pur- 
sued his studies with such success that he was 
able in 1853 to pass the examination for the 
upper class of the Leipzig Conservatorium. After 
a year and a half he went to Dresden to study 
the organ under Schneider. From 1856 to 
1860 he appeared as organist at many concerts 
and oratorio performances in Leipzig, and in 
1863 was appointed head of the seminary at 
Esslingen and organist of the principal church 
of that place. Two years afterwards he was 
given the title of Professor. He has published 
many excellent works for the organ, some of 
which have appeared in the Organist's Quarterly 
Journal (Novello), besides psalms for chorus 
and orchestra, songs, choruses, etc. (Mendel's 
Lexikon.) m. 

FINK, Gottfried Wilhelm, theologian and 
musical critic, born March 7, 1783, at Suiza in 
Thuringia, was educated at Naumburg, where 
he was chorister, and Leipzig (1804-9). He 
began writing for the Allg. Mas. Zeitung in 
1808, and in 1827 succeeded Rochlitz as editor, 
a post he held till 1841. In 1842 he became 
for a short time professor of music to the 
University of Leipzig. He died at Halle, August 
27, 1846. Fink's only musical works of value 
were the 'Musikalischer Hausschatz,'a collection 
ofLieder, etc. (Leipzig, 1843), and 'Diedeutsche 
Liedertafel ' (ibid. 1846). As an author he pub- 
lished various volumes and pamphlets, but none 
of which the names are worth preserving. Besides 
the A.M.Z., he was a prolific contributor to the 
Conversations- Lexicons of Ersch and Gruber, 
and of Brockhaus, and to Schilling's Lexicon der 
Tonkunst. He left in MS. a history of music, 
upon which he had been engaged for twenty years. 
Fink was at once narrow and superficial, and a 



FINTA GIARDINIERA, LA 



FIORITURE 



55 



strong conservative ; and the Zeitung did not 
maintain under his editorship the position it held 
in the musical world under Rochlitz. m. c. c. 

FINTA GIARDINIERA, LA. Opera buffa 
in three acts, author of libretto unknown ; 
music by Mozart ; produced at Munich, Jan. 
13 1775. 

FINTA SEMPLICE, LA. Opera buffa in 
three acts ; libretto by Coltellini, music by 
Mozart ; composed at Vienna in 1768, when he 
was only twelve, but apparently never put on 
the stage. 

FIOCCO, the name of a family of some dis- 
tinction who flourished in Brussels in the 18 th 
century. They may have been related to a 
Domenico Fiocco, a mass of whose composition, 
for four voices (with added parts by Brossard), 
is in the Bibl. Rationale in Paris ; the head of 
the Brussels family was Pietro Antonio Fiocco, 
a Venetian, who was in the court band at 
Brussels about 1696, and conductor of it from 
1706. Van der Straeten states that he was the 
first director of the musico -dramatic 'Accademie' 
in 1704. A volume of Sacri concerti, op. 1, was 
printed at Antwerp in 1691, a cantata, ' Le 
Retour de Printemps,' is dated Brussels, 1699, 
and various masses and motets are mentioned 
in the Quellen-Lexikon. He died in Brussels, 
Nov. 3, 1714. His elder son, Jean Joseph 
(or Giovanni Gioseffo) Fiocco, succeeded his 
father as conductor at Brussels in 1714, but the 
younger son, Gioseffo Hectore Fiocco, the 
third in succession in the conductor's place, 
seems to have been the most important of the 
three. He was sub- conductor at Brussels in 
1729, from 1731 master of the choristers at 
Antwerp Cathedral, and master of the music at 
Ste. Gudule, in Brussels, in 1737. He was a 
distinguished harpsichord player, and in his 
first book of ' Pieces de Clavecin' are many things 
of value, some of which were reprinted by 
Van der Straeten and in Elewyck's selections 
from the Netherlandish masters. {Quellen- 
Lexikon. ) 

FIORAVANTI, Valentino, composer, born 
in Rome in 1764, studied under Sala at the 
' Pieta de' Turchini ' at Naples. His first opera 
' Le avventure di Bertoldino, ' produced in Rome, 
1784, was followed by at least fifty others, all 
comic, the last of which, 'Ogni eccesso e vizioso,' 
was produced at Naples in 1823. He was in- 
vited to Paris in consequence of the success of 
1 Le Cantatrici Villane ' (1806), and there wrote 
'I virtuosi ambulanti' (1807). These two 
were on the whole his best operas, though all 
possessed a genuine vein of comedy, a freshness, 
and an ease in the part-writing, which concealed 
their triviality and want of originality, and 
made them very popular in their day. He was 
again in Naples in 1807, and in June 1816 he 
succeeded Jannaconi as maestro di cappella to St. 
Peter's at Rome, and while in that post wrote 
a quantity of church music very inferior to his 



operas. His character was gentle and retiring ; 
and the last few years of his life were spent 
very quietly. He died at Capua, on his 
way to Naples, June 16, 1837. Like Paisiello 
and other considerable Italian composers of 
that date, Fioravanti was extinguished by 
Rossini. 

His son Vincenzo, born April 5, 1799, died 
March 28, 1877, also composed operas with 
ephemeral success. M. c. c 

FIORILLO, Federigo, violin player and 
composer, was born in 1753 at Brunswick, where 
his father Ignazio, a Neapolitan by birth, lived 
as conductor of the opera. He appears to have 
been originally a player of the mandoline, and 
only afterwards to have taken up the violin. 
In 1780 he went to Poland, and about the year 
1783 we find him conductor of the band at 
Riga, where he stayed for two years. In 1785 
he played with much success at the Concert 
Spirituel at Paris, and published some of his 
compositions, which were very favourably re- 
ceived. In 1788 he went to London, where he 
appears to have been less successful as a violinist, 
as we conclude from the fact that he played the 
viola part in Salomon's quartet- party. His last 
appearance in public in London took place in 
the year 1794, when he performed a concerto 
on the viola at the Antient Concert. Of the rest 
of his life but little is known, except that he 
went from London to Amsterdam, and in 1823 
was in Paris. The place and date of his death 
are not known. His numerous compositions 
are Duos for violins, for piano and violin, and 
violin and violoncello ; Trios for flute, violin, 
and tenor, for two violins and bass ; Quartets 
and Quintets for stringed instruments ; Con- 
certos for the violin ; Concertantes for two 
violins, etc. (see Quellen-Lexikon for fuller 
list). They were very favourably received in 
his time, and, although somewhat dry and old- 
fashioned, show him to have been a sound and 
earnest musician. There is, however, one par- 
ticular work which has brought his name down 
to our time, and will probably long remain a 
standard. His thirty-six Caprices or Etudes 
are known and valued by every violin player. 
They rank with the classical studies of Kreutzer 
and Rode, and, apart from their usefulness, 
are not without merit as compositions. They 
have been edited over and over again — most 
recently by Ferdinand David (Leipzig, Senff). 
Spohr wrote and published an accompanying 
violin-part to them. p. d. 

FIORITURE. The Italian term for orna- 
ments — scales, arpeggios, turns, shakes, etc. 
— introduced by singers into airs. In the 18 th 
century airs were often written plain, and were 
embroidered by the singers according to their 
taste and ability. Such songs as ' O dolce con- 
cento ' and ' Nel cor piu ' were seldom sung alike 
by two different singers. Rossini's early airs 
were written for the same treatment — witness 



56 



FIPPLE FLUTE 



FISCHER 



• Non piu mesta/ A remnant of it some will 
still remember in the long, tasteless cadenzas 
indulged in at the close of Handel's airs. This 
was ail very well as long as singers were also 
good musicians, and as long as the singing was 
more thought of than what was sung. But now 
these things are changed, and the composer 
writes exactly what he intends to be sung — 
notes, nuances, and expression. 

The practice of ' fioriture ' was not unknown 
to players in the orchestra as well as to singers. 
Spohr gives some amusing and almost incredible 
instances of such freaks of Horns and Clarinets 
in the Tutti of his ' Scena Cantante ' Concerto, 
at Rome in 1816 {Selbstbiog. i. 330). g. 

FIPPLE FLUTE. The designation Flute, 
as applied to modern European instruments, 
includes broadly all in which the tone is pro- 
duced by the breath without the use of either 
a reed or a cup -shaped mouthpiece. In the 
more limited modern use, the term is applied 
to those instruments only in which the current 
of air proceeds directly from the lips across the 
mouth-hole, or embouchure. In a large class 
of flutes, however, now rapidly disappearing, 
the wind was blown through a tube into a 
cavity from which it issued in a flat stream 
against a sharp lip opposite. This flat form 
was given to the air-reed or stream by a block 
in the chamber or cavity, and this block was 
called the fipple. Hence the instruments vari- 
ously called recorders, flutes- a- bee, and flutes 
douces are all fipple flutes, as are also flageolets, 
ocarinas, and whistles generally. For derivation 
of the word fipple, and many interesting details, 
see Mr. Welch's paper ' Literature relating to 
the Recorder' in Proc. Mus. Assoc. 1897-98. 
(See Flageolet, Flute, Recorder.) d. j. b. 

FIREWORK MUSIC. A series of pieces- 
Overture, Allegro, Lentement, Bourree, Largo 
alia siciliana, Allegro, and two Minuets, all in 
the key of D — written by Handel and performed 
at the Fireworks given in the Green Park, 
April 27, 1749, on the occasion of the Peace 
of Aix-la-Chapelle. The band — 100 in all — ■ 
contained twenty-four oboes, twelve bassoons, 
nine trumpets, nine horns, three drums, besides 
strings. G. 

FIRING is pulling all the bells in a tower 
at once, so as to make them strike together. 
It is practised in England on specially joyful 
or mournful occasions — on the latter with the 
bells muffled. c. A. w. t. 

FIS and FISIS, the German terms for Ffl 
and F x respectively. The equivalent French 
terms are Fa diese and Fa double diese. 

FISCHER. A family of singers of the 18th 
and 19th centuries. The founder was Ludwig, 
a bass, of whom Otto Jahn (Mozart, 2nd ed. i. 
661, 630) speaks as ' an artist of extraordinary 
gift, for compass, power, and beauty of voice, 
and artistic perfection both in singing and play- 
ing, probably the greatest German bass-singer.' 



He was born at Mayence, August 18, 1745, 
and well known at the theatres of Munich 
(1778), Vienna (1779), Paris (1783), Italy 
(1784), Berlin (1788), etc. He 
died at Berlin, July 10, 1825. £ 

He was the original Osmin in the Sgj -E= 

' Entfuhrung, ' and had a compass ■ ~~j — 
of two octaves and a half 'all 
round, even, and in tune ' (Reichardt). 

Fischer was a great ally of Mozart's, who 
wrote for him 'Non s6 d' onde viene,' and 
often mentions him with affection — ' A truly 
splendid voice, though the Archbishop told me 
he sang too low for a bass, and I assured him he 
should sing higher next time ' (Sept. 26, 1781) ; 
' A man whose loss is irretrievable ' (Feb. 5, 
1783) ; 'I went to see the Fischers ; I cannot 
describe their joy, the whole family desire 
to bo remembered to you ' (March 17, 
1781). The others of the family were his 
wife Barbara, a more than respectable singer 
and actress; his son Joseph (1780-1862), 
also a bass of renown, but more known 
as an impresario than a singer ; his daughters 
Fischer - Vernier — who in 1835 founded a 
singing school of great repute for girls in 
Vienna — and Wilhelmine, and Joseph's adopted 
daughter, Fischer -Maraffa, all good, efficient, 
intelligent artists. M. c. c. 

FISCHER, Johann, violinist and composer, 
was born in Swabia in the middle of the 17th 
century, probably about 1650. He was a 
musician whose career presents features not a 
little remarkable, the (musically) remote period 
in which he lived being taken into considera- 
tion. A thorough Cosmopolitan, a writer and 
performer of what is known to-day as Virtuoso 
music, and composer of at least one example of 
' programme music,' he possessed a combination 
of qualities we are accustomed to look upon 
as essentially modern. His instructor in 
violin playing is unknown, but it is recorded 
that he was taught harmony by Capricornus 
at Stuttgart, and sent in early youth to 
Paris, where he became copyist to Lully, 
whose music he is said to have subsequently 
introduced into Germany. In any case, traces 
of that composer's influence are to be found in 
his compositions. 

After leaving Paris, he led a wandering life, 
remaining for a time at Augsburg (in the 
Barfiisser Kirche) and at Schwerin, where he 
held an appointment as Capellmeister. He 
also visited Denmark and Sweden, finally sett- 
ling down in Schwedt in Pomerania as Mark- 
graflicher Capellmeister. Here he died at 
the age of seventy years. 

He composed Tafelmusik, Overtures, Dances, 
Madrigals, Minuets, and Solos for violin and 
viola. In a list of his compositions given by 
Fetis are also to be found various vocal pieces, 
and the primitive example of programme 
music, already alluded to, entitled, ' Feld und 



FISCHER 



FISCHER 



57 



Helden Musik, liber die 1704 bei Hochstadt 
geschehener Schlacht, worm die Violine der 
Marlborough, und die Hoboe der Tallard verstel- 
len.' It is interesting to note that Fischer 
wrote and performed Violin pieces in which the 
device of special tunings (Scordatura), found in 
latter days in the works of Paganini and others, 
was occasionally employed. These Umstim- 
mungen, as the Germans call them, are even 
found in pieces written by him for the viola, 
an instrument for which he had a marked pre- 
dilection, w. w. c. 

FISCHER, Johann Caspar Ferdinand, an 
almost totally forgotten predecessor and imme- 
diate forerunner of Handel and Bach in clavier 
and organ music, was born some time between 
1660 and 1670, and died about 1738 (according 
to Ernst v. Werra, see below). Of his life 
nothing further is known but that he was 
capellmeister to the Markgraf Ludwig of Baden 
at the Schloss Schlackenwerth in Bohemia. 
Markgraf Ludwig had been obliged to take up 
his residence at this Bohemian Schloss in con- 
sequence of the destruction of the Residenz at 
Baden by the French in 1688. Fischer's op. 1 
appeared at Augsburg in 1695 with the title 
Le Journal du Printemps consistant en Airs et 
Balets a 5 Parties et les Trompettes a plaisir. 
In 1696, op. 2, 'Les Pieces - de Clavessin,' ap- 
peared at Schlackenwerth, but was republished 
at Augsburg in 1698 with the title Musica- 
lischcs Blumen-Biischlein, etc. This work con- 
sists of eight short suites for clavier, each intro- 
duced by a prelude. Fischer, however, does not 
adhere to the regular order of dance-forms in 
the suite as established by Froberger, viz., 
Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue, but 
follows the newer French fashion in substituting, 
ad libitum, Gavottes, Menuets, Bourrees, Passe- 
pieds, etc. Suite v. consists only of a prelude and 
aria with eight variations. Suite viii. consists of 
prelude with chaconne only. In 1701 appeared 
op. 3, Vesper Psalms a 8 with ad libitum 
accompaniment of two violins and basso con- 
tinuo for organ and violone. In 1702 appeared 
Fischer's op. 4 (republished in 1715 without 
opus number) entitled ' Ariadne Musica Neo- 
Organoedum,' etc. This work is a direct fore- 
shadowing of Das wohltemperirte Clavier. Its 
title points it out as intended to be a clue to 
budding organists to guide them through the 
mazes of all the newer modern keys, major and 
minor. It consists of twenty preludes and 
fugues in as many different keys, only the key 
of E minor occurs twice, once without signature, 
as if in the Phrygian mode, and then with two 
sharps as if in the Dorian. Of the twenty-four 
modern keys only five are unrepresented, C sharp 
and F sharp major, E flat minor, B flat minor, 
and G sharp minor. C sharp minor and F sharp 
minor are both written with four sharps signature, 
B minor with three sharps, A flat with three flats, 
etc. Both preludes and fugues are very short, 



and the pedals are only required for the Preludes. 
Many of the themes have a remarkable resem- 
blance to those afterwards made use of by Bach. 
The E major fugue for example begins with 
precisely the same theme alia breve as that in 
the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier. 
See also the beginning of the F major fugue. 
Max Seiffert points out many other striking 
resemblances (Geschichte der Klavier- Musik, 
Bd. 1). To these preludes and fugues the com- 
poser has subjoined five ricercari on the church 
melodies : ' Ave Maria klare, ' ' Der Tag der 
ist so Freudenreich, ' ' Da Jesus an dem Kreuze 
stund, ' ' Christ ist Erstanden, ' and ' Komm Heili- 
ger Geist. ' Two other works of Fischer appeared 
later without date, one entitled ' Musicalischer 
Parnassus,' consisting of a series of nine suites 
for clavier named after the Nine Muses. These 
suites are of a more solid German character, 
with fewer concessions to French taste in the 
use of agremens. The remaining work is entitled 
Blumenstrauss, and would seem to have been 
published after Fischer's death. It is arranged 
according to the eight Church Tones, each tone 
having a prelude followed by eight very short 
fugues, concluding with a finale. Although no 
mention is made of the fact, it would seem as 
if these pieces were intended to accompany the 
plain -song singing of the Magnificat in the 
fashion which became common in the 17th 
century ; that is to say, while in the 16th 
century it was usual to sing alternate verses of 
the Magnificat in vocal harmony, with the other 
verses sung to the simple plain -song, in the 
17th century the custom grew up for the organist 
to substitute his own playing in place of the 
vocal harmony of the alternate verses. Very 
dignified examples of this kind of work may be 
seen in Frescobaldi's Fiori Musicali, 1635, also 
in Scheldt's Tabulatura Nova, 1624. Pachelbel 
also left some very florid and less ecclesiastical 
specimens of these Organ Magnificats. The 
short movements of Fischer hold a right mean 
between the earlier simplicity and the later more 
florid style, and although they have so little 
development, the themes themselves and the 
modulations have much of the spirit of Bach in 
them. It only remains to mention that the 
clavier and organ works of Fischer have been 
recently republished in one volume by Ernst von 
Werra, and the orchestral work Le Journal des 
Printemps in Band x. of the Denkmdler der 
deutschen Tonkunst, 1902. J. R. M. 

FISCHER, Johann Christian, distinguished 
oboist, born 1733 at Freiburg (Breisgau), was for 
some years in the court band at Dresden from 
1764 to about 1771, then in the service of 
Frederick the Great, and after a successful con- 
cert tour by Mannheim, Holland, and Paris, 
came to London, and made his first appearance 
at the Thatched House, June 2, 1768 ; J. C 
Bach playing the 'pianoforte' for the first 
time at the same concert. Fischer was for many 

e 



58 



FISH 



FITZWILLIAM 



years a great attraction at the Bach-Abel and 
Vauxhall concerts, and as a member of the 
Queen's band played frequently before the Court. 
His playing of Handel's fourth oboe concerto at 
the Handel Commemoration in 1784 so delighted 
the King that he expressed his satisfaction in 
a note on his book of the words. {Memoir of 
Dr. Burney by Mme. D'Arblay, ii. 385.) His 
tone must have been very powerful, since Giardini 
the violinist characterised it as ' such an impu- 
dence of tone as no other instrument could contend 
with' ; and according to the ABCDario * it was 
very fine and inexpressibly well-managed. ' On 
the death of Stanley, Master of the King's band 
(1786), Fischer competed with Burney and others 
for the vacant post, but Parsons was appointed, 
and Fischer soon after went abroad , probably in 
disgust at his failure. Mozart in 1766 as a boy 
had been enchanted with his playing in Holland, 
but on hearing him again in Vienna, severely 
criticises him (letter to his father, April 4, 1 1787), 
and condemns alike his tone, his execution, and 
his compositions. From 1790 he remained in 
London. While playing at Court he was struck 
with paralysis, and died April 29, 1800 (see 
Times of May 1). Kelly, in his Reminiscences 
(vol. i. 9), gives an anecdote of Fischer's pride 
as an artist. A certain nobleman having invited 
him to supper much against his will, said when 
he arrived, ' I hope, Mr. Fischer, you have 
brought your oboe in your pocket ' ; to which he 
replied, ' No, my lord ; my oboe never sups, ' and 
instantly left the house. He was very intimate 
with Gainsborough, who was a great lover of 
music, and whose pretty daughter Mary he 
married, though the father gave a very unwilling 
consent, foreseeing the short duration of the 
marriage. (Fulcher's Life of Gainsborough.) 
There is a fine portrait of Fischer by Gains- 
borough at Hampton Court (private dining-room, 
No. 747). Thicknesse mentions a second in full 
uniform — ' scarlet and gold like a colonel of the 
Foot Guards.' 

Zuck and Kellner were his best-known pupils 
in London. J. C. Bach wrote for him a quartet 
for two oboes, viola, and violoncello, which he 
often played. His own compositions (of which 
Fetis and Gerber give a partial list) consist of 
solos, duets, concertos, quartets, etc. On this 
point the ABCDario says, 'As a composer his 
desire to be original often makes him introduce 
whimsical and outre passages, which nothing 
but his playing could cover.' Mozart, in spite 
of his unfavourable opinion of him , immortalised 
his minuet by writing variations for it (1773), 
which he often played to display his bravura 
(Kochel, No. 179). 'This minuet was then all 
the rage,' as Kelly writes, after hearing Fischer 
play it in Dublin {Rem. i. 9), and it continued 
to be the rage for many years. c. f. p. 

FISH, William, born in Norwich in 1775, 
became, early in life, a violinist in the theatre 

1 See Otto Jahn'a Mozart (German edition), iii. 309. 



there. He was next a teacher of music, then 
principal oboist at the theatre, etc. , and eventu- 
ally leader of the band at the concerts. He 
numbered among his pupils Edward Taylor, 
afterwards Gresham professor of music, and 
George Perry, afterwards leader of the band of 
the Sacred Harmonic Society. He died in 
Norwich, March 15, 1866. He composed 
numerous songs, and other vocal pieces, a piano- 
forte sonata, op. 1, and concertos for various 
instruments. w. h. h. 

FISHER, John Abraham, Mus.Doc, was 
born at Dunstable (or London) in 1744. He 
became a student of the violin under Pinto, and 
made his first appearance in public in July 1765 
at the King's Theatre, in a concert for the benefit 
of the Musical Fund. About 1770 he married 
a daughter of Powell the actor, and became, in 
her right, proprietor of a sixteenth share in 
Covent Garden Theatre. He composed for that 
and other theatres the music for the follow- 
ing pantomimes, viz., 'Zobeide,' 1771 ; 'The 
Monster of the Wood,' 1772 ; 'The Sylphs,' 
1774; ' Prometheus, '1776; and ' The Norwood 
Gipsies,' 1777 ; and also music for the opening 
of 'Macbeth.' On July 2, 1777, an oratorio 
by Fisher, entitled ' Providence,' was performed 
in the Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford, and on 
the 5th of the same month the composer (as a 
member of Magdalen College) accumulated the 
degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Music. His 
oratorio was performed in Freemasons' Hall, 
London, on May 28, 1778, for the benefit of 
the Middlesex Hospital, and again in 1780. On 
the death of his wife Fisher disposed of his 
interest in Covent Garden Theatre, and started 
on a professional tour through Russia and 
Germany. In 1784 he reached Vienna, where 
he induced the youthful Anna Selina Storace 
to become his second wife — contrary to the 
advice of all her friends. The union proved 
an unhappy one, and in a short time the parties 
separated and the wife never after used her 
husband's name. The Emperor, incensed at 
Storace's having had to submit to blows from her 
husband, ordered Fisher to quit his dominions. 
He then went to Dublin and gave a few success- 
ful concerts in the Rotunda. [He was in 
Ireland from 1786 to 1788 (see Lady Morgan's 
Memoirs). He left Ireland before 1798 and 
died, probably in London, in May 1806. — 
w. h. g. f.] Besides the above-named com- 
positions Fisher published some symphonies for 
orchestra, and other works, for which see the 
Quellen-Lexikon. w. h. h. 

FITZWILLIAM, Edward Francis, son of 
Edward and Frances Fitzwilliam — both actors 
and singers — born at Deal, August 1, 1824. 
He was educated for the musical profession, 
and devoted himself especially to the study of 
composition. In 1853 he published a set of 
twelve songs which were much admired, and in 
the same year was appointed director of the 



FITZWILLIAM COLLECTION, THE 



FLAGEOLET 



59 



music at the Haymarket Theatre, where he 
produced an operetta called ' Love's Alarms ' 
(1854) and music for some minor pieces. About 
1855 he married Miss Ellen Chaplin, a member 
of the Haymarket Company, well known as 
Mrs. E. Fitzwilliam. His compositions were 
distinguished by an intelligence which gave 
promise of great excellence when he should have 
fully mastered the technicalities of his art — a 
hope disappointed by his early death, after a 
lingering illness, on Jan. 20, 1857. Besides the 
songs above mentioned, he wrote music for ' The 
Green Bushes,' 1845 ; ' Anything for a Change,' 
1846, ' Queen of a Day,' comic opera ; and 
published a Te Deum, and a hymn, ' incom- 
prehensible Creator. ' A quartet from the former 
is given by Mr. Hullah in his ' Sacred Music 
for Family Use.' w. h. h. 

FITZWILLIAM COLLECTION, THE. In 
the year 1816 Viscount Fitzwilliam died, leaving 
to the University of Cambridge, of which he was 
a member, the annual interest on £100,000 in 
money, and a large number of valuable paintings, 
books, engravings, and other works of art. Of 
these a collection of music, MS. and printed, 
forms a portion. Its most prominent features 
are the Virginal Book formerly called ' Queen 
Elizabeth's ' ; a volume of anthems in the hand- 
writing of Henry Purcell, and another in that 
of Dr. Blow, containing various pieces not yet 
printed ; and a miscellaneous collection em- 
bracing the works of more than 250 composers, 
mostly of the 17th and 18th centuries, and 
chiefly of the Italian school ; as for instance 
Clari, 3 masses, 3 Dixit Dominus, a Stabat, a 
Confitebor, etc. ; Leo, a Mass, 2 Miserere, 3 Dixit 
— a 5, a 8 (in autograph) and a 10 ; an Oratorio 
etc. ; Colonna, a Magnificat, a Confitebor, a 
Domine ad adjuvandum, a Beatus vir, a Dixit, 
etc. ; Jommelli, a Miserere, a Dixit (a 8), 2 
Operas, an Oratorio, etc. ; Bononctni, a Mass (a 
8), an Opera, a Psalm, Cantatas, etc. ; Pergolesi, 
a Mass, a Kyrie, and Gloria (a 10), portions of a 
Dixit, etc. ; Durante, a Messa de' Morti (a 8), 
a Litany and Motets. In addition to these 
there is the autograph of a Symphony in F, ' di 
me Giuseppe Haydn 787,' and some interesting 
MSS. in Handel's autograph. Kelway is said 
to have been employed by Lord Fitzwilliam to 
collect for him in Italy. The Catalogue, by 
J. A. Fuller Maitland and Dr. A. H. Mann (the 
latter of whom contributed a valuable analysis 
of the Handel sketches) was published in 1893. 
By the generosity of the late J. Pendlebury, 
M.A., of St. John's College, a large collection of 
important musical compositions, mainly modern 
works, was given and bequeathed to the Museum. 

The contents of the Virginal Book were pub- 
lished by permission of the authorities, edited 
by J. A. Fuller Maitland and W. Barclay Squire 
(finished 1899). See Virginal Music. 

A portion of the above music was published 
by the late Vincent Novello in 1825 as 



Fitzwilliam Music. — The list is as follows 
(' Orch.' implies orchestral accompaniment) ; — 



Boii.no, Cum Sancto. 
Bononcini, Eterna fac. 

Do. In te Domine. Orch. 

Do. Sanctus. Orch. 

Do. Te ergo quaesuinus. 
Cafaro, Ameu. 
Carissimi, Dulce te. 

Do. Et sic laudabimus. 

Do. Gaudeamus omnes. 

Do. O felix annua. 

Do. Surgamus, eamus. 
Clari, Amen. Orch. 

Do. Cujus animam. Orch. 

Do. Cum Sancto. Orch. 

Do. Cum Sancto. Orch. 

Do. Cum Sancto. 

Do. De profundia. Orch. 

Do. Domine Deus. Orch. 

Do. Gloria Patri, Alto Solo. 
Orch. 

Do. Gloria Patri. Orch. 

Do. Gratias agimus. 

Do. Kyrie eleison. Orch. 

Do. Kyrie eleison. Orch. 

Do. Laetatus sum. a 8. 

Do. O quam tristis. Orch. 

Do. Quae moerebat. Orch. 

Do. Quando corpus. Orch. 

Do. Quando corpus. 

Do. Qui tollis. 

Do. Sancta Mater. 

Do. Sicut erat. Orch. 

Do. Sicut erat. Orch. 

Do. Stabat Mater. Orch. 

Do. Tecum principium. 
Conti, Amen. 

Colonna, Domine ad adjuvan- 
dum. Orch. 



Colonna, Gloria Patri. 

Do. Paratum cor. 

Do. Sicut erat. 
Durante, Oantate Domino. 

Do. Protexisti me Deus. 
Feroce, Adoramus Te. 
Jommelli, Contirma hoc Deus. 
Leo, Amen, a 10. Orch. 

Do. Christus factus est. 

Do. Cum Sancto Spiritu. Orch. 

Do. Dixit Dominus, a 8. Orch. 

Do. Kyrie eleison. 

Do. Qui tollis. Orch. 

Do. Qui tollis. 

Do. Sicut erat. Orch. (Dixit 
in A). 

Do. Sicut erat, a 10. Orch. 
(Dixit in D). 

Do. Tu es Sacerdos (Dixit in A). 

Do. Tu es Sacerdos. Orch. (Dixit 
inD). 

Do. Tu es Sacerdos. Orch. 
(Dixit in C). 
Lupi, Audivi vocem, a 6. 
Vittoria, Regina Coeli. 
Martini, Sicut erat. Orch. 

Do. Sicut erat, a 6. Orch. 
O. Lasso, Sicut ablactatus. 
Palestrina, Et incarnatus. 
Pergolesi, Dominus a dextris a 6. 
Orch. 

Do. Gloria Patri. Orch. 

Do. Juravit Dominus. 

Do. Sicut erat. 
Perti, Adoramus Te. 
Stradella, Dove Battista. 

G. 



FLADT, Anton, eminent oboist, born 1775 
at Mannheim, studied under Ramm, succeeded 
Lebrun in the orchestra at Munich (1790). He 
travelled much, visiting Vienna (1793), Italy, 
the Tyrol, the Rhine, Saxony, Prussia, England 
(1798), Bohemia, Hungary, and France. When 
in London the Prince of Wales made him liberal 
offers to remain in England. After 1810 he 
resided entirely at Munich. He composed three 
concertinos for oboe and orchestra, and some 
pieces for two flageolets. M. c. c. 

FLAGEOLET (Old Fr. flajol). The modern 
form of the old FlUte-d-bec, straight flute or 
Fipple Flute. The upper part consists of a 
plain tubular mouthpiece, leading to a cavity, in 
which is a sounding- lip exactly resembling that 
of an open pipe in the organ. The air is shaped 
by a thin groove into a flat sheet, which strikes 
against the feather-edge of an aperture formed 
in the intermediate part of the instrument. The 
vibrations thus originated pass into a conical 
tube, which, unlike the organ-pipe, is furnished 
with lateral holes, and sometimes with keys. 
The fundamental note of the speaking throat, 
being coerced by different lengths of consonant 
tube, gives a simple scale ; which can be extended 
by forcing wind in more strongly, and thus 
producing the first two or three harmonics of 
the ground tone. 

The simplest form of the Flageolet is the 
ordinary tin whistle with six holes. This con- 
sists of a conical tube of metal stopped at the 
top by a square block of wood, except in a 
narrow anterior fissure. Below the fissure is 
a gap, the lower edge of which is flattened so 
as to cut and intercept the stream of air. In 
more elaborate instruments a chamber is added 
above containing a moist sponge intended to hold 
back the condensed moisture of the breath. 



60 



FLAGEOLET 



FLAT 



In the whistle, and in the English Flageolet, 
the scale is simply that of the Flute ; indeed, 
flutes are made from which the usual head can 
be removed and that of the Flageolet substituted. 
The French Flageolet is similar in its upper 
part, but possesses a more complicated scale, 
and an abundance of auxiliary keys. 

The invention of the Flageolet is ascribed by 
Burney {Hist. iii. 278 note) to the Sieur Juvigny, 
who played it in the famous ' Ballet comique de la 
Royne,' 1581. In the time of Mersennus (1588- 
1648) the principal teacher and player was Le 
Vacher (Hawkins, chap. 126). It appears to 
have superseded the more ancient Recorder, 
much as the Violin did the Viol. The two were 
obviously for a time in use together in this 
country ; for the ' Genteel Companion, being 
exact directions for the Recorder, carefully com- 
posed and gathered by Humphrey Salter,' is 
dated from the ' Lute in St. Paul's churchyard ' 
in 1683, whereas the 'Pleasant companion, or 
new lessons and instructions for the Flagelet by 
Thomas Greeting, Gent, ' was ' printed for J. 
Playford, and sold at his shop near the Temple 
Church ' in 1 682. The former work gives a plate 
of a long bulky Recorder, reaching half-way 
down to the player's knee, whereas the latter 
represents him sitting over a table on which lies 
his book, holding in his mouth and hands the 
1 Flagelet, ' a pipe not more than nine inches 
long ; on the table lies one somewhat larger, 
apparently about twelve inches in length. ' It 
may be carried in the pocket, and so without any 
trouble be a companion by land and by water.' 
In the same way the early Violins were termed 
piccoli Violini alia Francese in opposition to the 
more bulky Viol. Both the flageolet and the re- 
corder read from a staff of six lines, each of which 
represents a hole to be stopped. In the Recorder 
music the tune, with proper notes and time, is 
placed on a staff above, whereas in the Flageolet 
a single symbol above the staff shows the time, 
but not the intervals of the melody. [See Re- 
corder.] The flageolet has only six holes, 
stopped by a different arrangement ; their closure 
being appropriated successively to the thumb, 
first, and second fingers of the left, followed in 
order by the first finger, thumb, and second 
fingers of the right hand. This fingering seems 
to be unique of its kind, and persists in the 
French Flageolet. 

The Double Flageolet was invented by a person 
named Bainbridge about 1800, and his Method 
for the instrument is supplemented after about 
twenty years by his son-in-law. It consists of two 
1 patent Flageolets, the sides close to each other ; 
the one has seven holes in front and one behind ; 
the other only four in front. The seven-holed 
Flageolet is played with the left hand, the four- 
holed Flageolet is played with the right hand ; 
and in playing duets you will in general have 
the same number of holes covered on the second 
Flageolet as on the first.' From the examples 



it appears that in this case the two instruments 
play in thirds ; intervals larger than this being 
possible in a few cases. The two tubes are set 
in a single block and blown by one mouthpiece. 
Contrivances were added for silencing one of the 
two pipes when required, but they seem to have 
been often blown in unison to a single note. 
Triple flageolets have also been made. These 
instruments, though still within the memory of 
some, have entirely and most deservedly gone 
out of use. No music of importance seems to 
have been composed for them. 

The single English and French flageolets are 
still to be met with, chiefly in dance music. 
The former has been described as a simple form 
of Flute-a-bec. The latter is a far more com- 
plicated instrument, possessing two holes for the 
thumbs at the back and four in front for the 
two first fingers of the two hands. Indeed it 
is distinctly a descendant of the old Flageolet 
given above. The half-stopping of the left hand 
thumb-hole by means of a grooved plate for the 
thumb-nail, and the introduction of the tip of 
the right little finger into the small everted 
bell at the bottom of the instrument, are devices 
peculiar to this difficult but rather ineffective 
instrument. Its compass is two octaves and 
three semitones, from gf to V" fiat. A full 
Method is published by Bousquet. 

The Flageolet is never found in orchestral 
scores, but there is a tradition of some authority 
that the solo part in ' ruddier than the cherry,' 
marked in the score as ' Flauto,' was played in 
Handel's time on the flageolet ; and Sullivan 
introduced it with excellent effect in the part 
of Dr. Daly in his ' Sorcerer.' w. H. s. 

FLAGEOLET. The French and Italian term 
for the harmonic notes in the violin and other 
instruments of that tribe ; doubtless so called 
because in quality they resemble the flageolet, 
[Harmonics.] m. c. c. 

FLAT. A term employed in the sense of 
lowering ; an artist sings or plays flat when his 
notes are below the right pitch. B flat is a 
semitone lower than B, E flat than E, and so on ; 
to ' flatten ' (baisser) a sound or an instrument 
is to make it lower than before, just as to 
' sharpen ' it is to raise it. The sign used to 
denote this flattening in music is b> called a 
flat — Fr. be'mol ; Ital. Bemolle ; Germ. Be. 
It has been already shown under Accidentals 
and B (vol. i. pp. 19 and 141) how the signs 
of the flat (b) and natural (t|) were derived from 
two forms of the letter b. A double flat is a 
descent of two semitones, and is marked by bb« 
(See also Double Flat.) 

In German musical nomenclature the notes 
are flattened by adding s (or es) to the letter, as 
Es, Des, Ges, etc. ; A flat is As, and B flat B, 
though Hes has been used. Double flats are 
Deses, etc. The b and JJ in German literature 
were formerly used to express minor and major, 
as Gb for G minor, Dfl for D major, and even 



FLAUTO MAGICO 



FLORENCE 



Gl 



Et> for E minor, and Asjf for A flat major. 
(See the earlier Indexes of the Allgemeine 
musikalische Zeitung for frequent instances of 
this strange usage.) Such ambiguities are now 
avoided by the use of the words dur and moll 
for major and minor. G. 

FLAUTO MAGICO. See Zauberflote. 

FLAUTO TRA VERSO (Ital. ; Fr. Flute 
traversUre). The distinguishing name of the 
Flute with a lateral mouthpiece, held across the 
performer, as opposed to the Flute-a-bec or Fla- 
geolet, held straight in front. [Flute.] w. h. s. 

FLEMMING, Friedrich Ferdinand, born 
Feb. 28, 1778, at Neuhausen in Saxony ; studied 
medicine at Wittenberg from 1796 to 1800, and 
subsequently at Jena, Vienna, and Trieste. He 
practised in Berlin, where he took a keen 
interest in all musical matters, composing many 
part-songs, especially for male voices, for the 
society founded by Zelter. He died in Berlin, 
May 27, 1813. His claim to notice in this 
Dictionary is based upon his excellent setting 
of Horace's ode beginning ' Integer vitae, ' which 
is still universally popular in English schools 
and universities, as well as in Germany. The 
curious resemblance in style and structure 
between this and Webbe's ' Glorious Apollo ' 
is certainly fortuitous, since the latter was 
written in 1787, and Flemming can hardly 
have become acquainted with the Englishman's 
work. m. 

FLIEGENDE HOLLANDER, DER. Opera 
in three acts, words and music by Richard 
Wagner ; produced at Dresden, Jan. 2, 1843. 
In London at Drury Lane, as ' L'Olandese dan- 
nato,' July 23, 1870 ; and by Carl Rosa, as the 
) Flying Dutchman,' at the Lyceum, Oct. 1876 ; 
at Covent Garden as ' II Vascello fantasma, ' 
June 16, 1877. 

The words were sold by Wagner to the 
manager of the Grand Opera in 1841, set by 
Dietsch as ' Le Vaisseau fantome, ' and brought 
out there, Nov. 9, 1842. g. 

FLIGHT, Benjamin, an eminent organ- 
builder, born about 1767, was the son of 
Benjamin Flight, who, in the latter part of the 
18 th century, carried on, in partnership with 
John Kelly, under the style of ' Flight & 
Kelly, ' the business of organ-building at Exeter 
Change. Young Flight learned the art of con- 
structing organs from his father. About the 
year 1 800 he commenced business, in partnership 
with Joseph Robson, in Lisle Street, Leicester 
Square, under the style of 'Flight & Robson.' 
They afterwards removed to St. Martin's Lane, 
where they constructed and for many years 
publicly exhibited the Apollonicon (q. v. ). The 
partnership was dissolved in 1832, after which 
Messrs. Gray and Davison bought Robson's 
share of the business, while Flight, in conjunction 
with his son, J. Flight, who had long actively 
assisted him, carried on business in St. Martin's 
Lane as 'Flight & Son.' Flight invented 



many improvements in organ - building which 
prepared the way for still superior mechanism. 
Amongst them was an apparatus for steadying 
the wind, added to the bellows during a repara- 
tion of Father Schmidt's organ at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, which preceded, and pos- 
sibly suggested, the concussion bellows. B. 
Flight died in 1847, aged eighty, and Robson 
in 1876. w. h. h. 

FLINTOFT, Rev. Luke, a native of Worcester, 
took the degree of B.A. at Queen's College, 
Cambridge, in 1700, and was appointed Gentle- 
man of the Chapel Royal in 1715, having been 
Priest- Vicar of Lincoln Cathedral from 1704 to 
1714. In July 1719 he was appointed Reader 
in Whitehall Chapel. He was also a minor 
canon of Westminster Abbey from 1719. He 
died Nov. 3, 1727, and was buried in the South 
Cloister of Westminster Abbey. He is presumed 
to have invented the double chant, his beautiful 
chant in G minor being the earliest known. 
(But see Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. x. 206, 
xi. 267, 391, and 445.) w. H. H. 

FLORENCE (Firenze), although in point of 
great masters inferior to the other schools of 
music in Italy, can still claim her place among 
the earliest institutions for instruction in that 
science. Casella, the friend of Dante, was a 
native of Florence, and as early as 1310 there 
existed a philharmonic society there, which 
Burney, writing in 1789, speaks of as 'still 
in existence,' and which invented the Laudi 
SriRiTUALi. Under the famous Lorenzo de' 
Medici, the streets of Florence resounded with the 
' Canti Carnascialeschi,' x the gay and frivolous 
songs of the Carnival, against which Savonarola 
protested, and the music of which was often 
sacrificed on the pile of ' Vanita. ' To the history 
of Florentine music during that epoch may be 
added the name of Antonio Squarcialupi, organ- 
ist of the Duomo ; but passing over the other 
masters of this first epoch of the Florentine 
school we come to the dawn of the opera music, 
which had a fitting birthplace in festive Florence. 
For the purpose of promoting this kind of music, 
a private musical academy called ' Degli Alterati ' 
(the thirsters) was founded in 1568 at Florence 
by seven Florentine noblemen who assembled at 
the house of Giambattista Strozzi. They chose 
as their device a cask of grapes filled to over- 
flowing, and the motto ' Quid non designat 
ebrietas ? ' Giovanni Bardi, Conte di Varnio, 
belonged to this academy, and, after the death 
of Strozzi, his house became the rendezvous of 
the academicians. Bardi had for many years 
studied the theory and practice of music till he 
became a correct and good composer ; and he 
was often solicited to prepare for the stage those 
mythological representations which under the 
name of ' Feste musicali ' were among the 
earliest forms taken by the musical drama. 
These entertainments were first represented at 

i Published by Orazzini, Florence, 1669. 



62 



FLORENCE 



FLORENCE 



Florence on a scale of magnificence in keeping 
with the gorgeous character of the Medici 
feasts. 

Vincenzo Galilei — father of the great Galileo 
— was another member of the academy ' Degli 
Alterati.' He wrote a clever treatise, Dialogo 
della Musica antica e moderna (Florence, 1581), 
upon the abuse of modern music, in which he 
places in the mouth of Bardi an attack upon the 
madrigalists and the researches after counter- 
point. He was also a composer, and is supposed 
to be the first who composed melodies for a 
single voice. He set to music the speech of 
Ugolino (Inf. xxxiii. ) beginning ' La bocca 
sollev6 dal fero pasto ' ; also a portion of the 
Lamentations of Jeremiah. 

Girolamo Mei was another member of this 
academy, and Emilio del Cavaliere, a composer 
of the Roman School, who, previous to the com- 
position of the first entire musical drama by 
Rinuccini, had divided into scenes and set to 
music two Pastorales — ' LadisperazionediSileno' 
and ' II Satiro ' — the latter to words by Laura 
Guidiccini, a lady of Lucca. 

When Bardi was summoned to Rome by 
Clementi VIII., the society of the 'Alterati' 
assembled in the house of Jacopo Corsi, a 
Florentine nobleman, an enlightened lover of the 
fine arts, and passionately devoted to dramatic 
music. They soon added to their number the 
names of Ottavio Rinuccini the poet, Jacopo 
Peri the composer, and Giulio Caccini, who, 
besides his talent for composition, had the gift 
of a beautiful voice. These three occupied them- 
selves in developing the first attempts at musical 
drama into the finished performance called the 
opera. They invented the recitative by which 
the Italian opera and the oratorio are distin- 
guished from the opera of other countries and 
from other species of theatrical musical exhibition. 
1 Dafne ' was the first result of their united 
efforts. Rinuccini composed the poetry, Caccini 
and Peri the music, and the whole was repre- 
sented in the house of Jacopo Corsi, 1597. 
1 This,' says Burney (Hist. iv. p. 18), 'seems the 
true era whence the opera or drama wholly set 
to music, and in which the dialogue was neither 
sung in measure nor declaimed without music, 
but recited in simple musical tones which 
amounted not to singing, and yet was different 
from speech, — should be dated.' • Dafne ' was 
succeeded by ' Euridice, ' represented with gor- 
geous splendour in 1600 at the feasts given in 
Florence in honour of the marriage of Henry IV. 
of France with Maria de' Medici. None of the 
subsequent compositions of the great masters of 
operatic music produced anything like the effect 
of these first representations, which introduced 
Italy as it were to a new art — that of musica 
parlante. The poet Angelo Grillo (the friend of 
Tasso), writing to Caccini, observed : 'You are 
the father of a new kind of music, or rather 
singing, which is not a song, but a recitative song 



of a nobler and higher order than the popular 
song ; which does not sever or maim the words, 
nor deprive them of life, but gives new force and 
vigour to both. It is then a new and wonderful 
invention, or rather a revival of the ancient 
Greek musical drama which has been lost to us 
for so many centuries' (Tiraboschi, vii. 1321). 
Rinuccini's next opera, ' Arianna,' composed by 
Monteverde, was represented at the nuptials of 
Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua with the Infanta 
Margaret of Savoy (Doni, Opere, ii. 25). 

This first academy for theatrical music was 
succeeded by many others, as the passion for 
musical representation became universal in Italy. 
Quadrio (i. 71) mentions three in Florence, 
'degl' Infocati,' 'degl' Immobili,' ' de' Sorgenti,' 
founded between 1550 and 1560 especially for 
promoting this kind of music. Each of these 
had its own theatre and vied with the others in 
the splendour and magnificence of its representa- 
tions. Indeed, in the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury, the theatres of Italy, constructed in many 
cases by no less an architect than Palladio , and 
where the most melodious of all modern languages 
first appeared married to sweet harmony, were 
the wonder and admiration of the world. 

The Florentine school of music differs from the 
other great schools of Italy in that the com- 
posers of dramatic music just enumerated were 
only amateurs, and had been for the most part 
trained in the great schools of Rome and Bo- 
logna. Nor did Florence ever produce any great 
composers of church music, although composer 
succeeded composer in that brilliant operatic 
music of which we have traced the first begin- 
nings, until we arrive at the great Cherubini, 
who was a master in both the church and the 
theatre. 

The present 'Royal Musical Institute' of Flor- 
ence is of modern foundation, and was opened for 
public instruction in 1862. Its objects are, To 
teach the science, history, and practice of music ; 
to maintain a public library of music ; to grant 
rewards to deserving artists ; to perform the best 
works of modern and ancient masters. It is an 
establishment for public and gratuitous instruc- 
tion, and comprises three sections — that of ad- 
ministration ; that of instruction ; and the 
Academy. The administration is directed by a 
President, assisted by three Professors, who form 
the Council of Management. The department 
of instruction contains schools for the rudiments 
of music and musical reading ; for solfeggio ; 
for solo and part singing ; for keyed, stringed, 
and wind instruments ; for thorough - bass, 
counterpoint, and composition ; and for aesthetics 
and musical history. The Academy is com- 
posed of resident, corresponding, and honorary 
members. The Examiners are chosen from the 
resident members of the Academy, as are also 
the three members of the council of manage- 
ment. The number of pupils averages 220 , and 
is regulated by the applications for admission, 



FLORENCE 



FLORIMO 



63 



the result of the examinations, and the means 
available for imparting instruction, c. m. p. 

FLORENCE, Evangeline, the Christian 
names of Miss E. F. Houghton, 1 born at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., U.S.A., Dec. 12, 1873. She 
was first taught singing at Boston by the late 
Mme. Edna Hall (well known at London con- 
certs in the early seventies), and made her 
debut in public at Boston at the age of eighteen 
as the heroine in Flo tow's ' Martha.' She 
caused considerable sensation by singing, by 
way of encore, the last verse of ' The Last Rose 
of Summer ' an octave higher than originally 
written, having a phenomenal compass from g 
to double high C in alt, c"". In London she 
received further instruction from Henschel, 
Blume, Randegger, and the late Mrs. Rudolph 
Lehmann, the well-known amateur, who gave her 
gratuitous instruction, and became her life-long 
friend until her lamented death in 1903. On 
May 11, 1892, as Miss E. Florence, she made 
her debut at St. James's Hall at a concert 
given by herself in conjunction with Miss Mar- 
guerite Hall, the daughter of her first teacher. 
She was ' remarkably successful, ' having ' a 
light soprano of phenomenal compass and of 
exceedingly beautiful quality, absolutely pure 
throughout its large extent. ... In Alabiev's 
" Nightingale " the A flat in altiss was reached 
with apparent ease' (Times). On Dec. 1 she 
sang ' Elsa's Dream ' at Henschel's Symphony 
Concerts ; on Jan. 16, 1893, she sang in the 
first production in London of Parry's ' Job ' by 
the Highbury Society ; on March 6 she sang at 
the Popular Concerts ; the London Ballad Con- 
certs ; Feb. 17, 1894, at the Crystal Palace — at 
all which concerts she frequently sang subse- 
quently. In 1894 she sang at the Hereford 
Festival ; in 1897 and 1900 at Birmingham. 
She sang at the Philharmonic, May 18, 1899, 
in the Choral Symphony ; on Feb. 25, 1903, 
in 'The Light of the World,' and on April 1, 
1904, in the 'Messiah' with the Royal Choral 
Society. She has also appeared with the Queen's 
Hall Choral Society, in various provincial towns, 
etc. For a good many years she has been the 
principal soprano at Messrs. Boosey's Ballad 
Concerts. In 1895 she sang on tour in Aus- 
tralia, in 1898 on the continent, and in 1899 
in her native country. The phenomenal high 
notes she rarely uses now, on the advice of 
musicians, but relies for her popularity on the 
many modern songs she has introduced, such 
as those of Mrs. Lehmann ('A. L.'), Mrs. Bed- 
ford (Liza Lehmann), Mrs. Needham,and others. 
She was married to Mr. Alexander Crerar, at 
Boston, U.S.A., on Oct. 17, 1894. a. c. 

FLORID. Music in rapid figures, divisions, 
or passages, the stem of the simple melody, 
bursting forth, as it were, into leaves and flowers. 
The image is the same as that in Fioriture. The 

1 She dropped the •tirname of Honghton to prevent confusion 
With another singer of that name in London. 



Italian term is Figurato. Examples are hardly 
necessary ; but the genesis of florid passages is 
highly interesting, and an instance or two, from 
the simplest form to the very highest art, may 
be forgiven. 

Bach, Christmas Oratorio. 




Haydn, Quartet 1. 




I 



Mozart, G minor Symphony. 



fc CTPj 




Beethoven, Concerto No. 5. 



i^^gi^||pi§^ 



Do., Ninth Symphony (Adagio). 



yTr-r-fe ^ g^j^S^ 




Such florid passages are essential to Varia- 
tions, and the last of these examples is taken 
from the finest set of variations existing. 

For Florid Counterpoint see Counterpoint 
and Strict Counterpoint. g. 

FLORILEGIUM PORTENSE. A collection 
of sacred vocal music of the 16 th century, in 
separate parts, published in 2 vols, by Boden- 
schatz in 1618 and 1621, and containing in all 
265 pieces. [See Bodenschatz, vol. i. pp. 346, 
347, where a full catalogue is given.] 

FLORIMO, Francesco, born Oct. 12, 1800, 
at San Giorgio Morgeto, Calabria, was taught 
music at the Real Collegio di Musica at Naples, 
where he learnt counterpoint and composition 
from Zingarelli, Furno, Elia, and Tritto. He 
was appointed in 1826 Librarian of the College 
of Music (afterwards incorporated with that of 
SanPietro diMajella), where, finding the archives 
in a state of chaos and disorder, by his energy 
and perseverance he gradually made the Library 
one of the most interesting and valuable in 
Europe. He added a number of important 
works, besides a collection of autographs and 
manuscripts, of all the masters of the Neapoli- 
tan School. Florimo's compositions include a 
Cantata, op. 1, in honour of the Duke of Noja, 
Director of the College of San Sebastiano ; a 
Dixit ; a Credo ; a Te Deum ; a Funeral 
Symphony composed on the death of Bellini, 



64 



FLOTOW 



FLOTOW 



afterwards performed at Zingarelli's funeral ; a 
Chorus and Fugal Overture on the unveiling of 
Zingarelli's portrait at the College ; ' Ore musi- 
cali, ' a setting of ten songs, vocal duet and quar- 
tet(Girard, Naples) 1835 ; twelve songs published 
under the same title by Boosey (London, 1845), 
six of which were included in the first collec- 
tion ; three popular Neapolitan songs in a collec- 
tion published by Lonsdale, 1846 ; twenty-four 
Songs (Ricordi, Milan), etc. He was Bellini's 
dearest friend, and in 1876 took that composer's 
remains from Pere-la-Chaise, Paris, to Catania ; 
he wrote a pamphlet, Trasporto delle ceneri, 
etc., on the event. He also founded the 
' Bellini ' prize at the College, a competition 
only open to Italian composers not over thirty 
(Baker's Dictionary). He wrote a Method of 
Singing (Ricordi), 3rd edition 1866 ; Cenno 
storico sulla scuola musicale di Napoli, Naples, 
2 vols., 1869-71, enlarged into 4 vols, and 
republished 1880-84 ; a History of the College 
San Pietro, Naples, 1873 ; Riccardo Wagner ed 
i TVagneristi, 1876, 2nd edition, Ancona, 1883, 
with a supplement containing letters from Yerdi 
and Biilow, from Frau Wagner ' to the most 
amiable of librarians, and the juvenile octogen- 
arian,' expressing the satisfaction of herself and 
her husband at a performance of a Miserere of Leo 
by the students of the College on the occasion 
of their visit there in 1880 ; also a lithograph 
copy of a letter from Wagner himself to the 
Duke of Bagnara the President, from the Villa 
d'Angri, Naples, dated April 22, 1880. Florimo 
also wrote a memoir of Bellini (1885), and died 
at Naples, Dec. 18, 1888. A. c. 

FLOTOW, Friedrich, Freiherr von, Ger- 
man opera composer, born April 27, 1812, son 
of a landed nobleman of the arch -duchy of 
Mecklenburg ; was educated with a view to the 
diplomatic service. In 1827 he went to Paris, 
when music was at its best. The brilliant 
artistic life into which he was thrown aroused 
him to a consciousness of his own talent for 
music, and he devoted himself to a course of 
study under Reicha. The Revolution of 1830 
drove him away for a time, but feeling that the 
atmosphere of Paris was necessary to his success, 
he soon returned, and produced his first dramatic 
attempts at the private houses of some of the 
aristocracy. ' Stradella ' was brought out at 
the Palais Royal as a short piece lyrique in 
1837 [and Flotow wrote many numbers for the 
operas ' Lady Melvill ' and 'L'eau merveilleuse,' 
performed in 1838 and 1839 respectively as the 
work of A. Grisar.] His first public success 
was at the Theatre de la Renaissance, where he 
produced, May 31, 1839, 'Le Naufrage de la 
Meduse,' which was given fifty- three times in 
twelve months, and at once established his 
position. He afterwards rewrote the piece, 
and produced it at Hamburg in 1845 as 'Die 
Matrosen, ' whence it spread to the other theatres 
of Germany. Meantime he had composed for 



the Paris theatres several other operas, such as 
'L'esclave de Camoens' (1843), and 'L'ame 
en peine ' (1846) known in London as 'Leolme' 
(Princess's Theatre, Oct. 16, 1848). 'Stradella' 
was rewritten as an opera, and brought out at 
Hamburg, Dec. 30, 1844, and has had extra- 
ordinary success throughout Germany. In Paris, 
though published, it has never been produced. 
In London it was brought out in English at 
Drury Lane, June 6, 1846 — a dead failure — 
and in Italian in 1864 at Covent Garden, when 
it lasted two nights only, killed by a joke of 
Ronconi's. It was followed by ' Martha ' (Vienna, 
Nov. 25, 1847), which was remodelled from a 
ballet written in conjunction with Burgmiiller 
and Deldevez in 1844, and in its new form 
quickly spread all over the world (London, 
Covent Garden, 1858). These two works Flotow 
has never surpassed, and of his later operas 
'Die Grossfiirstin ' (1850), 'Indra' (1853), 
'Riibezahl' (1854), ' Hilda' (1855), 'Albin,' 
or ' Der Miiller von Meran ' (1856), 'La Veuve 
Grapin' (1859), 'Pianella' (1860), 'Zilda' 
(1866), 'L' Ombre' (1870), 'Naida' (Milan, 
1873), 'II Fior d' Harlem' (Turin, 1876), the 
only ones which have attained any general 
popularity were 'Indra,' 'La Veuve Grapin,' 
and ' L' Ombre,' the last of which was enor- 
mously successful not only in Paris, but in 
Italy and Spain, and has been produced in 
London (Her Majesty's) Jan. 12, 1878, as 
'The Phantom.' His ballets are as follows : — 
'Die Libelle' (Vienna, 1866), 'Tannkonig' 
(Darmstadt, 1867), ' Am Runenstein ' (Prague, 
1868). His ' Enchanteresse, ' known in England 
as ' Alma 1' incantatrice, ' a revised version of 
'Indra,' was produced in Paris, 1878, and his 
' Rosellana ' was left unfinished at his death. 

In 1856 he was appointed Intendant of the 
court theatre at Schwerin, a post which he re- 
tained till 1863. The most important works 
he produced during this period, when he had 
so many inducements to compose, were a 
' Fackeltanz ' and some charming music to 
Shakespeare's 'Winter's Tale' (1862). After 
giving up the management of the theatre in 1 863 
he returned to Paris, and in 1868 removed to the 
neighbourhood of Vienna. He died at Darm- 
stadt, Jan. 24, 1883. His remaining composi- 
tions, overtures, songs, and chamber music, 
are little known, and call for no remark. In 
1864 Flotow was elected corresponding member 
of the Institut de France. 

The great success of ' Stradella ' and 'Martha' 
must be mainly ascribed to the melody which 
pervades them, and to their light and attractive 
character. Flotow's comic talent is considerable, 
and he has great natural instinct for the stage. 
His early French experience taught him the 
virtue of lively and well-accentuated rhythm, 
and gave him dexterity in the construction of 
extended pieces, to which he writes pleasing 
harmony and piquant orchestration. On the 



FLOWER 



FLUE-WORK 



65 



other hand, his music has rarely anything below 
the surface, his rhythm frequently degenerates 
into that of mere dance-tunes, his modulations 
are poor, and he is prone to sentimentality. 
In the scientific part of composition he too 
often betrays the amateur. On the whole the 
conclusion is forced upon us that, in spite of his 
popularity, Flotow will not live in the history 
of dramatic music. A. M. 

FLOWER, El t za, born at Harlow, Essex, 
April 19, 1803, was the elder daughter of 
Benjamin Flower, the political writer. She 
published a set of ' Fourteen Musical Illustra- 
tions of the Waverley Novels,' in 1831 ; a once 
popular chorus, ' Now pray we for our country,' 
in 1842 ; and a set of Hymns and Anthems, 
the publication of which began in 1841 ; a 
selection from them was reissued in 1888. 
Among them is the original musical setting of 
'Nearer, my God, to Thee,' the words of which 
were written by the composer's sister, Mrs. 
Sarah Flower Adams. Her music shows marked 
originality and traces of decided talent, if not 
actual genius. She died Dec. 12, 1846, and 
was buried at Harlow. {Diet, of Nat. Biog. ) 

FLOWERS, George French, Mus.D., son 
of Rev. Field Flowers, Rector of Partney, Lin- 
colnshire, born at Boston, June 28, 1811, studied 
music in Germany under C. H. Rinck and 
Schnyder von Wartcnsee, and was organist of 
the English Chapel in Paris in 1836-37. 
Returning home he became organist of St. 
Mark's Church, Myddelton Square, and St. 
John's, Paddington. He was afterwards organ- 
ist of Beverly Minster, and St. Marie (R.C.), 
High Barnet. In 1 8 3 9 he graduated as Bachelor 
of Music at Oxford. He founded a ' Contra- 
puntists' Society' in 1843, and about the same 
time was the music critic of the Literary Gazette. 
In 1848 he was an unsuccessful candidate for 
the Professorship of Music at Oxford, as he was 
in 1863 for that in Gresham College. In 1851 
he established ' The British School of Vocalisa- 
tion ' for teaching singing on new principles, and 
in the two years following gave concerts for the 
purpose of exhibiting the progress made by his 
pupils, the most notable of whom was Miss 
Featherstone, afterwards Mrs. Howard Paul. 
In 1865 Flowers proceeded Doctor of Music. He 
wrote an ' Essay on the construction of Fugue, 
with an Introduction containing new Rules of 
Harmony' (1846), and a 'Pictorial Representa- 
tion of the Science of Harmony ' (translated from 
Basler. 1850). He composed Fugues in the 
style of Sebastian Bach, and other organ music, 
a mass (about 1860), Tennyson's Ode on the 
death of the Duke of Wellington, and other 
vocal pieces. He was also a copious contributor 
to the musical periodicals. He died of cholera, 
June 14, 1872, in London, and was buried at 
Kensal Green. w. h. h. 

FLUD, or FLUDD, Robert, the son of Sir 
Thomas Flud, Treasurer of War to Queen Eliza- 
VOL. II 



beth in France and the Low Countries, born at 
Milgate, in the parish of Bearsted in Kent, 1574. 
At the age of seventeen he became a student of 
St. John's College, Oxford, where he studied 
physics. After a short time of residence he went 
abroad for a few years, at the end of which he 
returned and took the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts in 1596, and of M.A. in 1598. In 1605 
he received the M.B. and M.D. degrees, and 
in 1609 was made a Fellow of the College of 
Physicians. From 1616 until his death he was 
engaged in the composition of various philo- 
sophical treatises, in which he refuted the 
theories of Kepler and Mersennus, and advocated 
those of the Rosicrucian and other mystics. In 
the history of philosophy his name is of some 
importance, since his writing exercised a power- 
ful influence over Jacob Behmen. In musical 
literature he holds a far less prominent position, 
his chief connection with the art being found in 
a treatise printed at Oppenheim in 1617-24, 
entitled ' Utriusque cosmi majoris, scilicet et 
minoris metaphysica, physica atque technica 
historia. ' The following sections treat of musical 
phenomena : Tract I. Book iii. and Tract II. 
Part i. Book vi. and Part ii. Book iv. His 
'Monochordon mundi symphoniacum,' written 
in reply to Kepler (Frankfort, 1622), contains a 
curious diagram of the universe, based on the 
divisions of a string. He died at his house in 
Coleman Street, Sept. 8, 1637, and was buried 
at Bearsted. M. 

FLU GEL (a wing). The German appellation 
of a grand pianoforte or a harpsichord, from the 
wing shape common to both. See Goethe's pun 
on geflilgelte Geister in Goethe and Mendelssohn, 
p. 24. Stutz Fliigel is a short grand piano- 
forte. £See Harpsichord, Pianoforte. ] a. j. h. 

FLtJGEL HORN. The German name for 
instruments of the Bugle family. Originally, 
say the dictionaries, a hunting-horn ( Waldhorn, 
Jagdhorn), used by the huntsman whose duty it 
was to watch in the Flilgeln, or paths cut through 
the wood, and give a signal on the approach of the 
game. [The Fliigel horn now used in the English 
and German armies is of the Bfc> cornet pitch 
and compass, but its tone is more mellow than 
that of the cornet, and has something of the 
character of the contralto voice. It is furnished 
with valves, either of the piston or cylinder kind, 
which have superseded a clumsy kind of keys, 
from which it used to be called Klappenhorn.] 
The name is also applied to several instruments 
in the Alto, Tenor, and Bass clefs, w. h. s. 

FLUE-WORK. Organ-stops, in regard to 
the manner in which their sound is generated, 
are grouped in two great classes — Reed-work 
and Flue-work. All organ-stops in which the 
sound is produced by the wind passing through 
a fissure, flue, or wind -way, and striking against 
an edge above, belong to the Flue-work, whatever 
may be the shape, make, or tone of their pipes. 
The peculiarities of shape or proportion, make, 

F 



66 



FLUTE 



FLUTE 



'Vi.li] 



and tone, lead, however, to a subsequent division 
into Principal -work, Gedact-work, and 
Flute-work. e. j. h. 

FLUTE (Germ. Flote, Qtierflote ; Ital. Flauto, 
Flauto traverso ; Fr. Fldte, Flute traversiere). 
[The Greek name Aulos was much more com- 
prehensive that our word Flute, by which it is 
generally translated. It usually signified an 
instrument with a reed, either single or double, 
these varieties being respectively represented, 
in their modern developments, by the clarinet 
and oboe, rather than by any instrument that 
would now be classed with flutes. In the same 
way, the ancient Egyptian instruments discovered 
by Professor Flinders Petrie in 1890, though 
commonly referred to as flutes, were in all 
probability played with reeds. The ancient 
Egyptian Nay, however, of which two interesting 
specimens were found by Mr. John Gar- 
stang in 1903, was a rudimentary flute, 
the tone of which was excited by blow- 
ing directly across the cut end of a reed. 
One example of the Nay is here figured. 1 
Hence there is clear evidence that, after 
eliminating, from the many instruments 
called flutes in translations, all those 
which are strictly reed instruments, there 
remain, of very ancient date, certain 
kinds which with strictness may be called 
flutes. Whether a lip-blown instrument, 
such as the Nay, or a flute with whistle 
mouth-piece (see Fipple Flute) is really 
the older, it is impossible to say. 

The modern instrument, known as the 
Transverse Flute, has not been traced 
back for more than four centuries. It 
has a compass of three octaves from 
middle C (c') upwards, but in a few in- 
struments the lowest note is b, or even &b- 
It sounds as an open tube, that is to say its 
length is approximately that of the half- wave 
of its lowest note, and it is capable of giving 
the natural harmonics in full sequence in the 
same way as other ' open ' tubes. The tube 
is plugged with a cork or stopper at one end, 
and the ' open ' condition at this end is restored 
by the cutting of the embouchure or mouth-hole 
through the wall of the tube, at a distance from 
the cork of about one diameter of the tube. 
The lower lip of the player partly covers the 
embouchure and the stream of air is directed so 
as to strike the opposite edge. The exact action 
of this stream or air- reed has not been fully 
investigated, but it is tolerably certain that it 
vibrates, and so maintains the alternate conden- 
sations and rarefactions of the air column. The 
area of the mouth- hole being less than the cross- 
section of the tube, causes a departure from the 
correctness of the harmonics of the theoretical 
open tube (see Fife), and in the history of the 

I This curious Instrument is still used by the peasants about the 
Nile. The original of the figure was brought from Egypt by F. 
Girdlestone, Esq., of the Charterhouse. See an admirable cut in 
Lane's Modern Egyptians. 



flute two modifications of form have been in- 
troduced with a view to restoring the desired 
correctness. The older of these resulted in the 
' cone ' flute, in which the head-joint is cylindri- 
cal, and the lower three-fourths of the instru- 
ment is slightly conical in bore, the diameter 
decreasing towards the foot. In this way the 
necessary correction was obtained. The second 
modification was introduced by Theobald 
Boehm (q.v.) about the middle of last century, 
and consisted in a modification of the bore of the 
head -joint, by a coning on approximately the 
lines of the parabola, the main body of the flute 
being restored by him to its cylindrical form. 
Thus designed, we have the ' cylinder ' flute of 
the present day, which for solo and orchestral 
purposes is now generally preferred, although 
in military bands the ' cone ' flute is chiefly 
used. 

The peculiar characteristics of the flute are 
the beautiful mellowness of its tone, and the 
facility it offers for the rapid and ' vocal ' 
execution of runs and shakes. Its tone-quality 
at its best is well described by Mr. R. S. Rockstro 
in his work, The Flute, as lying between the 
somewhat nasal tone of the oboe and the hollow 
sound of the cooing of a dove. This latter 
quality is due to a deficiency in the number or 
strength of harmonic partials, and is character- 
istic of a tube freely open at both ends. The 
diminishing of one open end by the mouth -hole, 
already noticed, and the presence of the small 
chamber or extension of length between the 
mouth-hole and the cork, are largely influential 
in giving the true flute quality, and the exact 
position of the cork has a very distinct influence. 
Helmholtz (Ellis's Trans. 2nd ed. p. 205) 
appears to have considered that the octave and 
twelfth were the only upper partials heard, but 
the present writer found that when d' on the 
flute was sounded, the seventh partial was 
discernible, but with a' no partial higher than 
the fifth was detected. (Proceedings Mas. 
Assoc. 1879-80, p. 84.) In any case, it is toler- 
ably certain that the high partials which give 
the peculiarly brilliant or even cutting tone to 
some instruments are absent, or at least indis- 
tinguishable. The cylinder fluto is more power- 
ful than the cone instrument, and has a somewhat 
bolder tone- quality, approaching a little towards 
the reedy character of the clarinet. 

The representative cone flute is the eight-keyed 
instrument, with six finger-holes, six closed keys, 
and two open-standing keys, one to close the 
normally open d' hole, on which the true scale of 
the flute begins, and so give cjf', and the other 
to close this c%' hole and give c', which is the 
lowest note on this, the usual instrument. (For 
the general scheme of fingering, see Fingering, 
ante, pp. 53, 54.) The five closed keys (the 
sixth or long F key being merely an alternative) 
give the five semitones necessary to convert the 
diatonic scale of d\ in which the flute is set, into 



FLUTE 



FLUTE 



67 



a chromatic scale. The flute being held to the 
right from the lips, and slightly sloping down- 
wards, the first, second, and third fingers of the 
left hand close the three upper holes, and the 
similar fingers of the right hand the three lower 
ones. The fingers being successively raised, the 
scale of D is produced, and by slight modification 
of the embouchure to increase the pressure of 
the lips, is repeated in its second octave. For 
the third octave, cross fingerings, sometimes of 
a complicated nature, are used, the general prin- 
ciple in these being the opening of holes in such 
positions as facilitate the subdivision of the 
primary sound-waves. The chief defects of the 
eight-keyed cone flute are the inequality in the 
power and in the quality of the notes. These 
defects are due to the necessity of placing the 
holes in positions which suit the natural action 
of the fingers, and can only be lessened, and not 
altogether eliminated by the addition of extra 
key-work. Many players and makers worked 
in this direction, among them being Siccama, 
Clinton, Carte, and Pratten.] 

The principles of the Flute originally invented 
by Captain Gordon of Charles the Tenth's Swiss 
Guards and introduced by Theobald Boehm 1 in 
his new flute, constructed in 1832, were princi- 
pally (1) that each note should speak independ- 
ently out of a single hole, as though the remainder 
of the bore were entirely cut off ; (2) that all keys 
in their position of rest should be permanently 
open. He also aimed at equalising the difficulty 
of the different keys, some of which, on the older 
flute, were notoriously inconvenient and all but 
impracticable. For the left hand, which occupies 
the upper part of the instrument next to the 
head, are four open keys to be closed by the first 
finger, thumb (situated at the back of the instru- 
ment), second, and third fingers successively. 
For the little finger of this hand is an open key 
producing the Gjf or Ab. On the right hand 
joint are three open keys, for the first, second, 
and ring fingers respectively, with accessory or 
■ shake keys ' (which are normally closed) inter- 
posed. For the right little finger are the closed 
key of Dfl and the two open keys of Cfl and C. 
In many flutes mechanism, still worked by the 
right little finger, is added to produce BE] and 
even Bb. But from the Dt| downwards all the 
work is accessory, and not directly used in the 
production of the natural scale. For this reason 
the instrument is said to stand in the key of D. 
For the purpose of obtaining each sound by the 
closure of a single orifice, asomewhat newarrange- 
ment of the scale is necessary on certain notes. 
The G, for instance, in either octave is produced 
by closing the five holes of the left hand. For 
the F a whole tone below, the forefinger of the 
right hand is added. The intermediate Fjf is 
obtained by depressing the pad of the middle 
or ring fingers, that of the index being left open. 

1 See his pamphlet Uber den FIStenbau vmd die neuesten Yer- 
hetterwngen, Mains, 1847. 



In the Clarinet, Oboe, Bassoon, and other octave- 
scaled instruments, the Bb a whole tone below 
C, which in a D instrument like the flute is 
represented by the FtJ below the middle G, has 
to be produced by closing the Bfl and AH holes 
and lifting an intermediate Bb key, thus lower- 
ing the pitch a minor third and raising it a semi- 
tone. The same method as that for the Ffl is 
employed for the Bb or Atf, which is produced 
by lowering the Bt] a semitone through the 
intervention of a lever actuated by the fingers 
of the right hand, those of the left, middle, and 
ring fingers being left open. The whole com- 
pass of the flute is shown in the 
accompanying illustration. 

[Although the cylinder flute is 
now usually fitted with key-work 
on Boehm's system, as described ''(N) 
above, this is not universal, for some players, 
desiring to have the ad- 
vantage of the cylinder 
bore and large holes 
adopted by Boehm with- 
out departing widely 
from the eight - key 
fingering, have intro- 
duced extra key -work 
to secure the result. 

Although the flute is 
usually in D, it is occa- 
sionally made in G, as 
the Alto Flute, and was 
also formerly made in A 
as the Flute d'amotjr 
(q. v. ). In military bands 
the F and Eb flutes 
are used, and the F in- 
strument is also some- 
times used in the or- 
chestra, as by Spohr in 
his symphony, ' The 
Power of Sound. ' 

The Piccolo is pitched 
one octave higher than 
the Concert Flute, and 
its highest notes are the 
sharpest ordinarily used 
in music. 

The illustrations show 
the eight - keyed cone 
and the Boehm cylinder 
flutes.] 

The literature of the 
Flute is so extensive as 
hardly to admit of illus- 
tration within moderate 
limits. Bach uses it freely both as an obbligato 
instrument and in concerted passages, and ever 
since his time it has held a prominent place in 
the band. In the scores of his works it is some- 
times marked TraversUre to distinguish it from 
the Fliite-a-bec. 

Haydn, both in his Symphonies and in his 






o 

o 

<x> 
>> 

M 



m 






68 



FLUTE 



FLUTE-WORK 



Oratorios, awards it the same prominence. The 
Trio for three Flutes in the ' Creation ' may be 
named as an illustration. 

Handel usually specifies the ' German ' Flute, 
and often indicates its importance by the words 
' with the accompaniment of a German Flute. ' 
It is difficult to understand how the players of 
his day were able to make themselves heard 
with the few flutes then allotted to the Orchestra 
against the large numbers of Oboes and Bassoons. 
In the Handel Commemoration in Westminster 
Abbey in 1784, there were six Flutes against 
twenty-six Oboes and twenty-six Bassoons, 
besides twelve Trumpets and the same number 
of Horns. Handel produces, however, a magnifi- 
cent effect in the Dead March in ' Saul ' by the 
simple employment of two Flutes moving in 
thirds against the reiterated bass of the kettle- 
drum. 

Mozart, except in some of his Symphonies, 
which were obviously written for a small band, 
freely scores for this instrument. The opera 
of the ' Zauberflote ' derives its name from it. 
There are also two Concertos for solo Flute and 
Orchestra in G and D, and one for Flute and 
Harp among his works (Kochel, 313, 314, 
299). 

Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and all later writers, 
give it the leading part of the wind in all their 
compositions. The solo shortly after the trumpet 
flourishes in the Overture to ' Leonora No. 3 ' will 
not be forgotten, or the lovely part for two flutes 
inthesecond movementof the Italian Symphony. 
Schumann also has introduced a prominent ca- 
denza for it in the Finale to his B flat Symphony. 
The difficult accompaniment to the Ranz des 
Vaches, played by the Oboe, in Rossini's Over- 
ture to ' William Tell ' affords a good illustration 
of the mechanical complexities which this flexible 
and agile instrument is competent, and conse- 
quently is expected, to surmount. In a dramatic 
sense it is used by Mendelssohn in the sacrificial 
chorus '0 be gracious' in 'St. Paul,' and by 
Gretry in ' Andromaque, ' in which the part of 
Andromache is always accompanied by three 
flutes. 

The most voluminous writer for the Flute was 
probably Quantz, who composed 200 solos and 
300 concertos for Frederick the Great alone. 
But the instrument had a distinguished writer, 
Kuhlau, as the special exponent of its powers 
and beauty. This eminent con trapuntistde voted 
nearly the whole of his short life to Flute com- 
positions. This singular fact has been accounted 
for by the statement that an amateur flute player 
of position employed him constantly and liberally 
in writing them. Kuhlau has been termed the 
' Beethoven of the Flute. ' It will be seen from 
the list given below that Solos, Duets, Trios, 
and even Quartets for Flutes, are among his volu- 
minous works. Indeed, but for a fire which 
destroyed the composer's manuscripts, their 
number would be at least threefold. Such as 



are extant afford inestimable models of construc- 
tion and originality. 

Flute Music. 

Mozart. — Grand duo in G, op. 76 ; Andante 
in C, Concerto in G, Rondo in D, op. 86. 

Spohr. — Concerto in modo di Scena Cantante, 
op. 47. 

Weber. — Romanza Siciliana in G minor, with 
Orchestra ; Trio for Flute, Violoncello, and 
Pianoforte, op. 63. 

Beethoven. — Serenade for Flute, Violin, and 
Alto, op. 25. 

Haydn. — Two Trios for two Flutes and Violon- 
cello. 

Kuhlau. — Three grand Trios for three Flutes, 
op. 13 ; Do. do., op. 86 ; One do., op. 90 ; 
Three Quintets for Flute and String Quartet in 
D, E, A, op. 51 ; Grand Quartet for four Flutes 
in E, op. 103 ; Six sets of three Duets for two 
Flutes, ops. 10, 39, 80, 81, 87 ; Solos, with 
Pianoforte, op. 57 ; Three Fantasies, Do. do., 
op. 95. 

Reich a. — Quartet for four Flutes in D, op. 
12 ; twenty-four Quintets for wind instruments. 

Schubert. — Introduction and Variations on 
' Trockne Blumen, ' for Flute and Piano, op. 
160. w. h. s. [Additions in square brackets 
by d. J. b.] 

FLtTTE D'AMOUR (Germ. Liebesflbte). An 
old form of flute, standing in the key of A, and 
corresponding in pitch with the Oboe d'amore. 
Both were supposed to possess a smooth and 
fascinating quality of tone, whence the name 
is derived. w. H. s. 

[The bore of this variety of the flute was but 
very slightly larger than that of the ' concert in- 
strument,' and therefore narrow in proportion to 
its length, and to this its peculiar quality was 
in some measure due. Although commonly 
said to stand in key of A, its pitch was a minor 
third below the concert flute in D. The key 
of the instrument was therefore B, and could 
only be said to be in A in the same sense that 
the concert flute is sometimes said to be in C, 
from the fact that its notes sound as written. 
Strictly speaking, the key in which an instru- 
ment stands has no connection with notation, 
or with the custom of treating it as in the 
transposing or non-transposing class. D. J. B.] 

FLUTE- WORK. Under this head are grouped 
all the flue -stops on the organ, of whatever kind, 
shape, or tone, that are not classed as Principal- 
work, or Gedact-work, and it also includes 
various modifications of these two classes of stops. 
[Flue- work.] Thus when the 'scale' of the 
pipes of a cylindrical stop is reduced below the 
proportion essential to secure the broad and full 
Diapason tone, and the sound becomes delicate 
as in a Dulciana, or crisp as in a Gamba ; or 
when it is increased beyond the Diapason scale, 
and the tone becomes thick or less resonant as 
in the Block-flote, the stop becomes a member 



FLYING DUTCHMAN 



FORSTER 



69 



of the ' flute-work. ' Also, if the covers of the 
pipes of a closed metal-stop be punctured, and 
a narrow tube — in Germany called a reed, in 
France a chimney — be inserted, the stop then 
becomes a member of the flute-work under the 
name Rohr-jlbte, FlUte a cheminee, or 'Metal 
stopped-Diapason (or Flute) with chimneys.' 
A unison cylindrical stop will be occasionally 
met with labelled as a member of the flute-work. 
All stops the pipes of which taper upwards, as 
the Spitz-flote and Gemshorn ; all three- or four- 
sided open wood pipes, as the Hohl-flote, Clara- 
bella, Wald-flute, Oboe-flute, and Suabe-flute ; 
and most string-toned stops, as Salicional and 
Viol d'Amore, — are members of the Flute- work. 

The invention of the conical, the string-toned, 
and the other stops classified as flute-work, 
dates back no farther than the beginning of the 
16th century. E. J. H. 

FLYING DUTCHMAN, THE. See Flie- 
gende Hollander. 

FODOR, Joseph, violin player, born in 1752 
at Venloo. In 1766 he studied under Franz 
Benda at Berlin, and having acquired great 
proficiency, travelled for a number of years 
in Germany, the Netherlands, and France, 
establishing his reputation as an eminent 
violinist. In 1794 he went to St. Petersburg, 
and remained there up to his death, Oct. 3, 
1828. Spohr, who heard him in 1803, con- 
sidered him wanting in feeling and taste, and 
objects to his unsteady manner of bowing, but 
acknowledges his great technical skill. His 
numerous compositions — nine Concertos and 
Solos for the Violin, Duos for Violins, and many 
Quartets for Strings, are well written and met 
with much success in their time. [List in the 
Quell 'en- Lexikon.~\ The famous singer, Mine. 
Fodor-Mainvielle, was his daughter, and his 
two younger brothers, Charles and Anton, 
were clever pianists and composers. p. D. 

FODOR-MAINVIELLE, Josephine, cele- 
brated singer, born 1793 in Paris, where her 
father, Joseph Fodor the violinist, had settled 
in 1787. In 1794 her parents removed to St. 
Petersburg, where she played both pianoforte 
and harp when only eleven. Three years after 
she became known as a singer, and in 1810 
made her first appearance at the court theatre 
in Fioravanti's ' Cantatrici villanelle,' which 
was repeated sixty times, so successful was her 
performance. In 1812 she married the actor 
Mainvielle, and travelled with him to Stock- 
holm, Copenhagen, returning to Paris, where 
she was engaged for the Opera Comique. Fer 
first appearance, August 9, 1814, was a com- 
parative failure ; it was evident that French 
opera was not her province, and she was trans- 
ferred in Nov. of the same year to the Theatre 
Italien, then under Mme. Catalani's manage- 
ment. Here she remained till the beginning of 
1816, when she left for London. In London she 
sang for three seasons as prima donna, and was 



listened to with respect, though she was never a 
warm favourite. ' Don Giovanni ' was brought 
out at the King's Theatre in 1817, and Zerlina 
was her best character. In July 1818 she went 
to Italy, returning to Paris early in the following 
year, after Catalani had given up the opera. 
Rossini's ' Barbiere ' was then given for the first 
time in Paris (Oct. 26, 1819), and she played 
Rosina, as well as Ninetta, Agnese, and other 
first-rate parts. In 1822, suffering severely 
from dyspepsia, she was advised to try the 
milder climate of Naples, which so completely 
restored her that she appeared at San Carlo as 
Desdemona, Semiramide, and Zelmira, creating 
in all twenty new parts. In the following year 
she sang for a whole season in Vienna, but 
returned to Naples and remained there till 
1825, when she again went to Paris. On Dec. 
9 she appeared in ' Semiramide, ' but her voice 
failed and she was compelled to leave the stage. 
This misfortune was followed by a hoarseness 
which prevented her singing again in Paris. The 
management having declined to fulfil their con- 
tract, she brought a succession of actions against 
them, and finally accepted a compromise in 
1828. After her return to Naples her voice so 
far improved that she sang again at San Carlo, 
but its peculiar charm was gone, though her 
style was as fine as ever, and served as a model 
for no less a singer than Henrietta Sontag. 
Mendelssohn saw a great deal of her at Naples 
in 1831, and his very favourable impression 
may be learned from his letters (April 27, 1831). 
Her last appearance was at Bordeaux in 1833, 
after which she retired into private life. 

When at her prime, Fodor's voice was not 
only powerful but extremely sweet and round, 
with a peculiarly charming accent, and a fault- 
less intonation. She was very painstaking, and 
acquired by practice a flexibility with which 
she was not naturally gifted. Her daughter 
Enrichetta, also a singer of merit, was very 
successful at the Konigstadt Theatre (not the 
Friedrich-Wilhelmstadt Theatre) in Berlin, be- 
tween the years 1846 and 1849. f. g. 

FORSTER, Emanuel Aloys, composer of 
good chamber-music, born at Niederstein, Glatz, 
Silesia, Jan. 26, 1748. In his youth he studied 
music by himself, and composed industriously, 
while obeying his father by attending the Latin 
school, and working under him as an accountant 
at a tavern. He afterwards served in the 
Prussian army, and in 1776 resolved to go to 
Vienna in order to cultivate music thoroughly. 
There he soon became one of the most valued 
teachers of thorough-bass and composition, and 
his works were universally respected as the 
products of sound thought and earnest study. 
In 1802 he published his 'Anleitung zum 
Generalbass ' (Traeg) with 146 examples, a clear 
practical work still of value. In 1805 it was 
republished by Breitkopf & Hartel, and a new 
edition by Artaria in 1 823. Fbrster added three 



70 



FOGGIA 



FOLLIA 



supplementary numbers of practical examples. 
His compositions consist of forty-eight violin 
quartets, numerous pianoforte sonatas, preludes 
and fugues for organ, Lieder, etc. [See the 
list in the QuclUn-Lcxikon.~\ He composed the 
variations in A on an air from Sarti's opera ' I 
fintiEredi,' which were long attributed to Mozart, 
and extremely popular ; and which appeared in 
many editions of Mozart's works. (Kochel, p. 
530, No. 289 ; Jahn's Mozart, ed. 1, iv. 11 ; 
ed. 2, ii. 137.) Forster was held in high esti- 
mation by all the composers of his own time, par- 
ticularly by Beethoven, who implies he had learnt 
much from him. He died at Vienna, Nov. 12, 
1823. His place and date of birth and death, 
much disputed points, are given here from the 
Transactions of the 'Tonkiinstler-Societat,' of 
which he was a member. [See the Sammelb'dnde 
of the Int. Mies. Ges. vi. 274.] c. f. p. 

FOGGI A, Francesco, the last Italian church- 
composer who remained faithful to the traditions 
of Palestrina ; born in Rome 1604, studied under 
Cifra, Nanini, and Agostini. He then entered 
the service of the Elector of Cologne, the Elector 
of Bavaria, and the Archduke Leopold of Austria 
in turn. After his return to Italy he was 
appointed maestro di cappella successively at 
Narni, Montefiascone, and the following churches 
in Rome, — Santa Maria in Aquiro, Santa Maria 
in Trastevere, St. John Lateran (1636-61), San 
Lorenzo in Damaso, and Santa Maria Maggiore 
(1677), which last post he retained till his death, 
Jan. 8, 1688, when he was succeeded by his son 
Antonio. He is buried in the church of S. 
Prassede. He published much church music for 
from two to nine voices [see the list in the 
Quellen-Lexikoii], and most of the churches in 
Rome possess some works by him in MS. 
Martini has analysed some of his motets in the 
'Saggio di contrappunto.' Liberati calls him 
' il sostegno e il padre della musica e della vera 
armonica ecclesiastica. ' He was one of the first 
musicians to write tonal fugues, while he was 
the last Italian capable of composing genuine 
church music in the polyphonic style. Hullah 
printed a fine motet by him in his ' Vocal 
Scores.' F. g. 

FOLI, Signor, whose real name was Allan 
James Foley, was born at Cahir, Tipperary, 
Aug. 7, 1835, and in early life went to America. 
He was taught singing at Naples by the elder 
Bisaccia, and in Dec. 1862 he made his debut 
at Catania as Elmiro in ' Otello. ' He played 
successively at Turin, Modena, Milan, and in 
1 8 6 4 at the Italiens, Paris. On June 17,1865, 
Signor Foli made a successful debut at Her 
Majesty's as St. Bris ('Huguenots'); on July 
6 as the Second Priest on the revival of 
'Zauberflote,' and on Oct. 28 as the Hermit in 
' Der Freischiitz. ' From that time he sang 
frequently in Italian at the three 'patent' 
theatres in upwards of sixty operas, viz. as 
Sarastro, Commendatore, Marcel, Caspar, Mephis- 



topheles, Sparafucile, Basilio, Assur and Oroe 
( ' Semiramide '), Rodolfo (' Sonnambula '), Bide 
the Bent ('Lucia'), Bertram, and Daland on 
the production of 'Der Fliegende Hollander,' 
at Drury Lane, July 23, 1870, etc., in addition 
to the parts previously named, in which his fine 
voice — a rich powerful bass of more than two 
octaves from E below the line to F — was heard 
to full advantage. 

Signor Foli was equally well known as an 
oratorio and concert singer at all the important 
festivals. He made his first appearance in the 
former on April 25, 1866, in 'Israel' at the 
National Choral Society, but his first success 
was on Feb. 22, 1867, in ' The Creation ' at the 
Sacred Harmonic. His new parts in this class 
included Jacob, on the production of Macfarren's 
' Joseph' at the Leeds Festival, Sept. 21, 1877, 
and Herod, on production of Berlioz's ' L'Enfance 
du Christ ' under Halle at Manchester, Dec. 30, 
1880, and in London, Feb. 26, 1881. He 
played in America, at St. Petersburg, Moscow, 
Vienna, etc. In Russia he made a conspicuous 
success as Caspar, Moses (which part he sang 
with success at the Sacred Harmonic), and as 
Pietro in ' Masaniello. ' He died at Southport, 
Oct. 20, 1899. A. c. 

FOLK-SONG SOCIETY. This society was 
definitely established in London on June 16, 
1898, for the preservation and publication of 
folk-songs and melodies. The first President 
was the late Lord Herschell, and the late Sir 
John Stainer, with Sir Alexander C. Mackenzie, 
Sir Hubert Parry, and Professor (now Sir C. V.) 
Stanford, were Vice-Presidents. The original 
committee consisted of Mrs. Frederick Beer, 
Miss Lucy E. Broad wood, Sir Ernest Clarke, 
Mr. W. H. Gill, Mrs. L. Gomme, Messrs. A. 
P. Graves, E. F. Jacques, Frank Kidson, J. A. 
Fuller Maitland, J. P. Rogers, W. Barclay 
Squire, and Dr. Todhunter. Mrs. Kate Lee 
was Hon. Secretary, and Mr. A. Kalisch Hon. 
Treasurer. During the first year 110 members 
were enrolled. There have been five publica- 
tions issued (up to June 1904), and much useful 
work done in attracting attention to the neces- 
sity of noting down our folk-songs before they 
are entirely lost. In 1904 Miss Lucy E. Broad- 
wood became Hon. Secretary, and Lord Tenny- 
son, President. f. k. 

FOLLIA. Said to be an old Spanish dance 
for a single dancer — ' ces belles chaconnes, ces 
Folies d'Espagne,' which the son of the seneschal 
of Rennes danced to such perfection (Mme. de 
Sevigne, July 24, 1689). But really all that 
is known of it is that the twenty-two variations, 
or the theme of them, which close Corel] i's 
twelve solos (op. 5) are entitled Follia ; that 
the same bass and air, but with different 
variations, are given in the ' Division Violin ' 
as ' Faronell's division on a ground ' ; that 
Vivaldi's op. 1, no. 12, is a set of variations on 
the same ; and that Hawkins (chap. 141) cites it 



FOOTE 



FOBD 



71 



as 'a favourite air known in England by the name 
of Farinelli's 1 Ground,' composed by Farinelli, 
the uncle of the singer, who was court musician 
at Hanover in 1684. It seems to follow from 
this that the ground, and not the treble part, 
was the theme, just as it is in the chaconnes of 
Bach and Handel. The ground is one on which 
a skilful violin player and a skilful dancer 
might go on fiddling and dancing ad infinitum. 
The following is Corelli's theme : — 





^gft^lr ^s ^ 



t 5 fc 



Pb-jjJ ir bJT£ j p --4^Jp 



HI 



$2= 



? 



3 



ES^S 



Cherubini has introduced eight bars of it in 
the opening of the Overture to the ' Hotellerie 
Portugaise. ' G. 

FOOTE, Arthur, amongst American musi- 
cians of eminence, enjoys the distinction of 
being the only one whose education is wholly 
native. He was born in Salem, Mass., on March 
5, 1853. As a lad he studied the pianoforte, 
and at fifteen was taken to B. J. Lang, on 
whose advice he was entered as a student of 
harmony in the class of Stephen A. Emery at 
the New England Conservatory of Music. These 
and all other musical studies were interrupted 
when he entered Harvard University. Though 
John K. Paine was a musical instructor and 
chapel organist at the time, music had not yet 
been raised to the dignity of an elective study, 
nor was there a musical chair. After gradua- 
tion in 1874 Foote resumed his musical studies 
with zeal, going to Lang for lessons on the 
pianoforte and organ, and to Paine for counter- 
point, canon, fugue, and free composition. His 
examination for the degree of A.M. conferred 
on him by Harvard University in 1875 included 
music. 

Entering upon the practice of his profession 
Foote became a church organist and teacher 
of the pianoforte in Boston, to which city his 
activities in that direction have since been con- 
fined. As a composer, however, his influence 
has spread throughout the States. His orches- 
tral compositions, including an overture, ' In 
the Mountains,' two Suites, in D minor and E 
major, a Serenade for strings, and a symphonic 

1 The common English name was ' Fardinell's,' as Madame de 
Querouaille was called ' Madam Carvell.' 



poem, ' Francesca da Rimini, ' have been played 
repeatedly by the orchestras of Boston, New 
York, and Chicago, under the direction of such 
men as Wilhelm Gericke, Theodore Thomas, 
Emil Paur, and Frank Van der Stucken ; while 
his cantatas, ' The Farewell of Hiawatha,' ' The 
Wreck of the Hesperus, ' and ' The Skeleton in 
Armour ' have found places on the programmes 
of many other concert institutions. Mr. Foote 
has also made large excursions into the fields of 
chamber and church music and song. H. E. K. 

FORBES, Henry, born in London in 1804, 
studied music under Sir George Smart, Hummel, 
Moscheles, and Herz. He was an excellent 
pianist and organist, and conductor of the 
Societa Armonica. He for some years held the 
appointment of organist of the parish church of 
St. Luke, Chelsea. He gave concerts with his 
brother George (1813-83), organist of St. 
Mary's, Bayswater Square, and author of many 
pianoforte pieces, etc. His published composi- 
tions comprise several songs and a collection 
of psalm tunes for four voices called ' National 
Psalmody' (1843). He also composed 'The 
Fairy Oak,' an opera produced at Drury Lane 
Theatre in 1845, and 'Ruth,' an oratorio, 
performed at Hanover Square Rooms in 1847. 
He died in London, Nov. 24, 1859. w. H. H. 

FORD, Ernest, conductor and composer, 
born at Warminster, Wilts, Feb. 17, 1858 ; was 
the son of the Vestry Clerk and organist of the 
Minster there. From 1868 to 1873 he was a 
chorister in Salisbury Cathedral, but owing to 
indifferent health was sent for educational pur- 
poses to Weston-super-Mare. In 1875 he won 
the first Sir John Goss scholarship at the Royal 
Academy of Music, London, where he studied 
under Sullivan, Harold Thomas (pianoforte), 
and Dr. Steggall (organ). In that year also he 
became a F.(R.)C.O. On quitting the Royal 
Academy Ford spent some time in Paris studying 
under Lalo, whence he went to America, where, 
in celebration of the 250th anniversary of the 
foundation of Harvard University, a motet by 
him, a setting of the Psalm ' Domine Deus, ' was 
the chief musical work performed. At one time 
Ford was official accompanist at the Saturday 
Popular Concerts, and on the opening of the 
Royal English Opera House (now the Palace 
Theatre of Varieties) Ford was selected with 
F. Cellier to conduct Sullivan's ' Ivanhoe, ' the 
opera with which the ill-fated opera-house 
opened. Later he became conductor of the 
Trafalgar (now the Duke of York's) Theatre, 
where the comic opera ' The Wedding Eve ' 
was produced in London with music revised and 
mainly composed (as regards the second and 
third acts) by Ford ; and of the Empire Theatre, 
where much of the music to the ballets produced 
there between 1894 and 1897 was composed by 
him. In 1897 the Royal Amateur Orchestral 
Society elected him conductor, a post he still 
holds (1905). For some time he was also director 



72 



FOKD 



FORLANA 



of the operatic class at the Guildhall School of 
Music. Ford's compositions are in nearly all 
styles. His church services are in constant use 
at St. Paul's Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, 
and other principal churches ; for the Empire he 
composed the ballets 'La Frolique,' 'Brighton 
Pier,' ' Faust,' and ' La Danse ' ; there exists a 
volume of beautiful settings of poems by Shelley ; 
while his operas and operettas include ' Daniel 
O'Rourke' (1884); ' Nydia ' (a duologue by 
Justin H. M c Carthy, 1889); 'Joan' (Robert 
Martin, 1890) ; 'Mr. Jericho' (operetta by H. 
Greenbank, 1893); 'Jane Annie' (libretto by 
J. M. Barrie and Sir A. Conan Doyle), produced 
at the Savoy, May 13, 1893) ; a cantata, 'The 
Eve of the Festa.' On March 29, 1899, he was 
elected a Fellow of the R.A.M. R. H. l. 

FORD, Thomas, born about 1580, was one 
of the musicians of Prince Henry, son of James I. 
In 1607 he published a work entitled ' Musicke of 
Sundrie Kindes. Set forth in two Bookes. The 
first whereof are Aries [sic] for four Voices to the 
Lute, Orpharion, or Basse-Viol, with a Dialogue 
for two Voyces and two Basse -Viols in parts 
tunde the Lute way. The Second are Pavens, 
Galiards, Almaines, Toies, Iigges, Thumpes and 
such like, for two Basse-Viols, the Liera way, 
so made as the greatest number may serve to 
play alone, very easie to be performde. ' This 
work contains the beautiful four -part songs 
' Since first I saw your face,' and 'There is a 
ladie sweet and kind.' [In 1611 he was one of 
the musicians of Henry, Prince of Wales, at a 
salary of £30 a year, soon afterwards increased 
to £40. In 1626 it was doubled, on his becom- 
ing a member of the King's band.] Ford con- 
tributed two anthems to Leigh ton's ' Teares or 
Lamentacions of a Sorrowfull Soule,' 1614. He 
composed some canons and rounds printed in 
Hilton's 'Catch that Catch can,' and an anthem 
'Let God arise,' printed in the Anthems by 
Madrigal Composers of the Mus. Antiq. Society. 
He was buried at S. Margaret's, Nov. 17, 
1648. w. H. H. : corrections and additions 
from Diet, of Nat. Biog. 

FORKEL, Johann Nicolaus, a meritorious 
though overrated writer on the history and 
theory of music, son of a shoemaker, born Feb. 
22, 1749, at Meeder near Coburg ; educated 
himself by the study of Mattheson's Vollkom- 
mener Capellmeister. Having a fine voice he 
was appointed chorister at Liineburg in 1762, 
and four years later ' Chorprafect ' at Schwerin. 
In 1769 he entered the university of Gbttingen 
to study law, but soon occupied himself exclu- 
sively with music, and became organist of the 
university church. In 1778 he was appointed 
director of music to the University and grad- 
uated as doctor of philosophy in 1780. [He 
conducted the weekly concerts of the Akademie 
from 1779 to 1815.] On the death of Emanuel 
Bach he hoped to have been appointed his 
successor at Hamburg, but Schwenke obtained 



the post, and Forkel remained at Gbttingen till 
his death, March 17,1818. He is best known as a 
musical critic and historian. His first work, Ueber 
die Theorie der Musik, etc. (Cramer, Gbttingen, 
1774, republished in 1777), a pamphlet urging 
the foundation of lectures on music at Gottingen, 
was followed by many others, especially Musik- 
alisch kritische Bibliothek, 3 vols. (Gotha, 1778), 
containing violent attacks on Gluck's ' Iphigenie 
in Aulide ' ; Uber die beste Einrichtung bffentlicher 
Konzerte, 1779 ; Genauere Bestimmung, etc., 
1780 ; the Mus. Almanack fur Deutschland for 
1782, 1783, 1784, and 178*9, containing parti- 
culars (not always trustworthy) as to novelties 
in music ; his Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik, 
2 vols. (Leipzig, 1788 and 1801), founded on 
Hawkins, Burney, and Marpurg, now super- 
seded, but interesting as a literary x curiosity ; 
Geschichte der Italienischen Oper, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 
1789), a translation of Arteaga's book ; and 
Allgemeine Liter at ur der Musik (Leipzig, 1792), 
his most important work. This book, which 
shows the amount of his knowledge and reading, 
is the foundation of Becker's Systematisch- 
chronologische Darstellung der musikalischen 
Literatur. Forkel was the first to attempt a 
biography of Bach {Ueber J. S. B.'s Leben, 
Kunst, und Kunstwerke. Leipzig, 1802), trans- 
lated into English under the title Life of J. S. 
Bach, with a critical review of his compositions 
(London, 1820). As he knew little of Bach's 
great sacred vocal works, he treats him mainly 
from the point of view of the organ and clavier, 
but the book will always remain as the founda- 
tion of all subsequent Lives of the great musician. 
[Among his musical compositions may be men- 
tioned the oratorios 'Hiskias,' 1789, and 'Die 
Hirten bey der Krippe, ' four cantatas for chorus 
and orchestra, clavier concertos, and many sonatas 
and variations for harpsichord. Quellen-Lexikon."] 

The royal library at Berlin contains an interest- 
ing specimen of Forkel's labours. This is a large 
volume of church music of the 16th century, 
scored by himself, and, though printed, unique. 
It was intended to form the first volume of a 
series of examples illustrating the history of 
music, and was undertaken at the instance of 
Sonnleithner of Vienna. The plates were en- 
graved in Leipzig, and the proofs were already 
in Forkel's hands, when the French took the 
city in 1806, and seized everything in the shape 
of metal to be converted into bullets. His plates 
having been thus destroyed Forkel had the proof- 
sheets bound, and this is the copy now at Berlin. 
The masses it contains are taken from ' Missae 
tredecim . . . Norinbergae . . . arte Hieronymi 
Graphei, 1539.' and 'Liber quindecim Mis- 
sarum . . . Norimbergae apud Joh. Petreium, 
1539.' F. G. 

FORLANA. An Italian dance, a favourite 
with the Venetian gondoliers. It is in 6-8 or 

i After Forkel's death, Schwickert, the publisher, offered the 
materials for completing the third volume to Fe"tis and Choron, but 
they declined the task. 



FORM 



FORM 



73 



6-4 time, but possesses no special characteristics. 
An example of this dance may be found in J. S. 
Bach's suite for orchestra in C major. The 
following quotation of the opening bars of a 
forlana of the 17th century is from F. L. Schu- 
bert's Die Tanzmusik. 




E. P. 



FORM. The means by which unity and pro- 
portion are arrived at in musical works are the 
relative distribution of keys and harmonic bases 
on the one hand, and of 'subjects' or figures or 
melodies on the other ; and this distribution is 
called the Form of the work. The order of 
distribution varies greatly with the conditions. 
Music set to poetry with a ' burden ' to each 
verse would naturally adopt the form of repeating 
the same melody to each recurrence of the 
burden ; and when the words implied similar 
circumstances and feelings would adopt repetition 
of similar or allied phrases. In dramatic works 
the order of distribution must vary with the 
development of the emotional crises, and in such 
cases will be rather a distribution of culminations 
and gradations of intensity of passion and emotion, 
than the more obvious one of key and figure ; 
though, if the relation between important figures 
of melody and the special circumstances to which 
they are appended be observed, the notion of 
form as defined by subjects will still continue to 
be perceptible. Analogously, in music which is 
supposed to represent some story or idea, such as 
is now known by the name of Programme Music, 
the form must be developed with the view of in- 
terpreting that programme truly and consisten tly . 
Such music may be compared in this to the work 
of a painter who trusts rather to the stirring 
nature of his subject than to the perfection of its 
composition to engage and delight the beholders, 
while in a portrait or picture of less vivid interest 
the element of composition, following generally 
and easily recognised principles, would be of vital 
importance. Similarly in programme music the 
composer may choose to follow the established 
so-called classical models, but it can hardly be 
doubted that a genius deeply impregnated with 
the spirit of his subject would seek to create a 
form of his own which should be more in con- 
sonance with the spirit of his programme — even 
as Beethoven did without programme, expressing 
some marvellous inner workings of his emotions, 
in the first movement of the Sonata in E, op. 109. 
But even with Beethoven, in the case of music 
without either programme or words to explain 
its purpose, such irregularity is rare. It is here 
especially that the nature and capacity of the 
minds of the auditors play an important part. 
Their attention has to be retained for a space 



of time, sometimes by no means insignificant ; 
and connection has to be established for them 
without the aid of words or other accessories 
between parts of the movement which appear at 
considerable distance from each other, and the 
whole must be so contrived that the impression 
upon the most cultivated hearer shall be one of 
unity and consistency. In such a case Form will 
inevitably play an important part, becoming more 
and more complex and interesting in proportion 
to the development of readiness of comprehension 
in the auditors. The adoption of a form which 
is quite beyond the intellectual standard of those 
for whom it is intended is a waste of valuable 
work ; but a perfect adaptation of it to their 
highest standard is both the only means of lead- 
ing them on to still higher things, and the only 
starting-point for further progress. From this 
it will be seen that in musical works which are 
connected with words or programme — whether 
choruses, songs, arias, or ballads, etc. — Form is 
dependent on the words ; and such works, as far 
as they are reducible to any definable system, 
are reducible only to the simplest, and such as 
admits of infinite latitude of variation within its 
limits. But in instrumental music there has 
been a steady and perceptible growth of certain 
fundamental principles by a process that is 
wonderfully like evolution, from the simplest 
couplings of repeated ideas by a short link of 
some sort, up to the complex but consistent 
completeness of the great instrumental works of 
Beethoven. 

There can hardly be any doubt that the first 
attempts at Form in music were essentially un- 
conscious and unpremeditated. Therefore if any 
conformity be observed in the forms of early 
music derived from various sources, it would 
seem to indicate a sort of consensus of instinct on 
the part of the composers which will be the true 
starting-point of its posterior development. It 
must be remarked by way of parenthesis that in 
the early days of modern music — apart from the 
ecclesiastical music of the Roman Church — the 
instrumental and vocal orders were not nearly so 
distinct as they are l now, for the tendency to 
strongly and clearly marked distinction in kind 
is notoriously a matter of slow growth. Hence 
examples may be drawn with perfect safety from 
both kinds wherever they can be found. 

The first basis of true Form, apart from the 
balance of groups of rhythms, is essentially 
repetition of some sort, and what is most vital 
to the question is the manner of the repetition. 
The simplest and most elementary kind is the 
repetition of a phrase or bit of melody with a 
short passage in the middle to connect the two 
statements. As an early example of this form 
may be taken an ancient German chorale, ' Jesus 
Christus unser Heiland, Der den Tod uberwand ' 
(1535), which is as follows : — 

i For instance, the old English madrigals were published as ' apt 
for Viols and Voices.' 

/ 



74 



FORM 



FORM 



$ 



-J A 1 J - ~ ^ J gl 



m te s i a ^ a - g '~ a 



i=s 



£ = 3 = 3=^eb-| 5 • e hUj l 




In this the bars bracketed are the same, and the 
phrase which connects them is very short ; and 
the whole presents about as simple and un- 
sophisticated a specimen of Form as could well 
be conceived. The simple basis of which this is 
a type is the origin of the Rondo-form, which 
has survived with great variety and modification 
of treatment till the present day. The first 
advances upon the above example which offer 
any points of interest seem to be in cases where 
we find either a contrast aimed at in the passage 
which forms the link, or a number of repetitions 
succeeding one another, with differences in the 
passages connecting them. These two consti- 
tute the two great branches through which 
this primitive idea diverged into thousands of 
Arias, Lieder, Nocturnes, Romances, Scherzos, 
and other lyrical pieces on the one hand, and 
the movement which still retains its name of 
Rondo on the other. As an early example of 
the first we may take the song ' Roland courez 
aux armes ' from Lully's opera ' Roland, ' which 
is too long for insertion here, but will be found 
in the 136th chapter of Hawkins's History of 
Music. In this there are twelve bars of melody 
in C, concluding in that key ; followed by twelve 
more bars, in which there is modulation first to 
the relative minor A, and then to the dominant 
key 6 major, in which key this portion concludes ; 
after which the first twelve bars are resumed 
precisely as at first, and so the whole concludes. 
Here the employment of modulation in the con- 
necting passage is a strong element cf contrast, 
and indicates a considerable advance in musical 
ideas on the obscure tonality of the preceding ex- 
ample. On the other hand, almost contemporary 
with Lully, there are, in the works of Couperin, 
numerous specimens of the Rondo, consisting of 
a number of repetitions, with differences in the 
connecting passages. In these the passage with 
which the movement commences is repeated over 
and over again bodily and without disguise, and 
separate short passages, of similar length but 
varying character, are put in between. Couperin 
was particularly fond of the Rondo- form, and 
examples may be found in profusion in his 
works. The one which is perhaps best known 
and most available for reference is the ' Passa- 
caille en Rondeau,' published in the complete 
edition of Brahms and Chrysarider, vol. i. p. 
152. A point specially observable in them is 
the rigidity and absence of any attempt at 
sophistication in the process. The sections are 
like crude squares and circles fitted together into 



a design, and no attempt, or very little at best, 
is made to soften off the outlines by making 
the sections pass into one another. The chief 
subject is distinct and the episodes are distinct, 
and the number of repetitions seems to depend 
solely on the capacity of the composer to put 
something in between. Still it is clear that the 
virtue of contrasts both of style and of key is 
appreciated, though the range of modulation is 
extremely limited. It is noticeable, moreover, 
as illustrating the point of view from which 
Form at that time was regarded, when recognised 
as such, that the divisions of the Rondo are 
marked with extra emphasis by a Fermata or 
pause. From this to such a Rondo as we find 
in the Partita in C minor of Bach is a great 
step. Here there are no strongly marked divi- 
sions to stiffen the movement into formality, 
but it flows on almost uninterruptedly from first 
to last. The episodes modulate more freely, 
and there is not such rigid regularity in the 
reappearance of the main subject. It appears 
once outside of the principal key, and (which is 
yet more important) is brought in at the end 
in an extremely happy variation ; which is 
prophetic of Beethoven's favourite practice of 
putting identical ideas in different lights. The 
next stage of development of this form — and 
that probably rather a change than an improve- 
ment on the above beautiful little specimen of 
Bach — is the Rondo of Haydn and Mozart. 
Their treatment of it is practically the same as 
Couperin's, but in many cases is strongly modified 
by the more important and elaborate ' First- 
movement- form,' which by their time had grown 
into clearness of system and definition. The 
Rondo-form, pure and simple, has remained till 
now much as it was in Couperin's time, gaining 
more in expansion than in change of outline. 
Even the great Rondo of Beethoven's ' Wald- 
stein' Sonata (op. 53) consists of the repetition 
of a subject of some length interspersed with 
episodes ; with modifications in the length of the 
episodes and the repetition of one of them, and 
a great Coda founded on the principal subject to 
conclude with. The further consideration of the 
Rondo as affected by the ' first movement ' form 
must be postponed till after the examination of 
the latter. 

By the side of the primitive Rondo above 
quoted a form more complex in principle is found. 
In this form the relations of harmonic roots come 
largely into play, but its most striking and 
singular feature is the manner of the repetition 
by which it is characterised. And in this case 
examples drawn from various early sources which 
agree in the peculiar manner of the repetition 
will be of value, as above indicated. In this 
form the movement is divided into two halves, 
and these again into two sections. The first 
half, or complete period, comprises asortof rough 
balance between the amount which tends to the 
Tonic and the amount which tends to the Domi- 



FORM 



FORM 



75 



nant, thereby indicating the division into two 
sections ; and the second half begins with passages 
which have more freedom in the distribution of 
their roots, which constitutes its first section, and 
ends with a quotation of the last bars or figures 
of the first half, which constitutes its second 
section. This will be best understood from an 
example. The following is a very early specimen 
of the dance tune called a ' Branle ' or ' Brawl,' 
from the ' Orchesographie ' of Thoinot Arbeau 
(Langres, 1589) : — 

* 




In this it will be observed that the first half 
of the little tune is divided at (a) by the strong 
emphasis on the Dominant, from which point 
it returns to the Tonic, and so closes the first 
half. The second half, commencing at (b), can 
easily be perceived to have a freer harmonic 
basis than either of the first sections, and so 
leads the mind away from the Tonic and Domi- 
nant centres in order that they may come in 
fresh again for the conclusion ; and having carried 
the figure on to an apparently disproportionate 
length (which serves the excellent purpose of 
breaking the monotony of constant pairs of bars), 
finally, at (c), resumes the little tailpiece of the 
first half and thereby clenches the whole into 
completeness. The manner in which this answers 
the requirements of artistic construction is very 
remarkable, and it will be found hereafter that 
it does so throughout on a precisely similar 
scheme, in miniature, to that of a 19th century 
Symphony movement. It would be natural to 
suppose that this was pure accident if there 
were not other ancient examples of the same 
form coming from the most opposite sources. 
The above Branle is a French dance tune ; if we 
turn from it and take the most famous German 
Chorale, ' Ein' feste Burg ' (1529), the principles 
of its construction will be found to be identical. 
It is so well known that it is needless to quote 
it. 1 It will be sufficient to point out that the 
first half of the tune ends at the conclusion of 
the second line ; and of this half the first line 
ends on the Dominant and the second on the 
Tonic, precisely as in the Branle ; and it is then 
repeated for the third and fourth lines. The 
music to the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth 
lines answers to the passage between (b) and (c) 
in the Branle, and like it presents a variety of 
harmonic bases ; and to clench it all together 
the music of the second line is quoted to conclude 
with, precisely as is the little tailpiece of the 
first half in the Branle. It is impossible not to 

1 It ia given in vol. i. p. 771. 



feel the force of this as a point of musical form 
when it is once realised ; it has the effect of 
completeness for a short tune which is unrivalled. 
If we turn to far other sources we shall find an 
early English specimen in the well-known ' Since 
first I saw your face' (1607), in which the 
second and last line will again be found to be 
identical, and the other points of the scheme to 
conform in like manner. Even in Italy, where 
the value of form does not seem to have been 
so readily appreciated as by Teutons, we find 
a little Sinfonia for flutes in Giacomo Peri's 
' Euridice ' (1600) — the first musical drama per- 
formed in modern Europe — which at least has 
the one important feature of repeating a little 
characteristic figure of the cadence of the first 
half to conclude the whole. It must not be sup- 
posed that this form was by any means universal 
so early as the middle of the 16th century — a 
time when notions of harmony proper, as apart 
from polyphony, were but dawning, and the 
musical scales and keys as we now know them 
were quite vague and unsettled. It is wonderful 
enough that there should be any examples of 
Form at all in such a state of musical language ; 
for Form as now recognised depends greatly upon 
those two very elements of harmonic bases and 
relation of keys ; so that what was then done in 
those departments must have been done by in- 
stinct. But by the middle of the 17th century 
musical knowledge in these respects was much 
more nearly complete, and the scope of composers 
proportionately widened. Accordingly we find 
a greater freedom in the treatment of forms ; 
but the outline of the same form on a larger 
scale is found to predominate in the instrumental 
works of the time, especially such as pass under 
the names of dances ; though it is probable that 
those sets of them which were called 'Suites,' 
or ' Sonatas, ' or ' Ordres, ' were rather purely 
musical than terpsichorean. In the ecclesias- 
tical Sonatas (Sonate da Chiesa) the style still 
continues fugal and polyphonic. 

It would be impossible to give even a faint 
idea of the number of examples of this form 
which are to be found in these dance- tune suites, 
but it will be well to take some typical speci- 
mens and indicate the points in which they show 
development. In Corelli's Chamber Sonatas 
there are many clear instances. Thus, in the 
Giga of Sonata IV. of the ' Opera Quarta,' there 
is the usual division into two halves. Of these 
the first is again divided into two phrases, the 
first phrase all in the Tonic key, D ; the second 
then modulating to the key of the Dominant and 
closing in it. The second half begins with a 
sort of development of the figures of the first 
part, then modulates to nearly related keys, and 
after passing back to the original key concludes 
with a quotation of the last few bars of the 
first half. In this scheme there are two points 
of advance on the previous examples ; the first 
part concludes in what we will henceforward 



76 



FORM 



FORM 



call the complementary key, or key of the Domin- 
ant, instead of merely passing to it and back 
and closing in the principal key — by that means 
establishing more clearly the balance between it 
and the principal key ; and secondly, the first 
part of the second half of the movement presents 
some attempt at a development of the features 
of the subjects of the first part, and real free 
modulation. The Corrente and Giga of the 
seventh Sonata of the ' Opera Seconda ' are also 
remarkably clear specimens of repetition of the 
end of the first part as a conclusion to the whole, 
since full six bars in each are repeated. Both ex- 
amples are, however, inferior to the above-quoted 
Giga in respect of the conclusion of the first part 
being in the principal key — like the older 
examples first quoted as typical — though like 
that Giga they are superior to the older examples 
in the free modulations and reference to the 
conspicuous figures of the subjects in the first 
section of the second half of the movements. 

Domenico Scarlatti (16S3-1757) was a con- 
temporary of Handel and Bach, being but two 
years their senior ; nevertheless he must be 
considered as historically prior to them, inasmuch 
as the very power of their genius would make 
them rather the prophets of what was to come 
than representatives of prevalent contemporary 
ideas. Domenico Scarlatti left many examples 
of Studies or Sonatas which are essentially 
expansions of the plan of the original Branle. 
In some the first part concludes in the principal, 
and in some in the complementary key, either 
Dominant or relative major. A very extended 
example is found in a Study in D minor, Allegro 
(No. 7 of a set of ' Pieces pour le Clavecin ' 
published by Cramer). In this there is first a 
section chiefly in D minor, which modulates to 
F, the relative major, and concludes in that key 
— altogether twenty- two bars ; and then another 
section, of twenty- one bars, all in F major, and 
closing in that key. This concludes the first 
half, which corresponds with the first half of 
a modern Sonata movement. The second half 
sets out with a reference to the first subject in 
F, and then modulates freely to various keys, 
ultimately closing in the original key of D minor, 
and there taking up the thread of the latter 
section of the first half of the movement, and 
giving the whole twenty-one bars almost identi- 
cally, transposed from the original key of F into 
the principal key of D. The descent of this move- 
ment from the dance type is sufficiently clear 
without again going over the ground. Its most 
conspicuous advance is in its relative extension, 
twenty-two bars corresponding to two in the 
original example, and the other divisions being in 
proportion. The free modulation of the second 
half of the movement is the strict counterpart 
on a large scale of the changing harmonic basis 
in the Branle, and this is an advance due to the 
great increase of musical knowledge and re- 
sources. In other respects the similarity between 



the typical progenitor and its descendant is 
sufficiently clear. D. Scarlatti's works are 
almost universally a great advance on Corelli in 
the clear definition of the subjects and the variety 
of the rhythms, which enables him to approach 
much more nearly to modern ideas in what is 
called the 'development' of the subjects ; though 
it is true that a mere patchwork of short subjects 
stated one after another often serves the purpose 
with him of the more continuous and artistic 
modern development. It will also be noticed 
that Scarlatti generally abandons the names of 
the dance tunes while retaining their forms. 

There were other contemporaries of Bach and 
Handel who must be noticed before them for the 
same reasons as Scarlatti. Their works generally 
present the feature of extensive repetition of the 
last section of the first part as a conclusion to the 
whole, in a very marked manner. Thus in a 
Corrente from a Suite by Domenico Zipoli (born 
1685) precisely the same system is observable as 
in the example by Scarlatti. And in a Sonata 
by Wagenseil (born 1715) in F, op. 1, the first 
movement is a very extended specimen of the 
same kind ; and the last movement, a Minuetto, 
is remarkable for the great length of the phrase 
repeated. The first half of the movement is but 
sixteen bars, of which the latter twelve are all 
in the Dominant key ; and the whole of these 
twelve bars are repeated at the conclusion, the 
first four having been disposed of at the com- 
mencement of the preceding 'development,' as 
in the Study of Scarlatti. 

Bach and Handel present an extraordinary 
variety of forms in their works. Some are iden- 
tical with the form of the Branle and ' Ein' feste 
Burg ' ; others are like the primitive Rondo on a 
very extended scale ; and many exhibit various 
stages of progressive development up to the per- 
fect types of the complete modern forms as used 
by Mozart. 

A very large number of the movements in the 
Suites of both Bach and Handel are in the same 
form as the previous examples. The first half 
is divided, not very strongly, into two sections, 
in which the principal key and the complementary 
key alternately predominate. The second half 
sets out with development and free modulation 
and concludes with a quotation of the concluding 
bars or features of the first half. To take Bach's 
1 Suites Francaises ' as examples, the following, 
among others, will be found to conform to this 
simple scheme : — Gigue of No. 1, in D minor ; 
Courante of No. 2, in C minor ; Gigue of No. 3, 
in B minor; Courante of No. 4, in Efc> ; the Alle- 
mande and the Courante of No. 5, in G ; and the 
Courante and the Bounce of No. 6, in E. As 
examples of the same from Handel's Suites the 
following maybe taken : — the Courante in No. 1, 
in A ; the Allegro in No. 2, in F ; the Courante 
in No. 4, in E minor ; the Allemande in No. 5, 
in E major ; and the Gigues in the 5th, 7th, 8th, 
and 10th Suites. In many of these there is a 



FOEM 



FORM 



77 



systematic development of the figures of the sub- 
ject in the first section of the second half of the 
movement ; but a tendency is also observable to 
commence the second half of the movement with 
a quotation of the commencement of the whole, 
which answers practically to the first subject. 
This was also noticed in the example quoted 
from Scarlatti. Bach not un frequently begins 
the second half with an inversion of the charac- 
teristic figure of the commencement, or treats 
it in a free kind of double counterpoint, as he 
sometimes does in repeating the conclusion of the 
first half at the conclusion of the whole. (See 
the last four bars of the Allemande in the 
Partita No. 2, in C minor.) How the subject 
reappears is, however, a matter of subsidiary 
importance. "What is chiefly important is the 
fact that the first subject gradually begins to 
make its appearance clearly and definitely in 
the second part as a repetition from the first 
part ; and it is very interesting and curious to 
note that there was a long hesitation as to the 
position in the second half which this repetition 
should occupy. The balance for a long time 
was certainly in favour of its appearing at the 
beginning of the second half, and in the comple- 
mentary key of the movement. A very clear 
and easily recognisable instance of this is the 
opening ' pomposo ' movement of the Overture 
to Handel's 'Samson,' which differs in form 
from the first movement of a modern Sonata or 
Symphony in this one particular only. But 
there are specimens of form in both Bach and 
Handel which are prophetic of the complete 
modern system of Mozart. The fact is so in- 
teresting and instructive that it will be worth 
while to give an analysis of the shortest example 
of Bach, in order that it may be compared with 
the scheme of Mozart form, which will be given 
later. A little Air in the Suite Francaise No. 
4, in Eb major, sets out with a clearly defined 
figure which may be called the 'first subject,' 
and modulates in the fourth bar to the key of 
the Dominant, in which the figure which may 
also be called by analogy the ' second subject ' 
appears, and with this the first half of the move- 
ment concludes. The second half sets out with 
modulations and hints at the figures of the first 
half, after ten bars comes to a pause on the 
Dominant of the original key and from thence 
recommences the first subject ; and the latter 
part of the section being deftly altered by a 
device of modulation — of which Mozart made 
great use in the same position in the movement — 
enables the whole of the last four bars of the first 
half of the movement to follow also in Eb, so 
concluding the Air. 

There is no need to give a like detailed an- 
alysis of the Allegro in Handel's Suite No. 14, 
in G. It will suffice to point out that its form 
is identical with the preceding on a large scale ; 
and that it is clearer and easier to recognise, 
inasmuch as the sections do not flow so closely 



into one another, and the subjects are, more 
definite. These two examples are, however, ex- 
ceptional as regards both Bach and Handel and 
their immediate successors. The tendency was 
still for a time to adopt the form of reproducing 
the first subject at the commencement of the 
second half of the movement ; 1 and in point of 
fact it is not difficult to see why it was preferred, 
since, if nothing else could be said for it, it cer- 
tainly seemed to keep the balance of the keys 
more equal. For by this system the subject 
which appeared in the principal key in the first 
half came in in the complementary key in the 
second half, and the second subject vice versd, 
whereas in the later system the first subject 
always appears in the principal key. Moreover 
the still older system of merely repeating the 
ending of the first half still lingers on the scene 
after the time of Bach and Handel, for in a 
Sonata by Galuppi (1706-85) in D (published in 
Pauer's Alte Clavier Musik) there is a charming 
little opening Adagio which seems to look both 
forwards and backwards at once ; for its form 
is a clear specimen of the mere repetition of the 
concluding phrase of the first part at the con- 
clusion of the whole, while its soft melodious 
manner and characteristic definition of sections 
by cadences and semi-cadences (tending to cut it 
up into so many little tunes) make it in spirit a 
very near relation of Mozart's. And one might 
take this little movement, without much stretch 
of imagination, as the final connecting link be- 
tween the movements which look back towards 
the primitive form as displayed in the original 
Branle, and those which look on towards the 
Mozart and Haydn epoch. The other movements 
of Galuppi's Sonata are in the more developed 
form, in which the first subject is quoted at the 
commencement of the second half of the move- 
ment. 

In Galuppi's contemporary, P. D. Paradies, we 
find even a closer relationship to Mozart in many 
respects. The first movement of his Sonata in 
A, for instance, is on an extended scale. His 
subjects are clearly defined, and the growing 
tendency to cut the movement up into sections 
is still clearer than in Galuppi. The subjects 
are definitely restated, but after the earlier 
manner, with the first subject reproduced at the 
beginning of the second half. It is, however, 
noticeable that in the lively Finale of this Sonata 
the subjects both reappear at the end of the 
whole. 

If we turn to the distinguished German com- 
posers of this epoch we find ourselves as it were 
among the immediate exemplars of Haydn. In 
them both the manner and form of their great 
successors are prefigured, and there is no longer 
any doubt about the basis of construction of the 
movement ; the first part being as it were the 
thesis of the subjects, and the second part their 

1 The slow movement of Beethoven's Quartet in D major, op. 18, 
No. 3, is an example of this form. 



78 



FORM 



FORM 



discussion and re-statement ; but there is still an 
uncertainty with regard to the respective posi- 
tions of the re-statements. If, for instance, we 
examine a Sonata of Johann Christian Bach, 
op. 17 (Pauer's Alte Clavier Musik), we find a 
very clear and extended specimen of the older 
system. The first half has a very long section 
in the principal key (Bfc>), and another section, 
also long, in the Dominant key (F)— all of which 
is as usual repeated. The second half commences 
with a clear statement of the first section in the 
Dominant key, followed by development and 
modulation, and pausing on the Dominant of 
the original key of B^, in which all the second 
section of the first part is reproduced with an 
exactness which is almost tiresome. It is worthy 
of remark that the last movement is in the Gigue 
time and style without being so named, and is 
a happy instance of the gradual complete merg- 
ence of the old dance Suite in the Sonata. As 
a reverse to this picture there is a Bourree in a 
Suite by Johann Ludwig Krebs — a contemporary 
of Johann Christian Bach, and one of the most 
distinguished of his father's pupils — which, 
though called by the old dance name, is in perfect 
modern form, and shows so aptly the transition 
of the repeated ending of the first part into a 
second subject that it is worth quoting in out- 
line. 



<°>-0 J 




This is followed by seven more bars of develop- 
ment after the manner of this commencement, 
modulating to C minor and Ab and thence back 
to Eb, in which key the first subject is resumed 
as follows : — 

(d) ^ ^ tr. tr. 




In this the passage from (a) to (b) constitutes 
the first subject and section ; and that from (b) 
to (c) the second, in the Dominant key, cor- 
responding to a ' second subject ' ; then follow 
the development and modulation, from (c) to (d) ; 
and then the repeat of the first section in the 
principal key, with the little cadence figure (e), 
which is treated in precisely the manner that 



a second subject would be treated in a more 
extended movement, being given complete, trans- 
posed from the Dominant key to the original 
Tonic. That Krebs had well defined his own 
objects in these matters is clear from the fact 
that the Polonaise from the same suite, and an 
Allemande from another in B[?, are constructed 
after precisely the same system. 

There remains yet the most important pre- 
decessor of Haydn, namely Emanuel Bach, in 
whose Sonatas Form reached a very remarkable 
pitch of perfection. Many of them stand in a 
very peculiar relation both to the old order and 
to the new which was destined to supplant it on 
the principle of the survival of the fittest ; for 
they present examples of the reappearance of the 
first subject at the commencement of the second 
half of the movement, as well as after the section 
devoted to development and modulation — in 
other words, both in its older position and in its 
recognised place in modern instrumental works. 
This is the case in the Sonata in G in the first 
collection published at Leipzig in 1779, and in 
Biilow's little selection of Six. The same also 
in the last movement of the Sonata in A (which 
is both in Billow's collection and in Pauer's 
' Alte Meister '), and in the first movement of 
the Sonata in F minor from the third set of 
Clavier Sonatas, also edited by Biilow. The 
sonata in D minor approaches more nearly to 
modern ways in the position of the repetition of 
the first subject in the second part ; but offers a 
marked instance of independent thought in re- 
producing the second subject in the key of the 
third below the Tonic (that is, in B\y relative to 
D) and afterwards passing back to the principal 
key, and reproducing the rest of the materials of 
the section after the usual manner — thus in some 
respects anticipating Beethoven. 

A great deal more might be said on the in- 
dividual and thoughtful use of Form which is 
observable in the works of Emanuel Bach ; but 
it will be merely necessary to point out that the 
study of them as works of art, by those who are 
as yet unacquainted with them will throw quite 
a new light on Haydn and Mozart. He has 
been called 1 their forerunner, and he thoroughly 
justifies the title not only by the clearness and 
distinctness of his form, but by certain indefinable 
qualities of style and sentiment. Something of 
this may be due to his view that music should 
be interpreted as vocally as possible (see Burney, 
Hist. vol. iv. chap, x.), which is also a very 
distinguishing trait of the Mozart school. It 
must also be noted that in him the continuous 
fugal manner seems finally to have yielded before 
the growing predominance of the essentially 
distinct modern harmonic style. The forms of 
the fugal style, such as they were, were rather 
relative than positive, and depended upon certain 
laws — not very clearly defined or consistently 
observed — as to the modes of recurrence of the 

i Von Billow, Preface to his selection of pieces. 



FORM 



FORM 



79 



subjects ; whereas the forms of the modern har- 
monic style are positive and systematic. The 
forms of the fugal style may be compared to the 
composition of lines and curves in a drawing, in 
which they are not preconceived, but grow into 
completeness by the attention which is bestowed 
by the artist on their relations to one another. 
Whereas the forms of the harmonic style are 
architectural, and are governed by certain neces- 
sary prior considerations as vital as that of roof 
and walls to the architect, whereby the move- 
ment comes to be divided into sections chiefly 
based upon the succession of keys, in which the 
various subjects are rather indicators of outline 
than positive elements of construction. In 
Emanuel Bach we find a number of figures and 
subjects characteristic of each of the primary 
sections, as we do in Beethoven ; and the spirit 
of his great father, though attenuated enough, 
is yet perceptible in his manner of treating short 
and pregnant figures, and in some peculiarities 
of phraseology. These are probably the chief 
points of connection between the spirit of the 
great giant and the graces of the less austere 
style of Haydn and Mozart. 

It can hardly be doubted that the realisation 
of this practically new discovery of the element 
of positive harmonic or Tonal form in music must 
have acted like many other fresh discoveries in 
the realms of art, and tended to swamp the other 
elements of effect ; making composers look to 
form rather as ultimate and pre-eminent than as 
inevitable but subsidiary. It seems not improb- 
able that the vapid and meaningless common- 
place which often offends the sensitive musician 
in the works of Haydn and Mozart, and appears 
like just so much rubbish shot in to fill up a 
hole, was the result of this strong new feeling 
for form as paramount, and that it remained for 
Beethoven to re-establish definitely the principle 
of giving equal intensity to every part of the piece 
in proportion to its importance. With Haydn 
and Mozart it is common to find very sweet tunes, 
and sometimes very serious and pregnant tunes, 
in each of the primary sections, and then a lot 
of scurrying about — 'brilliant passages' as they 
are often called — the only purpose of which is to 
mark the cadence, or point out that the tune 
which is just finished is in such or such a key. 
Haydn's early Quartets are sometimes very little 
more than jingle in one key and more jingle in 
another, to fill up his recognised system of form, 
without ever rising to the dignity of a tune, and 
much less to a figure with any intensity of 
meaning : and some of Mozart's instrumental 
productions are but little better. 

That Haydn studied the works of Emanuel 
Bach is well known, for he himself confessed it ; 
and the immediate connection between him and 
his predecessors is nowhere more clear than in 
the similarity of occasional irregularities of con- 
struction in the second half of his movements. 
There is more than one instance of his first 



subject reappearing clearly at the beginning of 
the second half of a movement instead of in its 
latter portion (Quartet in F major, op. 2, No. 4 ; 
No. 67 in Trautwein) ; and further than this, 
and corroborative of the continuous descent, is 
the fact that when the first subject reappears in 
what we should call its right place, there are 
conspicuous irregularities in the procedure, just 
as if Haydn were half apologising for a liberty. 
For the section is often prolonged and followed 
by irregular modulations before the second subject 
reappears, and is then far more closely followed 
than the first subject and the materials of the 
first section. Another point illustrating a linger- 
ing feeling for the old practice of repeating the 
conclusion or cadence- figures of the first part at 
the conclusion of the whole, is that a sort of 
premature coda is occasionally inserted after the 
earlier figures of the second section on its repetition 
in this place, after which the concluding bars of 
the first part are exactly resumed for the finish. 
Of this even Mozart gives a singular and very 
clear instance in the first movement of his G 
minor Symphony. 

Of the minor incidental facts which are con- 
spicuous in Haydn's works the most prominent 
is his distribution of the subjects in the first 
part. He conforms to the key-element of Form 
in this part with persistent regularity, but 
one subject frequently suffices for both sections. 
With this principal subject (occasionally after 
a short independent introduction in slow time) 
he commences operations ; and after concluding 
the firstsection and passing to his complementary 
key for the second, he reproduces it in that key, 
sometimes varied and sometimes quite simply — 
as in the well-known Symphony in D, No. 7 of 
Salomon's set (first movement), or in that in Eb, 
No. 9 of the same series (also first movement), or 
in the Quartet in F minor, op. 55, or the Finale 
of the Quartet in C, op. 75 (No. 1 in Trautwein). 
And even where the second section has several 
new features in it the first subject is often still 
the centre of attraction, as in the first movement 
of the Quartet in C (No. 16, Trautwein), and 
the same movement of the Quartet in F (No. 11, 
Trautwein). On the other hand Haydn is some- 
times profuse with his subjects, and like Beethoven 
gives several in each section ; and again it is not 
uncommon with him to modulate into his com- 
plementary key and go on with the same materials 
for some time before producing his second subject, 
an analogous practice to which is also to be met 
with in Beethoven. 

A far more important item in Haydn's de- 
velopment of Form is the use of a feature which 
has latterly become very conspicuous in instru- 
mental compositions, namely the Coda, and its 
analogue, the independent episode which usually 
concludes the first half of the movement. 

Every musician is aware that in the early 
period of purely formal music it was common 
to mark all the divisions of the movements 



80 



FORM 



FORM 



clearly by closes and half closes ; and the more 
vital the division the stronger the cadence. 
Both Haydn and Mozart repeat their cadences 
in a manner which to modern ears often sounds 
excessive ; and, as already pointed out, they are 
both at times content to make mere ' business ' 
of it by brilliant passages, or bald chords ; but 
in movements which were more earnestly carried 
out the virtue of making the cadence also part of 
the music proper, and not a mere rigid meaning- 
less line to mark the divisions of the pattern, 
was soon recognised. There were two ways of 
effecting this ; either by allusion to the figures 
of the subjects adapted to the form of the 
cadence, or by an entirely new figure standing 
harmonically on the same basis. From this 
practice the final episode to the first part of the 
movement was developed, and attained at times 
no insignificant dimensions. But the Coda proper 
had a somewhat different origin. In the days be- 
fore Haydn it was almost invariable to repeat the 
second half of the movement as well as the first, 
and Haydn usually conformed to the practice. 
So long as the movements were of no great length 
this would seem sufficient without any addition, 
but when they attained to any considerable 
dimensions the poverty and want of finish in 
ending twice over in precisely the same way 
would soon become apparent ; and consequently 
a passage was sometimes added after the repeat 
to make the conclusion more full, as in Haydn's 
well-known Quartet in D minor, op. 76, the first 
movement of the Quartet in C (Trautwein, No. 
56), the last movement of the Quartet in E, 
No. 17, and many others. It seems almost 
superfluous to point out that the same doctrine 
really applies to the conclusion of the movement, 
even when the latter half is not repeated ; since 
unless an addition of some sort is made the 
whole concludes with no greater force than the 
half ; the conclusion being merely a repetition 
of the cadence figure of the first half of the 
movement. This case, however, is less obvious 
than the former, and it is probable that the 
virtue of the Coda was first observed in con- 
nection with movements in which the second 
half was repeated, and that it was afterwards 
found to apply to all indiscriminately. A Coda 
in both cases is to be defined as the passage in 
the latter part of a movement which commences 
at the point where the substance of the repeated 
first part comes to an end. In Haydn codas are 
tolerably plentiful, both in movements in which 
the latter half is repeated and in movements in 
which it is not. They are generally constructed 
out of materials taken from the movement, which 
are usually presented in some new light, or asso- 
ciated together in a fresh manner ; and the form 
is absolutely independent. Modulation is rarely 
to be found, for the intention of the Coda was to 
strengthen the impression of the principal key 
at the conclusion, and musicians had to be taught 
by Beethoven how to do this without incessantly 



reiterating the same series of chords in the same 
key. As an instance of the consideration and 
acuteness which characterise Haydn's very varied 
treatment of forms may be taken the Coda of the 
first movement of the Symphony in C, No. 1 of 
the Salomon set. In this movement he misses 
out certain prominent figures of the first section 
on its repetition in the second half, and after 
passing on duly through the recapitulation of 
the second section he takes these same omitted 
figures as a basis whereon to build his Coda. 
Many similar instances of well-devised manipula- 
tion of the details of form are scattered through- 
out his works, which show his remarkable sagacity 
and tact. They cannot be brought under any 
system, but are well worth careful study to see 
how the old forms can be constantly renewed 
by logically conceived devices, without being 
positively relinquished. 

Haydn represents the last stage of progress 
towards clear and complete definition of abstract 
Form, which appears in its final technical per- 
fection in Mozart. In Mozart Form may be 
studied in its greatest simplicity and clearness. 
His marvellous gift of melody enabled him to 
dispense with much elaboration of the accepted 
outlines, and to use devices of such extreme sim- 
plicity in transition from one section to another 
that the difficulty of realising his scheme of con- 
struction is reduced to a minimum. Not that 
he was incapable of elaborating his forms, for 
there are many fine examples to prove the con- 
trary ; but it is evident that he considered 
obviousness of outline to be a virtue, because it 
enabled the ordinary hearer as well as the culti- 
vated musician to appreciate the symmetrical 
beauty of his compositions. Apart from these 
points of systematic definition Mozart was not 
an innovator, and consequently it will not be 
necessary to point out his advances on Haydn. 
But inasmuch as he is generally recognised as 
the perfect master of the formal element in music 
it will be advisable to give an outline of his 
system. 

The first section, which tends to mark clearly 
the principal key of the movement, sets out with 
the principal subject, generally a tune of simple 
form, such as eight bars divided into correspond- 
ing groups of four (see the popular Sonata in C 
minor). This is either repeated at once or else 
gives place to a continuation of less-marked 
character of figure, generally commencing on 
the Dominant bass ; the order of succession of 
this repetition and continuation is uncertain, 
but whichever comes last (unless the section is 
further extended) usually passes to the Dominant 
key, and pauses on its Dominant ; or pauses with- 
out modulation on the last chord of a half close 
in the original key ; or, if the key of the whole 
movement be minor, a little more modulation 
will take place in order to pass to the key of the 
relative major and pause on its Dominant. The 
second section — which tends to define clearly the 



FORM 



FORM 



81 



complementary key of the movement, whether 
Dominant or Relative major to the original — 
usually starts with a new subject somewhat con- 
trasted with the features of the first section, and 
may be followed by a further accessory subject, 
or derivative continuation, or other form of pro- 
longation, and so passes to the frequent repetition 
of the cadence of the complementary key, with 
either brilliant passages, or occasionally a definite 
fresh feature or subject which constitutes the 
Cadence episode of the first part. These two 
sections — constituting the first half of the move- 
ment — are usually repeated entire. 

The second half of the movement commences 
with a section which is frequently the longest 
of all ; it sometimes opens with a quotation of 
the first subject, analogous to the old practice 
common before Haydn, and proceeds to develop 
freely the features of the subjects of the first part, 
like a discussion on theses. Here cadences are 
avoided, as also the complete statement of any 
idea, or any obvious grouping of bars into fixed 
successions ; modulations are constant, and so 
irregular that it would be no virtue to find the 
succession alike in any two movements ; the 
whole object being obviously to produce a strong 
formal contrast to the regularity of the first half 
of the movement ; to lead the hearer through 
a maze of various keys, and by a certain artistic 
confusion of subject-matter and rhythm to induce 
a fresh appetite for regularity which the final 
return of the original subjects and sections will 
definitely satisfy. This section Mozart generally 
concludes by distinctly modulating back to his 
principal key, and either pausing on its dominant, 
or passing (perhaps with a little artistically 
devised hesitation), into the first subject of the 
movement, which betokens the commencement 
of the fourth section. This section is usually 
given without much disguise or change, 1 and if 
it concludes with a pause on the Dominant chord 
of the original key (i.e. the final chord of a half 
close), will need no further manipulation, since 
the second subject can follow as well in the 
original key as in that of the Dominant, as it 
did in the first part. If, however, the section 
concludes on the Dominant of that Dominant 
key in the first half of the movement, a little 
more manipulation will be necessary. Mozart's 
device is commonly to make some slight change 
in the order of things at the latter part of the 
section, whereby the course of the stream is 
turned aside into a Sub-dominant channel, which 
key standing in the same relation to the principal 
key that the principal key stands to the Domin- 
ant, it will only be necessary to repeat the latter 
part of the section in that key and pause again 
on the Dominant of the original key, in which 
the second section of the first half then follows 
simply in the same order as at the first. If the 

1 In the first movement of the ' Jupiter ' Symphony so exact is the 
repetition, that in one of the editions a passage of twenty-one bars is 
not reprinted, but a reference 'Da Capo' is made to its occurrence 
»t the beginning of the Allegro. 

VOL. II 



principal key of the movement happens to be 
minor, and the second section of the first part 
to be in the relative major, its reappearance in 
either the major or minor of the principal key 
depends chiefly on its character ; and the pass- 
age that led to it by modulation would be either 
omitted altogether or so manipulated as not to 
conclude out of the principal key. 

With this simple order of reproduction of the 
first two sections Mozart is generally contented, 
and the little alterations which he does occasion- 
ally make are of a straightforward nature, such 
as producing the second subject before the first 
(as in a Sonata in D major composed in 1778), 
or producing the second subject in the Dominant 
key first and repeating it in the principal key 
(as in a Sonata in C composed in 1779). The 
whole of the latter half of the movement is 
frequently repeated, and in that case generally 
followed by a Coda — as in the last movements 
of Quartets in G minor No. 1, and A, No. 5, 
and D, No. 1 ; first movements of Quartets in 
B^, No. 2, and D, No. 10 ; slow movement of 
Quartet in F, No. 8 ; first movement of Sonata 
in C minor ; and of Quintets in G minor, D, 
and Efc> ; and last movement of the ' Jupiter ' 
Symphony. The Coda is generally constructed 
out of prominent features of the movement, 
presented in some new light by fresh associations 
and fresh contrasts. It is seldom of any 
great length, and contains no conspicuous modu- 
lation, as that would have been held to weaken 
the impression of the principal key, which at the 
conclusion of the movement should be as strong 
as possible. In a few instances there are codas 
without the latter half of the movement having 
been repeated. Of this there is at least one very 
beautiful instance in the short Coda of the slow 
movement of the Quartet in B|?, which is con- 
structed out of ejaculatory fragments of the first 
subject, never touching its first phrase, but 
passing like a sweet broken reminiscence. It 
must be borne in mind that this scheme is but 
a rough outline, since to deal with the subject 
completely would necessitate so much detail as 
to preclude all possibility of clearness. 

It is commonly held that the influence of 
Mozart upon Beethoven was paramount in his 
first period ; but strong though the influence of 
so great a star must inevitably have been upon 
the unfolding genius, his giant spirit soon asserted 
itself ; especially in that which seems the very 
marrow of his works, and makes Form appear in 
an entirely new phase, namely the element of 
universally distributed intensity. To him that 
byword ' brilliant passages ' was as hateful as 
' Cant ' to Carlyle. To him bombast and gesticu- 
lation at a particular spot in a movement — just 
because certain supposed laws of form point to 
that spot as requiring bustle and noise — were 
impossible. If there is excitement to be got up 
at any particular point there must be something 
real in the bustle and vehemence ; something 

G 



82 



FORM 



FORM 



intense enough to justify it, or else it will be 
mere vanity ; the cleverness of the fingers dis- 
guising the emptiness of the soul, —a lit accom- 
paniment to ' the clatter of dishes at a princely 
table,' as Wagner says, but not Music. Such 
is the vital germ from which spring the real 
peculiarities and individualities of Beethoven's 
instrumental compositions. It must now be 
a Form of spirit as well as a Form in the frame- 
work ; it is to become internal as well as external. 
The day for stringing certain tunes together 
after a certain plan is past, and Form by itself 
ceases to be a final and absolute good. A musical 
movement in Beethoven becomes a continuous 
and complete poem ; or, as Mr. Dannreuther 1 
says, ' an organism ' which is gradually unfolded 
before us, marred by none of the ugly gaps of 
dead stuffing which were part of the 'form ' of his 
predecessors. Moreover Form itself must drop 
into the background and become a hidden presence 
rather than an obvious and pressing feature. 
As a basis Beethoven accepted the forms of Mozart, 
and continued to employ them as the outline of 
his scheme. ' He retained, ' as the same writer 
has admirably said, 'the triune symmetry of 
exposition, illustration, and repetition, ' which as 
far as we know at present is the most perfect 
system arrived at, either theoretically or empiri- 
cally ; but he treated the details with the inde- 
pendence and force of his essentially individual 
nature. He absorbed the principle in such a 
fashion that it became natural for him to speak 
after that manner ; and greatly as the form varies 
it is essentially the same in principle, whether 
in the Trio in Efc>, opus 1, No. 1, or the Quartet 
in F, opus 135. 

In estimating the great difference between 
Mozart and Beethoven in their manner of treat- 
ing forms it must not be forgotten that Mozart, 
as has been before observed, wrote at a time 
when the idea of harmonic form was compara- 
tively new to the world of music, and to conform 
to it was in itself a good, and to say the merest 
trifles according to its system a source of satisfac- 
tion to the hearer. It has been happily suggested 
that Mozart lived in an era and in the very atmo- 
sphere of court etiquette, and that this shows 
itself in the formality of his works ; but it is 
probable that this is but half the cause of the 
effect. For it must not be forgotten that the 
very basis of the system was clear definition of 
tonality ; that is to say, the key must be strongly 
marked at the beginning and end of a movement, 
and each section in a different key must be clearly 
pointed out by the use of cadences to define the 
whereabouts. It is in the very nature of things 
that when the system was new the hearers of the 
music should be but little apt at seizing quickly 
what the key was at any given moment of the 
highest importance ; and equally in the nature 
of things that this faculty should have been 
capable of development, and that the auditors 

1 In Macmillan's Magazine for July 1876. 



of Beethoven's later days should have been better 
able to tell their whereabouts with much less 
indication than were the auditors of Mozart. 
Hence there were two causes acting on the 
development of form. On the one hand, as the 
system grew familiar, it was inevitable that 
people should lose much of the satisfaction 
which was derived from the form itself as 
such ; and on the other hand their capacity for 
realising their whereabouts at any time being 
developed by practice, gave more scope to the 
composer to unify his composition by omitting 
those hard lines of definition which had been 
previously necessary to assist the undeveloped 
musical faculty of the auditors. Thus Mozart 
prepared the way for Beethoven in those very 
things which at first sight seem most opposed 
to his practice. Without such education the 
musical poems of Beethoven must have fallen 
upon deaf ears. 

Beethoven then very soon abandoned the formal 
definition of the sections by cadences, and by 
degrees seems rather to have aimed at obscuring 
the obviousness of the system than at pointing it 
out. The division of the movements becomes 
more subtle, and the sections pass into one an- 
other without stopping ostentatiously to indicate 
the whereabouts ; and, last but not least, he 
soon breaks away from the old recognised 
system, which ordained the Dominant or relative 
major as the only admissible key for the com- 
plementary section of the first part. Thus as 
early as his second and third Sonatas the second 
sections begin in the Dominant minor key, and 
in the slow movement of the Sonata in Ef> (op. 7) 
the Dominant is discarded in favour of the key 
of the third below the tonic — Ab relative to the 
principal key C. In the first movement of the 
Sonata in G (op. 31, No. 1) he begins his second 
subject in the key of the major third, and that 
major — i.e. B, relative to G ; and the same key 
(relatively) is adopted in the Waldstein Sonata 
and the Leonora Overture. The effect of such 
fresh and unexpected transitions must have been 
immense on minds accustomed only to the formal 
regularity of Mozart. Moreover, Beethoven early 
began the practice of taking one principal key as 
central and surrounding it with a posse of other 
keys both related and remote. Every one is 
familiar with the opening passages of the Wald- 
stein and Appassionata Sonatas, in both of which 
a new key is introduced in less than half-a-dozen 
bars, and then passes back to the principal key ; 
and this practice is not done in the vague way so 
often met with in Mozart and Haydn, where their 
excessive use of rapid transitions in the third sec- 
tion of the movement has the effect of men beat- 
ing about in the dark. True it is that there are 
instances of this in Beethoven's early works while 
he wrote under the same order of influences as 
they did ; but in his maturer works these sub- 
sidiary modulations are conceived with large 
breadth of purpose founded on certain peculiari- 



FORM 



FORM 



83 



ties in the affinities of the keys employed, which 
makes the music that is heard in them produce 
the most varied feelings in the mind of the auditor. 
It is most important for a young student to avoid 
the hasty conclusion from insufficient observation 
that to modulate much is to be free and bold, for 
it is nothing of the sort. Irregular purposeless 
modulation is sheer weakness and vapidity. 
Strength is shown in nothing more conspicuously 
than in the capacity to continue long in one 
key without ceasing to be interesting ; and when 
that is effected a bold stroke of well-defined 
modulation comes with its proper force. For 
when keys are rapidly interlaced the force of 
their mutual contrasts is weakened and even 
destroyed ; their vital energy is frittered away to 
gratify an unwholesome taste for variety, and is 
no longer of any use for steady action. In Beet- 
hoven action is always steady, and the effects of 
the changing keys come with their full force. A 
new key is sought because it gives additional 
vitality to a subject or episode, or throws a new 
light upon an idea from a strange and unexpected 
quarter, as in the wonderful stroke of genius at 
the outset of the ' Appassionata.' As other in- 
stances may be quoted the first movement of the 
Sonata in G, op. 31, No. 1 ; Scherzo of Quartet 
in F, op. 59, No. 1 ; first movement of Quartet in 
F minor, op. 95. 

The Episode which concludes the first part of 
the movement is almost invariably of some im- 
portance in Beethoven's works. Very generally 
he reproduces figures of his first subject, as in 
the Prometheus and Leonora Overtures, the first 
movements of the Quartets in F major (op. 59, 
No. 1) and Eb (op. 127), the Symphonies in D, 
Eroica, C minor, and A, the Sonata in E (op. 
14, No. 1), and the last movement of the Appas- 
sionata. But more frequently he produces a 
new subject, often of quite equal importance and 
beauty to either the first or the second — to quote 
but one instance out of many take the first 
movement of the Sonata in G (op. 14, No. 2) — and 
very often does so besides referring to his first 
subject. The chief thing to notice from this is 
that the Episode in question has grown into im- 
portant dimensions in his hands, and is so clear, 
and its distinction as a separate section from 
what precedes it so marked, that it is not 
uncommon to hear it spoken of as the Coda of 
the first part. 

In the part devoted to the development of 
the features of the subjects, which commonly 
commences the second half of the movement, 
Beethoven is especially great. No musician 
ever had such a capacity for throwing an infinite 
variety of lights upon one central idea ; it is no 
' business ' or pedantry, but an extraordinary 
genius for transforming rhythms and melodies 
so that though they be recognised by the hearer 
as the same which he has heard before, they 
seem to tell a totally different story ; just as the 
same ideas working in the minds of men of dif- 



ferent circumstances or habits of thought may 
give them the most opposite feelings. As was 
pointed out with reference to Mozart, no system 
is deducible from the order of this division of 
the movement, than which none shows more in- 
fallibly the calibre of the composer. As a rule 
Beethoven avoids the complete statement of any 
of his subjects, but breaks them up into their 
constituent figures, and mixes them up in new 
situations, avoiding cadences and uniformity of 
groups of bars and rhythms. As far as possible 
the return to the original key is marked in 
some more refined way than the matter-of-fact 
plan of baldly passing to its Dominant, pausing, 
and re-commencing operations. The reprise of 
the first subject is sufficient indication to the 
hearer as to what part of the movement he has 
arrived at, and the approaches to it require to 
be so fined off, that it may burst upon him 
with the extra force of a surprise. Sometimes 
a similar effect is obtained by the totally opposite 
course of raising expectation by hints of what 
is to come, and then deferring it in such a 
manner that the suspended anticipation of the 
mind may heighten the sense of pleasure in its 
gratification, as in the last movement of the 
Waldstein Sonata. Again the return is not un- 
frequently made the climax of a grand culmina- 
tion of increasing force and fury, such as that 
in the first movement of the Waldstein Sonata 
(where the return is pp) and the Fourth and 
Eighth Symphonies, a device which is as moving 
to the hearer as either of the former ones, and 
equally intense and original. 

In the recapitulation of his subjects, as might 
be anticipated from his intensity in all things, 
there is a growing tendency to avoid the appa- 
rent platitude of repeating them exactly as at 
first. Sometimes they appear with new features, 
or new orders of modulation, and sometimes 
altogether as variations of the originals. As 
instances of this may be taken the recapitulation 
of the first subjects in the first movements of the 
Eroica Symphony, D minor Sonata (op. 31, No. 
2), the Waldstein, the Appassionata, and the 
Bb Sonata, op. 106, the first movement of the 
Quartet in Eb, op. 127, and of the Kreutzer 
Sonata, the slow movements of the Violin Sonata 
in C minor, op. 30, No. 2, and of the great Bb 
Sonata just named, all which present the various 
features above enumerated in great perfection. 
No system can be defined of the way in which 
Beethoven connects his first and second subject 
in this part of the movement, as he particularly 
avoids sameness of procedure in such matters. 
As a rule the second subject is given more simply 
than the first ; no doubt because of its being 
generally of less vital importance, and less 
prominent in the mind of the hearer, and there- 
fore requiring to be more easily recognisable. 
With regard to the key in which it appears, he 
occasionally varies, particularly when it has not 
appeared in the first part in the orthodox 



84 



FOEM 



FORM 



Dominant key. Thus in the first movement of 
the great Quartet in B|?, op. 130, the second 
subject, which had appeared in the first part in 
the key of the third below (Gb relative to Bfc>), 
appears in the recapitulation in the key of the 
minor third above — D|?. And in the Sonata 
in G major, op. 31, No. 1, the second subject, 
which appeared in the key of the major third in 
the first part, appears in the reprise in that of 
the minor third below. These and other analo- 
gous instances seem to indicate that in the 
statement and restatement of his subjects, when 
they did not follow the established order, he held 
the balance to be between the third above and 
the third below, major and minor. The reason 
for his not doing so in the B^ Sonata (op. 106) 
is no doubt because in the very elaborate repeat 
of the first section he had modulated so far away 
from the principal key. 

The last point to which we come in Beethoven's 
treatment of the Sonata-forms is his use of the 
Coda, which is, no doubt, the most remarkable 
and individual of all. It has been before pointed 
out that Mozart confines himself chiefly to Codas 
after repetition of the second half of his move- 
ments, and these are sometimes interesting and 
forcible ; but Codas added for less obvious reasons 
are rare ; and as a rule both his Codas and 
Haydn's remain steadily in the principal key 
of the movement, and strengthen the Cadence 
by repetition rather than by leading the mind 
away to another key, and then back again up to 
a fresh climax of key-definition. That is to say, 
they were added for formal purposes and not for 
the sake of fresh points of interest. Beethoven, 
on the other hand, seemed to look upon the con- 
clusion of the movement as a point where interest 
should be concentrated, and some most moving 
effects produced. It must have seemed to him 
a pure absurdity to end the whole precisely as 
the half, and to conclude with matter which had 
lost part of its zest from having been all heard 
before. Hence from quite an early period {e.g. 
slow movement of D major Sonata, op. 10, No. 
3) he began to reproduce his subjects in new and 
interesting phases in this part of the movement, 
indulging in free and forcible modulation, which 
seems even from the point of pure form to endow 
the final Cadence with fresh force when the 
original key is regained. The form of the Coda 
is evidently quite independent. He either com- 
mences it from an interrupted Cadence at the 
end of the preceding section, or passes on from the 
final chord without stopping — in the latter case 
generally with decisive modulation. In other 
cases he does not conclude the preceding section, 
but as it were grafts the Coda on to the old 
stock, from which it springs with wonderful and 
altogether renewed vigour. As conspicuous in- 
stances may be quoted the Coda of the Sonata 
in Eb, op. 81a (' Les Adieux, l'Absence, et le 
Retour '), which is quite the culminating point 
of interest in the movement ; the vehement and 



impetuous Coda of the last movement of the Ap- 
passionata Sonata, which introduces quite a new 
feature, and the Coda to the last movement of 
the Waldstein Sonata. The two climacteric Codas 
of all, however, are those to the first movements 
of theEroicaand the Ninth Symphony, which are 
sublime. The former chiefly by reason of its 
outset, for there is hardly anything more amazing 
in music than the drop from the piano Tonic Efc> 
which concludes the preceding section, to a forte 
Dfc>, and then to the chord of C md$ov fortissimo. 
But the whole Coda of the first movement of the 
Ninth Symphony is a perpetual climax and a 
type of Beethoven's grandest conceptions, full of 
varied modulation, and constant representation 
of the features of the subjects in various new 
lights, and ending with a surging, giant-striding 
specimen of ' Tonic and Dominant, ' by way of 
enforcing the key which is quite without rival 
in the whole domain of music. 

There can be no object in following the de- 
velopment of the system of Form farther than 
Beethoven, for it can hardly be said that there 
is anything further to trace. His works present 
it in its greatest variety and on the grandest 
scale ; and his successors, great as many of them 
have been, have not even approached him, far 
less added to his final culmination. The main 
tendency observable in later instrumental works 
is to develop still further the system above dis- 
cussed of taking one key as central in a group 
comprising many subsidiary transitions. Schu- 
mann's works present remarkable instances of 
this ; Mendelssohn adopts the same practice, but 
with more moderation ; Brahms again is ex- 
tremely free in the same direction ; as may be 
observed, for instance, in the first section of the 
first movement of the pianoforte Quartet, op. 25, 
which is nominally in G minor. This is ap- 
parently a recognition of the hypothesis above 
proposed, that the mind is capable of being more 
and more educated to recognise the principal key 
in a chain of transitions which to the audiences 
of Mozart's day would have been quite unin- 
telligible. 

It is now time to return to the consideration 
of the Rondo -form as found in the works of 
Haydn and Mozart, in which it was frequently 
affected by the more important and interesting 
First-movement-form. It will be obvious that 
its combination with that form does not offer 
much difficulty. For that alternation of subject 
and episode which is the very basis of the Rondo 
opens the way to the adoption of a second sub- 
ject in the complementary key as the fittest 
antithesis to the first statement of the principal 
subject ; and the main point of distinction of the 
Rondo- form from the First-movement-form pure 
and simple, is that the first subject reappears 
after the second in the original key, instead of 
bringing the first half of the movement to a con- 
clusion in the complementary key. After this 
deviation the form again follows the system of 



FORM 



FORM 



85 



the first movement ; for — as we have already 
sufficiently pointed out — no fitter place is found 
to develop the figures and features of the subjects 
and to modulate freely. In the simpler system 
of the Rondo this again takes the place of an 
episode ; in both systems the first subject would 
here recur, and nothing could more fitly follow 
it than the recapitulation of that subject which 
occupied the place of the first episode. It is 
worthy of remark that in the Rondo of the Wald- 
stein Sonata, Beethoven has in this place repro- 
duced the subject which opens the first episode, 
though the movement is not cast on the system 
of a first movement. Finally, the subject may 
reappear yet again in the original key without 
-deviating strongly from that system ; so that, as 
just mentioned, the only marked point of devia- 
tion is the return to the principal key after the 
appearance of the second subject. This complete 
adaptation is more commonly abbreviated by re- 
placing the 'Development ' by a short episode (as 
in Beethoven's Sonata in E minor, op. 90) ; and 
even further (as in the Finale of Mozart's Quar- 
tet in Efc>, No. 4), by passing immediately from 
the second subject to the recapitulation of both 
subjects in the principal key, and ending with one 
further final quotation of the real Rondo-subject. 
This latter in point of fact is to be explained 
rather as a simple method of establishing the 
balance of keys by giving an episode in a com- 
plementary key, than as based on any precon- 
ceived notion of amalgamation with the First- 
movement- form. 

One of the most prominent features in the 
Rondos of Haydn and Mozart is the frequent 
rigidity of the subject. It is common to meet 
with a complete dance-tune divided into two 
halves, each repeated after the accepted system, 
and closing formally in the principal key. So 
that it is in fact a complete piece in itself, and 
stands out as markedly as Couperin's subjects 
do with fermatas over the concluding chords. 
In these cases the tune is not given in extenso 
at each repetition, but is generally fined and 
rounded off so as not to affect the continuity of 
the movement so conspicuously as in its first 
statement. 

The angularity and obviousness of outline 
which often mark the Rondo form in works prior 
to Beethoven, were to a certain extent alleviated 
by the use of ingenious playful treatment of 
the figures of the chief subject by way of 
episode ; but nevertheless the formality remains, 
and marks the Rondo of Haydn and Mozart 
as a thing of the past, and not to be revived 
in their particular manner in the present day 
without perpetrating an artistic anachronism. 
Beethoven's treatment of the Rondo offers great 
differences, but they are chiefly in point of senti- 
ment, and difficult to define. Prior to his day 
there had evidently been a persistent tradition 
that final Rondos were bound to be gay, jaunty, 
light, or even flippant. "With Beethoven such a 



dogma was impossible ; and he therefore took the 
line of developing the opportunities it offered, 
either for humorous purposes, in the persistent 
repetition of a quaint phrase (Sonata in D, 
op. 10, No. 3), or in the natural and desirable 
recurrence of a melody of great beauty (Sonata 
in E minor, op. 90, and Waldstein). In every case 
the system is taken out of the domain of mere 
observance of formula, and its basis vitalised 
afresh by making it the vehicle of thoughts 
which can appear in such an order without 
losing their true significance. In point of fact 
the Rondo form is elastic enough notwithstand- 
ing its simplicity, and if the above sketch has 
not sufficiently indicated that fact, the study 
of the movements mentioned, and those in 
Beethoven's Eb and G concertos and Bfc> Trio, 
will lead to the perception of the opportuni- 
ties it offers to the composer better than any 
attempt at reducing the various features to a 
formula. 

The Minuet and Trio survive as pure and un- 
developed examples of the original source of the 
larger movements, in immediate contact with 
their wonderfully transformed descendants. They 
offer no systematic difference whatever from the 
dances in the Suites which preceded the perfected 
Sonata. The main points of form in the two are 
similar. The first half of each generally estab- 
lishes some sort of balance between the principal 
key and its complementary key, and is then re- 
peated. The second half begins with a passage 
in which harmonic roots vary on a more extended 
scale than they do in the first half, proceeding not 
unfrequently, if the dance be on a large scale, as 
far as transient modulations ; and the last and 
clenching section is a repetition of some notable 
feature of the first part. Short as the form is, it 
admits of a great amount of variety, and it is one 
of Haydn's triumphs to have endowed his innu- 
merable specimens with ever-changing freshness. 
The alternation of Minuet and Trio (which are 
in fact two minuets) is obviously in itself an 
element of Form, and derives some force from 
the contrast of the keys in which the two are 
written, as well as from the contrast of their 
styles. In Haydn's early Quartets — in which he 
still closely followed the order of the Suites — 
the two are frequently in the same key, or in 
major and minor of the same key ; but in his 
later works he takes advantage of contrasts of 
key and puts his Trio in the Subdominant, or 
even in the third below, as in the Quartet in G, 
op. 77. The system of alternating dances after 
this manner, probably with a view to formal com- 
pleteness, is evidently of old standing, being 
found even in Lully's works, and later, as will 
be more generally remembered by musicians, in 
Gluck's ' Iphigenie en Aulide, ' and in Handel's 
Overture to • Samson. ' It is chiefly in this respect 
that we can still trace the relation of the Minuet 
and Trio to the modern Scherzo, which is its 
legitimate successor, though in other respects it 



86 



FORM 



FORM 



has not only changed its characteristic rhythms 
and time, but even its style and form. 

The Scherzo is in fact the most free and inde- 
pendent of all the movements of a modern instru- 
mental work, being characterised rather by its 
sportive and playful style than by any fixed and 
systematic distribution of subjects and keys. 
Occasionally it falls into the same order of dis- 
tribution as a first movement, but there is no 
necessity whatever that it should do so, and its 
whole character, — happiest when based upon the 
incessant repetition in varying lights and cir- 
cumstances of a strongly rhythmic figure, — is 
headlong abandon rather than the premeditated 
design of the serious First movement. Beethoven 
was the real creator of the modern Scherzo, for 
all that a few examples exist prior to him ; for 
these are essentially in unsophisticated dance 
form, and belong to the old order of things, 
but Beethoven's infinitely various Scherzi are all 
marked by a certain intimate quality of style, 
which has been the real starting-point of his 
successors, rather than any definite formal basis. 
Mendelssohn created quite a new order of Scherzi 
of a light, happy, fairylike character, in which 
his bright genial nature spontaneously expressed 
itself. But to him the like remark applies, for 
they are essentially characterised rather by spirit 
than form. Schumann was fond of putting two 
Trios in his Scherzi ; as in two of his Sym- 
phonies, and in the very popular pianoforte 
Quintet in E\? . This was prefigured in Beethoven 
by the repetition of the Trio in the Symphonies 
in A and Bfc>. 

The form of the Slow movement in Sonatas 
and Symphonies is decidedly variable. It is more 
commonly based on the same system as a first 
movement, but owing to the length of time 
necessary to go through the whole series of 
sections in the slow tempo, it is common to 
abbreviate it in some way, as by omitting the 
portion usually devoted to ' development ' and 
modulation, and passing by a short link only 
from the presentation of the subjects to their 
recapitulation — as in the slow movement of Beet- 
hoven's Sonata in Bfc>, op. 106, and that of 
Mozart's Quartet in B|?, No. 3. There are a few 
instances of Slow movements in Rondo form — as 
in Mozart's Sonatas in C minor, C major (1778), 
and D (1777) ; Beethoven's Sonate pathetique, 
and that in G (op. 31, No. 1) — and several in 
the form of a set of Variations. Another happy 
form of this movement is a species of aria or 
melody, cast in the old Rondo form, like the 
example of Lully quoted at the commencement 
of this article. Of this the beautiful Cavatina 
in Beethoven's Bfc> Quartet (op. 130) is a very 
fine example, its form being simply a section 
consisting of the aria or melody continuously 
developed, followed by a section consisting of 
impassioned recitative, and concluding with a 
return to the original section somewhat abbre- 
viated. This form resolves itself practically into 



the same formal basis as the Minuet and Trio or 
Scherzo, though so different in character ; for 
it depends almost entirely on the repetition of a 
long complete section with a contrasting section 
in the middle. And the same simple basis will 
be found to predominate very largely in music, 1 
even in such widely different classes as modern 
Nocturnes, like those of Field and Chopin, and 
Arias of the time of Handel, of which his ' Waft 
her, Angels ' is a very clear example. 

The idea of Variations was very early arrived 
at by musicians ; for Dr. Burney points out that 
in the age of Queen Elizabeth there was a perfect 
rage for this kind of music, which consisted ' in 
multiplying notes, and disguising the melody of 
an easy, and, generally, well-known air, by every 
means that a spacca nota, or note- splitter, saw 
possible. ' This primitive kind of variation was 
still a form of some sort, and is based upon the 
same principle as that of ground basses, such as 
are found in Purcell's ' Dido and iEneas, ' and 
were very popular in those days ; and of such 
forms again as Bach's Passacaglia, or Chopin's 
Berceuse in Dt>, or even the wonderful continuous 
recitative on a constant repetition of a short 
rhythmic figure in the bass, in Bach's Italian 
Concerto. In all these cases the principle is 
that of constant and continuous repetition as a 
basis for superimposed variety. Into Variations 
as Variations the question of Form does not enter, 
or at least only in such a special way that its 
consideration must be left to that particular 
head. But as a form in itself it has been 
employed largely and to a degree of great import- 
ance by all the greatest masters in the depart- 
ment of Instrumental Music ; as by Handel, 
Bach, Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Schu- 
mann, and Brahms. In most cases sets of 
Variations are not continuous, but each Varia- 
tion is detached from its fellow, making a series 
of little movements like the Theme, each in the 
same key. But this is not invariable ; for on 
the one hand, Beethoven produced a very remark- 
able set of Variations on a Theme in F (op. 34), 
in which the key changes for each variation ; 
and on the other hand there are many examples 
of Variations which are continuous, that is, run 
into one another consecutively, without pause, 
as in the last movement of Beethoven's Sonata 
in C minor, op. Ill, and (on a smaller scale) 
the slow movement of Haydn's Quartet in B 
minor, op. 64. 2 It is very common for sets of 
Variations to have a grand Coda — frequently an 
independent movement, such as a Fugue or free 
Fantasia based upon some conspicuous figure 
of the Theme ; as in Beethoven's Prometheus 
Variations, op. 35, and Schumann's Etudes Sym- 
phoniques. There can be no possible reason for 

1 This form is often called the Lied-form, a term originated by Dr. 
Marx ; but being clearly a misnomer it has not been adopted by the 
present writer. 

2 [It is impossible to refrain from mentioning Sir Hubert Parry's 
noble Bet of variations for pianoforte solo in D minor, and his 
' Characteristic Variations ' for orchestra, in both which the varia- 
tions run on continuously. — Ed.] 



FORM 



FORM 



87 



tying down composers by any rigid dogmas as 
to key or order of succession in the construction 
of a work in the form of Variations. Change 
of key is eminently desirable, for the succession 
of a number of short clauses of any sort with a 
cadence to each, runs sufficient risk of monotony 
without the additional incubus of unvarying 
tonality. Moreover it is impossible to resist 
the conclusion, based on the development of the 
great variations in the finale of Beethoven's Son- 
ata in C minor, op. Ill, those in the Sonata in G 
(op. 14, No. 2), and those on an original theme 
in F (op. 34), that the occasional introduction 
of an episode or continuation between two varia- 
tions is perfectly legitimate, provided it be clearly 
connected with the series by its figures. For if 
the basis of form which underlies the Variations 
as a complete whole be kept in mind, it will be 
obvious that the system of incessant repetition, 
when thoroughly established, would rather gain 
than lose by a slight deviation, more especially 
if that which follows the deviation is a clearer 
and more obvious version of the theme than has 
appeared in the variations immediately preced- 
ing it. 

It will be best to refer the consideration of 
the general construction of Symphonies, Over- 
tures, Concertos, Sonatas, etc. , to their respective 
heads, merely pointing out here such things as 
really belong to the general question. 

The practice of prefacing the whole by an 
Introduction probably originated in a few pre- 
liminary chords to call the attention of the audi- 
ence, as is typified in the single forte chord which 
opens Haydn's Quartet in Eb (No. 33 in Traut- 
wein). Many examples of more extensive and 
purely musical introductions are to be found in 
Haydn's and Mozart's works, and these not 
unfrequently contain a tune or figure of some 
importance ; but they seldom have any closer 
connection with the movement that follows than 
that of being introductory, and whenever there 
is any modulation it is confined within very 
small limits, generally to a simple alternation 
of Tonic and Dominant. Beethoven has occa- 
sionally made very important use of the intro- 
duction, employing free modulation in some 
instances, and producing very beautiful tunes in 
it, as in the Symphony in A. The most im- 
portant feature in his use of it is his practice of 
incorporating it with the succeeding movement ; 
either by the use of a conspicuous figure taken 
from it as a motto or central idea, as in the 
Sonata in Eb, op. 81 a ; or by interrupting the 
course of the succeeding movement to reintroduce 
fragments of it, as in the Quartet in Bb, op. 
130 ; or by making it altogether part of the 
movement, as in the Ninth Symphony, where 
it has an immediate and very remarkable con- 
nection with the first subject. 

The order of succession, and the relation of 
the keys of the different movements of which 
each complete work is composed, passed through 



various stages of change similar to those which 
characterised the development of the form of the 
several movements, and arrived at a certain 
consistency of principle in Mozart's time ; but 
contrast of style and time is and has been, since 
the early Suites, the guiding principle in their 
distribution. In the Suites and early examples 
of instrumental music, such as some of Haydn's 
early Quartets, all the movements were in the 
same key ; [a practice which apparently had its 
origin in the days when the lute was in vogue, 
and when, as a consequence of having to retune 
the lute at every change of key, books of songs 
with lute accompaniments were arranged so that 
all those in the same key were printed contin- 
uously]. Later it became customary to cast at 
least one movement in another key, the key of 
the Subdominant predominating. No rigid rule 
can be given, except that the key of the Domi- 
nant of the principal key seems undesirable, 
except in works in which that key is minor ; 
and the use of very extraneous keys should be 
avoided. In Sonatas prior to Beethoven the 
interest generally seems to centre in the earlier 
movements passing to the lighter refection at 
the conclusion. Beethoven changed this, in 
view of making the whole of uniform interest 
and equal and coherent importance. Prior to 
him the movements were merely a succession of 
detached pieces, hitched together chiefly with 
consideration of their mutual contrasts under the 
name of Sonata or Symphony — such as is typified 
even in Weber's Ab Sonata, of which the last 
two movements were written full two years be- 
fore the first two, and in the similar history 
of some of Mozart's works. With Beethoven 
what was a whole in name must be also a whole 
in fact. The movements might be chapters, and 
distinct from one another, but still consecutive 
chapters, and in the same story. Helmholtz points 
out the scientific aspect of a connection of this 
kind in the Sonata in E minor, op. 90, of which 
he says, 'The first movement is an example 
of the peculiar depression caused by repeated 
"Doric" cadences, whence the second (major) 
movement acquires a still softer expression.' 
In some cases Beethoven connected the move- 
ments by such subtle devices as making disguised 
versions of an identical figure reappear in the 
different movements, as in the Sonatas in Bb, op. 
106, and in Ab, op. 109, and the Quartet in Bb. 
Such a device as this was not altogether unknown 
to Mozart, who connects the Minuet and Trio of 
the Quintet in G minor, by making a little figure 
which appears at the finale cadence of the Minuet 
serve as the basis of the Trio — the Minuet ending 



^hziizz3lEz:J- h J 



m 



^ 



and the Trio beginning 

2k 



p^^sm m^ r \rtrtf 



88 



FOKMES 



FORSTER 



In a little Symphony of Haydn's in B major 
part of the Minuet reappears in the Finale ; and 
the same thing is done by Beethoven in the C 
minor Symphony. In his Sonata called ' Les 
Adieux, 1' Absence, et le Re tour ' (which is an 
instance of programme music), the last two 
movements, slow and fast, pass into one another ; 
as is also the case in the Sonata Appassionata. 
In his Quartet in Cjf minor all the movements 
are continuous. The same device is adopted 
by Mendelssohn in his Scotch Symphony and 
Concertos, by Schumann in the D minor Sym- 
phony — the title of which expressly states the 
fact — and by Liszt in Concertos. Schumann 
also in his Symphonies in C and D minor con- 
nects his movements by the recurrence of figures 
or phrases. [The practice of building succes- 
sive sections of a work on transformations of 
the same theme — a practice which the admirers 
of Liszt are fond of ascribing to his invention 
— is at least as old as the days of Elizabeth. 
Many examples of pa vans and galliards on the 
same succession of notes are to be found in the 
Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (see Galliard), and 
there are instances in the 18th century, such as 
Handel's suite in G minor, where the subject 
of the first two movements is the same, and a 
' sonata ' in C minor by Pergolesi, where the giga 
is a variation of the gavotta.] c. H. H. p. 

FORMES, Karl Johann, bass singer, son of 
the sexton at Miihlheim on the Rhine, born 
August 7, 1816. What musical instruction he 
had he seems to have obtained in the church 
choir ; but he first attracted attention at the 
concerts for the benefit of the cathedral fund at 
Cologne in 1841. So obvious was his talent 
that he was urged to go on the stage, and made 
his debut at Cologne as Sarastro in the ' Zauber- 
flote,' Jan. 6, 1842, with the most marked 
success. He sang at Mannheim from 1843 to 

1848 : his next appearance was at Vienna. In 

1849 he came to London, and sang first at 
Drury Lane in a German company as Sarastro 
on May 30. He made his appearance on the 
Italian stage at Covent Garden, March 16, 1850, 
as Caspar in ' II Franco Arciero' ( ' Der Freischutz'). 
At the Philharmonic he sang first on the follow- 
ing Monday, March 18. From that time for 
some years he was a regular visitor to London, 
and filled the parts of Bertram, Marcel, Rocco, 
Leporello, etc. In 1857 he went to America, 
since which he led a wandering life here and 
there. He obtained great success at Berlin in 
1874 and in London in 1888, when he sang at 
Manns's Benefit Concert, and elsewhere. He 
died at San Francisco, Dec. 15, 1889. 

For volume, compass, and quality, his voice 
was one of the most magnificent ever heard. 
He had a handsome presence and excellent dis- 
positions for the stage, and with self-restraint 
and industry might have taken an almost unique 
position. 

His brother Theodore, sixteen years his 



junior, born at Miihlheim, June 24, 1826, the 
possessor of a fine tenor voice and great intel- 
ligence, made his debut at Ofen in 1846, and 
in 1851-66 was engaged at the Berlin Opera. 
He went to America with his brother, and 
afterwards sang second - rate parts at small 
German theatres. He died insane, at Endenich 
near Bonn, Oct. 15, 1874. g. 

FORNASARI, Luciano, a bass singer, who 
made his appearance about 1828 on second and 
third-rate stages in Italy. In 1831 he was sing- 
ing at Milan ; the next three years he passed at 
New York. He sang at the Havana in 1835, and 
in 1836 in Mexico. Returning to Europe he 
obtained an engagement at Lisbon in 1840, and 
remained there two years. After this he made 
a tour in his native country, singing with success 
at Rome, Modena, Palermo, Turin, and Trieste. 
In 1843 (Fetis is wrong in fixing it in 1845) 
Fornasari appeared in London. Fetis says he had 
a good voice and sang with method. Mr. Chorley 
writes: 'The new baritone — as substitute for 
Tamburini — was a tall, dashing man : — he pos- 
sessed a very handsome face, a sufficient voice, 
though its quality was not pleasant — and pre- 
tension enough and to spare. He sang with bad 
method and confidence.' He continued to sing 
in London until 1846, after which he did not 
again appear. J. m. 

FORSTER & ANDREWS have been estab- 
lished at Hull as organ-builders since 1843. 
Amongst many instruments from their factory 
may be quoted the organs in the Kinnaird Hall, 
Dundee ; St. Mary's, Leicester ; Holy Trinity, 
Hull ; and the City Temple, London, v. de p. 

FORSTER, Georg, born at Amberg about 
1514, died at Niirnberg, 1568, a physician by 
profession, but also a musician of considerable 
attainments, deserves notice here chiefly as being 
the editor of a comprehensive collection of 
German secular songs for four voices, which 
appeared in five Books published at Niimberg 
from 1539 to 1556. The best composers of the 
time are represented, including Isaac and Senfi, 
and of the 380 numbers contained in it Forster 
himself contributes 37. Many of the songs are 
Volkslieder, contrapuntally treated in the earlier 
German and Flemish manner. In the first Book, 
1539, Forster has handed down to us Isaac's 
beautiful setting of ' Inspruck, ich muss dich 
lassen,' the melody of which has become the 
Chorale-tune first to the words '0 Welt, ich muss 
dich lassen,' and afterwards to Paul Gerhard's 
' O Welt, sich hier dem Leben,' and ' Nun ruhen 
alle Walder,' and which later Bach so expres- 
sively harmonised in the ' St. Matthew Passion ' 
to the verse ' Wer hat dich so geschlagen?' 
Forster also edited two volumes of sacred works, 
1540 and 1542. The second is a collection of 
Psalms, which opens with Josquin's 'Qui habitat' 
for twenty-four voices, and concludes with a 
' Deo Gratias ' for thirty-six, which Eitner con- 
jectured to be the piece by Okeghem referred to 



FORSTER 



FORTE 



89 



by Ornithoparcus and Glarean. A few other 
sacred works by Forster himself are contained in 
other collections. Winterfeld gives Forster's 
setting of ' Vom Himmel hoch ' for five voices. 
The second part of Forster's collection of Welt- 
liche Lieder was reprinted in score by Eitner in 
1904. J. R. M. 

FORSTER, William (I), eminent violin 
maker, born May 4, 1739, at Brampton, Cum- 
berland, was son of William, and grandson of 
John Forster, makers of spinning-wheels and 
violins. He was taught both . trades by his 
father, and also learned to play on the violin. 
He came, as a cattle-drover, to London in 1759, 
took up his abode in Prescott Street, Goodman's 
Fields, and for a time endured much priva- 
tion from inability to obtain suitable employ- 
ment. Ultimately he was engaged by a music 
seller on Tower Hill named Beck, and the violins 
made by him being much improved and quickly 
sold, he started in business on his own account 
in Duke's Court, St. Martin's Lane, whence he 
shortly removed into St. Martin's Lane, and 
speedily attained great reputation. Forster 
afterwards added to his business that of a music- 
seller and publisher, and in that capacity in 
1781 entered into an agreement with Haydn for 
the purchase and publication in England of that 
master's compositions, and between that date 
and 1787 published eighty- three symphonies, 
twenty-four quartets, twenty-four solos, duets 
and trios and the ' Passione, ' or ' Seven Last 
Words. ' About 1 7 8 5 he rem o ved into the Strand 
(No. 348), where the business was carried on until 
the pulling down of Exeter Change. In 1795 
ho issued a copper medal or token, halfpenny 
size, bearing — Obverse, 'Wm. Forster, Violin, 
Tenor and Violoncello Maker, No. 348, Strand, 
London. ' Prince of Wales's feathers in the field. 
Reverse, the melody of ' God save the King ' in 
the key of G. A crown in the field, above it 
'God save the King, ' beneath it '1795.' William 
Forster died at the house of his son, 22 York 
Street, Westminster, Dec. 14, 1808. w. h. h. 

Forster, William (II), son of the above- 
mentioned, and generally known as ' Royal ' 
Forster, from his title ' Music Seller to the Prince 
of Wales and the Duke of Cumberland. ' Born 
1764, died 1824. Like his father, he made 
large numbers of violins which once enjoyed a 
high reputation. By making the bellies of their 
instruments thin, and increasing the weight of 
the blocks and linings, the Forsters obtained, 
while the instrument was still new, a strong and 
penetrating tone, which found high favour with 
Lindley and his school. Being well made and 
finished, and covered with excellent varnish, 
their instruments have much that commends 
them to the eye. The Forsters copied both 
Stainer and Amati. ' Royal ' Forster had two 
sons : William Forster (III) (1788-1824), the 
eldest, devoted himself to other pursuits, and 
made but few instruments ; but the second, 



Simon Andrew Forster (born 1801), carried 
on the business, first in Frith Street, afterwards 
in Macclesfield Street, Soho. Simon Andrew 
Forster made instruments of high model and 
no great merit. He is best known as the author 
(jointly with W. Sandys, F.S.A.) of The 
History of the Violin and other Instruments 
played with the Bow, 1864. He died Feb. 2, 
1870. e. J. p. 

FORSYTH BROTHERS, a firm founded at 
Manchester for the sale of pianos, by the brothers 
Henry and James Forsyth in 1857. They had 
been brought up, and represented the third 
generation of the name, in the establishment 
of John Broadwood & Sons. Forsyth Brothers 
began engraving music in 1872, with Halle's 
' Practical Pianoforte School, ' the first numbers 
of which were published by them in Jan. 1873, 
and at the same time they opened a London 
publishing business in Oxford Circus. An ap- 
pendix to the ' School, ' entitled the ' Musical 
Library,' was commenced some time after, and a 
catalogue was formed which includes several 
compositions by Stephen Heller as well as import- 
ant works by other composers. They have also 
added to the instrumental part of their business 
an agency for American organs, from the manu- 
factory of the Dominion Organ Company, Ontario, 
Canada. Mr. Henry Forsyth died in July 1885. 
Mr. James Forsyth has, in connection with the 
business in Manchester, maintained an important 
share in the management of the leading concerts 
of that city. Since 1901 the firm has been a 
limited company under his presidency. A. J. h. 

FORTE, loud : an Italian word, usually ab- 
breviated into/. A lesser degree of loudness is 
expressed by mf — mezzoforte ; a greater one by 
piiif and ff, fortissimo, and the greatest of all by 
fff, fortississimo as in Beethoven's Seventh Sym- 
phony (Finale), Eighth ditto (1st movement), 
Overture, op. 115 (at end), Leonore, No. 2 (be- 
ginning of the Presto), or at the grand climax 
near the close of the Finale of Schubert's Sym- 
phony in C, at the end of the extraordinary 
crescendo, ffff has been occasionally used by 
later composers, as in the Overture to ' Charlotte 
Corday,' by Benoit. 

Fortepiano — afterwards changed to Piano- 
forte — was the natural Italian name for the new 
instrument which could give both loud and soft 
sounds without mechanical aid. 

fp. is a characteristic sign in Beethoven, and 
one which he often uses ; it denotes a sudden 
forte and an equally sudden piano. He will 
require it in the space of a single crotchet or 
even quaver, as in the Overture to Leonore, No. 2 
(bars 82 et seq. of the Allegro, and bar 222 — fpp). 
Again, he was very fond of a forte passage 
succeeded suddenly, without any diminuendo, 
by a p, as in bars 64 to 72 of the Allegro of 
the same work, where the sudden p on the Fff 
is miraculous ; or in the reprise of the subject 
after the trumpet fanfares, where if the p is not 

9 



90 



FORTI 



FOSTER 



observed the flute solo is overwhelmed. In a 
fine performance of his works half the battle 
lies in the exact observance of these nuances. 
No one before him used them as subtly as he, 
and no one has excelled them since. G. 

FORTI, Anton, distinguished baritone singer, 
born at Vienna, June 8, 1790. He made his 
debut at Presburg with so much success that 
towards the end of 1807 Prince Esterhazy engaged 
him almost at the same time as the tenor Wild 
for his celebrated band. Forti soon forfeited the 
favour of the Prince, who suddenly enrolled him 
as a soldier, and only released him at the in- 
tercession of several of the nobility. He next 
appeared (June 29, 1811) at the Theatre 'an 
der Wien ' as Don Juan, a part for which his 
very sonorous voice, commanding presence, and 
elevated refined style of acting eminently fitted 
him. In April 1813 he was engaged at the 
court theatre, and speedily became a favourite. 
Besides Don Juan he specially excelled in Figaro 
(Mozart and Rossini), Telasco ('Ferdinand 
Cortez '), etc., and in French dialogue-operas. He 
sang Pizarro at the revival of 'Fidelio' in 1814 ; 
and Lysiart at the first performance of ' Eury- 
anthe ' (1823). When Count Gallenberg under- 
took the direction of the court theatre in 1829 
Forti was pensioned, and made starring tours to 
Prague, Hamburg, and Berlin, where he also 
took a short engagement. On his return to 
Vienna his voice had lost its charm, and his 
increasing corpulence spoiled his acting. He 
retired finally from the stage after winning the 
first prize in one of the public lotteries, and died 
July 16, 1859. c. f. p. 

FORZA DEL DESTINO, LA. Tragic Opera 
by Verdi, libretto by Piave ; in four acts. Pro- 
duced at St. Petersburg, Oct. 30 (Nov. 11), 1862, 
and at Her Majesty's Theatre, London, June 22, 
1867. 

FOSTER, Muriel, born at Sunderland, Nov. 
22, 1877. From 1896 to 1900 she received 
instruction in singing from Miss Anna Williams 
at the Royal College of Music, gaining a Council 
Exhibition in 1896 and a scholarship in 1897. 
On Nov. 6, 1896, she made her debut in ora- 
torio at Bradford in Parry's ' King Saul.' On 
Dec. 11, 1896, she played Mrs. Quickly on the 
production in English of Verdi's ' Falstaif ' at 
the Lyceum Theatre by the College students ; 
and on March 19, 1897, sang at St. James's 
Hall ' My heart is weary ' from Thomas's ' Na- 
deshda' at a students' concert there. The 
Chester Festival followed next in July of the 
same year. On March 25, 1899, she first ap- 
peared at the Popular Concerts in duets by 
Brahms, Cornelius, and German, in conjunction 
with her twin-sister and fellow -student Miss 
Hilda Foster (who retired from public life in 
July 1900 on her marriage with Mr. F. C. 
Bramwell). On March 15, 1900, she sang some 
of Elgar's ' Sea Pictures ' with great success at 
a students' concert in the same hall. From 



1899 to 1903 Miss Foster has sung at all the 
Three Choir Festivals ; in 1902 at Sheffield and 
Cardiff, and 1903 at Birmingham, on the pro- 
duction of Elgar's ' Apostles. ' She has sung in 
London at the Bach Choir, the Royal Choral 
Society, the London Symphony, and Ballad 
Concerts (Chappell's), the Philharmonic, etc. 
On June 20, 1903, she sang the Angel's music 
with great effect on the production of Elgar's 
' Gerontius ' at the Roman Catholic Cathedral, 
Westminster, having undertaken the part in 
the previous year at the Lower Rhine Festival, 
Diisseldorf. She has also sung in other parts of 
Germany, in Holland, in Russia, and the United 
States. Miss Foster, who is the possessor of a 
beautiful contralto or low mezzo-soprano of 
over two octaves from g to b" flat, also excels 
in lieder and ballads, and has rapidly attained 
the highest rank among the singers of her 
generation. A. c. 

FOSTER, Myles Birket, eldest son of the 
late Birket Foster, the artist, was born in London, 
Nov. 29, 1851. Upon leaving school he was 
articled to Mr. Hamilton Clarke for two years. 
He subsequently entered the Royal Academy 
of Music, where he studied under Sullivan 
and Prout (composition), Westlake (pianoforte). 
Pettitt (violoncello), and Horton (oboe). Mr. 
Foster has held organistships at St. James's 
Church, Marylebone, and St. George's, Campden 
Hill ; from 1880 to 1892 he was organist of the 
Foundling Hospital, during which period he was 
also organist at Her Majesty's Theatre, and 
choirmaster of St. Alban's, Holborn. He is a 
Fellow of the Royal Academy of Music and of 
the Royal College of Organists, and a Licentiate 
of Trinity College, London, for which he has 
examined since 1888, being the first English 
examiner to visit Australasia (1895). He acted 
as editor to Messrs. Boosey until 1900. 

Mr. Foster has composed a symphony in F 
sharp minor ('Isle of Arran'), overtures, a string 
quartet, a pianoforte trio, etc. ; cantatas for 
children, ' Cinderella, ' ' Lampblack, ' ' Beauty 
and the Beast,' ' The Angels of the Bells,' ' The 
Bonnie Fishwife,' 'The Snow Fairies,' and 'The 
Coming of the King ' ; in addition to songs and 
part-songs, and two cantatas for male voices, 
'Eudora' and 'Ode to Music,' written for Queen's 
College, Oxford. His church music includes 
two cantatas, ' The Seven Last Words ' and 
'Seed-Time and Harvest,' an evening service 
in C (men's voices), a festival service in A (Sons 
of the Clergy, 1883), and a communion service 
in B flat. He has also composed some forty 
anthems, of which his melodious and devotional 
setting of Cowper's words, ' Oh for a closer walk 
with God,' has justly met with wide acceptance. 
Mr. Foster has contributed articles on musical 
subjects to various magazines, and he is the 
author of Anthems and Anthem Composers 
(Novello, 1901). F. G. B. 

FOSTER, Stephen Collins, an American 



FOUGHT 



FOUNDLING HOSPITAL 91 



composer, of Irish descent, born near Pittsburg, 
Pennsylvania, July 4, 1826, entered, in 1840, 
the Academy at Athens, Pennsylvania, and, in 
1841, Jefferson College near Pittsburg. Though 
not noted for studious qualities he taught himself 
French and German, painted fairly well, and 
exhibited a pronounced liking for the works of 
Mozart, Beethoven, and Weber. Before this he 
had shown his musical inclinations by teaching 
himself the flageolet when seven years old. His 
first composition, produced while -at Athens, 
was a waltz for four flutes. His first published 
song, ' Open thy lattice, love,' appeared in 1842. 
This song is one of the very few set by him, the 
words of which are not his own. In 1845-46 
there were published 'The Louisiana Belle,' 
'Old Uncle Ned,' and 0, Susanna.' The fol- 
lowing are the titles of his ballads : ' My old 
Kentucky Home, ' ' Old Dog Tray, ' ' Massa's in 
de cold ground, ' ' Gentle Annie, ' ' Willie, we 
have missed you, ' ' I would not die in spring- 
time,' 'Come where my Love lies dreaming,' ' I 
see her still in my dreams,' 'Old Black Joe,' 
' Ellen Bayne ' (which, it has been claimed, 
provided the theme of ' John Brown's Body, ' 
the war-song of the Federal troops 1861-65), 
' Laura Lee, ' and ' Swanee Riber ' (more gener- 
ally known as ' The Old Folks at Home ' and 
sung all the world over). 

Altogether some 175 songs are credited to 
him. It will be seen that some of the titles 
betray the influence of the African race in the 
country near Foster's home, and it has even 
been said that he was indebted for some of his 
themes to the untutored plantation- negroes. 
But it is more probable that the negro dialect 
was adopted in order to meet the demands of the 
market which happened to be open to him — the 
entertainments by minstrel companies of the 
Christy type. The appearance of the name 
Christy as author of ' Swanee Riber ' on some 
publications of that song is explained by the fact 
that Foster consented thereto for a stipulated 
sum — not the first time that genius has had to 
sacrifice principle — though for the first edition 
only. Foster died in New York on Jan. 13, 1864, 
at the American Hotel, where he had been 
attacked with fever and ague. 

The greater part of the material for this 
sketch was taken from Music in America, F. L. 
Ritter, New York, 1883. F. h. j. 

FOUGHT, Henry, a printer and publisher 
of sheet and other music from metal type in 
which he claimed to have made improvements. 
A patent for these was obtained in 1767, in or 
about which year Fought set up shop at the 
sign of the ' Lyre and Owl ' in St. Martin's Lane. 
He submitted specimens of his work to the Society 
for the Encouragement of Arts, and obtained a 
resolution from that body to the effect that ' his 
method of printing was superior to any that had 
been before in use in Great Britain, and that it 
could be performed much cheaper.' He was the 



pioneer of cheap music, for he sold his sheet 
music at ' one penny per page or eighteen for a 
shilling.' The typography is excellent, and 
undoubtedly was a great advance in the art. 
He appears to have aroused some ill feeling 
among the rest of the trade. Hawkins states 
that Fought was a native of Lapland, and that 
the ' music sellers of London copied his publica- 
tions on pewter plates, and by underselling drove 
him out of the kingdom.' This is of course 
obviously wrong, for while sheet music was on 
an average sixpence per page, Fought sold his 
sheets at a penny. 

Besides sheet song-music he issued collections 
of Sonatas by Croce, Sarti, Uttini, and Sabatini. 
On most of these he prints an artistic and boldly 
engraved woodcut design— an owl sitting over 
a rocky cave, with a torch and pair of scales 
forming part of the subject. About 1770 he 
sold his plant and type to R. Falkener, who, 
at 3 Peterborough Court and afterwards at 
45 Salisbury Court, both in Fleet Street, issued 
sheet songs in similar style, and at the same 
low price. F. k. 

FOUNDLING HOSPITAL. The connec- 
tion of Handel with this charitable institution 
(founded by Captain Coram in 1739) forms a 
pleasant episode in the composer's life in England, 
and gives a signal illustration of his benevol- 
ence. Following the example of the masters 
of the sister art of Painting, who organised an 
exhibition on its behalf, and of Hogarth and 
others who presented paintings for its decora- 
tion, Handel on May 4, 1749, attended a com- 
mittee at the Hospital, and offered a performance 
of vocal and instrumental music in aid of the 
fund for finishing the chapel. The Gentleman's 
Magazine records that ' Saturday 27th [May] 
the Prince and Princess of Wales, with a great 
number of persons of quality and distinction, 
were at the chapel of the Foundling's Hospital 
to hear several pieces of vocal and instrumental 
musick, compos'd by George Frederick Handel, 
Esq. , for the benefit of the foundation : 1st, the 
musick for the late Fire Works and the anthem 
on the Peace ; 2nd, select pieces from the oratorio 
of Solomon relating to the dedication of the 
Temple ; and 3rd, several pieces composed for the 
occasion, the words taken from Scripture, applic- 
able to the charity and its benefactors. There 
was no collection, but the tickets were at half-a- 
guinea, and the audience above a thousand.' 
[The music specially written was the anthem 
' Blessed are they that consider the poor. '] The 
governors, under a misapprehension, imagined 
that he intended to present them with the copy- 
right of the oratorio, and prepared a petition to 
Parliament praying that a bill might be passed 
to secure to them the right in perpetuity ; but 
Handel indignantly repudiated any such inten- 
tion, and the petition never reached the House. 
On the completion of the chapel Handel presented 
it with an organ, [built by a Dr. Morse of Barnet 



92 



FOURNEAUX 



FRANZL 



(for specification and other interesting particulars 
see Mus. Times, for May 1902, p. 308)], which 
he opened on May 1, 1750, when the attend- 
ance was so large that he was compelled to repeat 
the performance. For his generosity Handel 
was in 1750 enrolled as one of the governors and 
guardians of the Hospital, and during every sub- 
sequent year, while his health permitted, he 
directed the performance of the ' Messiah ' in the 
chapel, which yielded to the charity a net result 
of £7000 in all. The composer by his will be- 
queathed ' a fair copy of the score and all the 
parts of the Messiah ' to the Hospital, and on his 
death a dirge and funeral were performed in the 
chapel on May 26, 1759, under the direction 
of his amanuensis, John Christopher Smith, 
who, with his full concurrence, had been ap- 
pointed the first organist, [and who had conducted 
the performance of the ' Messiah ' on May 3, 
three weeks after the composer's death. The 
artistic value of the bequest was not quite fully 
realised until the parts were examined by Mr. 
H. Davan Wetton, the present organist, and 
proved to be of great importance]. In July 
1774 Dr. Burney proposed to the governors a 
scheme for forming a Public Music School at the 
Hospital for the training of the children ; but 
strong opposition was raised to it, and it was 
never proceeded with. The chapel services were 
for many years noteworthy for their music, in 
which the professional choir was assisted by the 
children. [The present organist has revived the 
musical interest of the special services. See the 
Mus. Times for May and June, 1902.] c. m. 

FOURNEAUX, Napoleon, born May 21, 
1808, at Leard (Ardennes), originally a watch- 
maker, improved the Accordion. In 1830 he 
settled in Paris ; in 1836 bought Chameroy's 
organ factory, and introduced great improvements 
in the manufacture of all reed instruments blown 
by wind. At the exhibition of 1844 he received 
a silver medal for his ' orgues expressives. ' He 
originated the idea of the percussion action in 
harmoniums. He died at Aubanton (Aisne), 
July 19, 1846. m. c. c. 

FOURNIER, Pierre Simon, engraver and 
type-founder, born in Paris, Sept. 15, 1712, died 
there, Oct. 8, 1768. He greatly improved the 
engraving of music in France, which up to his 
day was still effected by punches on the model 
of those cut by Hautin in 1525. He replaced 
the lozenge-shaped notes by round ones, and 
made music altogether easier to read, although 
his notes were still thin and poor compared to 
those of later times. He published Essai d'un 
nouveau caractere de /onto pour V impression de 
la musique, etc. (Paris, 1756), and a Traite 
historique et critique sur Vorigine et les progres 
des caracteres de fonte pour V impression de la 
musique (Paris, 1765) ; which, though incom- 
plete and occasionally incorrect, contains interest- 
ing information on music printing in France. 
Giacomo Falconi of Venice seems to haveattained 



a similar result almost simultaneously with 
Fournier. Falconi published at Venice in 1765 
Manifesto d' uno nuova impresa di stampare la 
musica, etc. ; and Paolucci's Arte prattica di 
contrapunto (1765), was printed in the new 
characters. m. c. c. 

FOURTH is an interval comprising two whole 
tones and a semitone. It is called a fourth 
because four notes are passed through in going 
from one extreme of the interval to the other, 
for which reason the Greeks called it 5ta recrcra- 
pQv — Diatessaron. The ratio of the vibrational 
numbers of its limiting sounds is 3 : 4. It is in 
fact a perfect consonance, though regarded as a 
discord in the old Diatonic style. c. H. h. p. 

FRA DIAVOLO, OU L'HOTELLERIE DE 
TERRACINE. Opera comique in three acts ; 
words by Scribe, music by Auber. Produced at 
the Opera Comique, Jan. 28, 1830 ; in London 
— in English, adapted by Rophino Lacy — at 
Drury Lane, Nov. 3, 1831 ; in Italian, at the 
Lyceum by the Royal Italian Opera, July 4-11, 

1857 -.. 

FRANZL, Ferdinand, eminent violinist and 

composer, born May 24, 1770, at Schwetzingen 
in the Palatinate. He was a pupil of his father, 
Ignaz Franzl (1736-c. 1812) [See Denkmdler der 
TonJcunst, Bayern, vol. iii. 1], and performed, 
when only seven years of age, a concerto at a 
court - concert in Mannheim, where he entered 
the band of the Elector in 1782. From 1785 
he began to travel with his father. During 
a prolonged stay at Strasburg he studied com- 
position under Richter and Pleyel, and later 
under Mattei at Bologna. He appears to have 
been less successful at Paris than at Rome, 
Naples, and Palermo. [He went with the court 
of Mannheim to Munich in 1778, was made 
concert-meister in 1789, and was a conductor 
in the Frankfort Theatre in 1792, in which year 
he returned to Munich] ; he took C. Cannabich's 
place as leader of the band, but in 1802 again 
started for a tour to Russia. At this period 
Franzl was generally acknowledged to be one 
of the best of living violin players, and his 
compositions enjoyed great popularity. Spohr 
heard him in 1802 at St. Petersburg, and gives 
an interesting account of him : — ' Franzl was 
at that time the foremost of violin players in 
St. Petersburg. . He still follows the old method 
of holding the violin on the right side of the 
tail-piece, and is therefore obliged to play with 
his head bent down. [Violin.] He also lifts 
the right arm very high, and has a bad habit 
of raising his eyebrows whenever he plays some- 
thing expressive. His execution is neat and 
clear. In the slow movements he performs a 
great many runs, shakes, and cadenzas, with rare 
precision and distinctness ; but as soon as he 
plays forte his tone is rough and unpleasant, 
owing to his drawing the bow too slowly and too 
close to the bridge, and pressing it too much on 
the string. Quick passages he executes with 



FRAMERY 



FRANC 



93 



good intonation and very clearly, but invariably 
in the middle of the bow, and consequently 
without light and shade.' On a later occasion 
Spohr comments less favourably on him, and 
describes both his style and his compositions as 
old fashioned ; but this only shows that Franzl 
had not kept pace with the progress made in 
violin playing towards the end of the 18th and 
beginning of the 19th century, and could not 
stand comparison with the great masters of the 
Paris school, still less with Spohr himself. 

In 1806 Franzl returned to Munich, and was 
appointed conductor of the opera. He did not, 
however, give up travelling, and played at various 
times in Paris, Amsterdam, Vienna, and Leipzig. 
In 1823 he made a second journey to Italy. 
He retired in 1826, and went to live at Geneva, 
but finally settled at Mannheim, and died there 
in Nov. 1833. Franzl was a fertile composer. 
He published nine concertos and four concertinos 
for the violin, one concertante and three duos 
for two violins, nine quartets for strings, three 
trios for two violins and bass, several overtures, 
a symphony, and a number of songs. He also 
wrote operas, which were performed with much 
success at Munich and elsewhere. [See list in 
Quellen-Lexikon.~\ All these works are written 
in an easy and correct style, but, being with- 
out higher artistic value, are now entirely for- 
gotten, p. D. 

FRAMERY, Nicolas ^tienne, author and 
musician, born March 25, 1745 ; when quite 
young was appointed ' Surintendant de la 
musique ' to the Comte d'Artois. He wrote 
both words and music of ' La Sorciere parhasard ' 
(1783), a comic opera, and of 'Medee,' a prize 
libretto, which was to have been set by Sacchini, 
had not his death intervened. It was never 
performed. Framery was a skilful adapter of 
French words toltalianmusic in various ' parodies ' 
of operas by Paisiello and Sacchini. As an 
author he published — A criticism on Gluck 
in the Mercure for Sept. 1776 ; Le Musicien 
pratique (Paris, 1786), a poor translation of 
Azopardi's II Musico prattico, rearranged by 
Choron in 1824 ; a 'discours ' on Les rapports 
. . . entre la musique et la declamation (1802) ; 
articles on Delia-Maria (1800) and Haydn (18 10). 
He edited, from 1771 to 1778, the Journal de 
Micsique, founded by Mathon - de - la - Cour in 
1764 ; the Calendrier musical, 1788-89, a con- 
tinuation of Mathon -de- la -Cour's Almanack 
musical (1775) ; and took part with Ginguen6 
and Feytou in the musical dictionary of V Ency- 
clopedic mdhodique (1791), completed in 1811 
by Momigny ; and in the Dictionnaire des beaux- 
arts of the Academie. He was a Correspondant 
of the Institut. After copyrights had been 
recognised by law, Framery established an agency 
for enforcing the rights of authors throughout 
France. He died in Paris, Nov. 26, 1810, leav- 
ing MS. notices of Gavinies and various other 



musicians. 



m. c. c. 



FRANC, or LE FRANC, Guillaume, the son 
of Pierre Franc of Rouen, was probably one of 
the French Protestants who fled to Geneva as an 
asylum from the persecution to which those who 
embraced the doctrines of the Reformation were 
then exposed. He settled in that city in 1541, 
shortly before the return of Calvin from Stras- 
burg, and obtained a licence to establish a school 
oi music. In 1542 he became master of the 
children and a singer at St. Peter's at a salary 
of 10 florins. In 1543 the Council of Geneva 
resolved that ' whereas the Psalms of David are 
being completed, 1 and whereas it is very neces- 
sary to compose a pleasing melody to them, and 
Master Guillaume the singer is very fit to teach 
the children, he shall give them instruction for 
an hour daily.' His pay was increased from 10 
to 50 florins, and afterwards raised to 100, with 
the use of part of a house, but on the refusal of 
the Council to grant a further addition to his 
salary Franc left Geneva in 1545 and joined the 
choir of the Cathedral of Lausanne, where he 
remained until his death about the beginning of 
June 1570. 

Franc's name is chiefly known in connection 
with the Psalter published at Geneva by Calvin 
for the use of the Reformed Churches. The first 
edition of this celebrated work appeared in 
1542, containing thirty-five psalms, and was 
enlarged from time to time until its completion 
in 1562. Of this Psalter Franc has been gener- 
ally believed to be the musical editor ; but 
recent researches, especially those of M. O. 
Douen, show the claim set up for him to be 
devoid of foundation. [See Bourgeois, vol. i. 
p. 372.] He certainly had nothing to do with 
the Psalter after leaving Geneva in 1545, and 
although the resolution of the Council quoted 
above may appear to indicate an intention of 
employing him to adapt melodies to some of the 
psalms then newly translated by Marot, there 
is no evidence that this intention was ever 
carried into effect. 

Franc, however, did edit a Psalter. The 
church of Lausanne had on several occasions 
shown a spirit of independence of that of Geneva, 
and at the time of Franc's arrival sang the 
psalms to melodies by Gindron, a canon of the 
cathedral, which differed from those in use at 
Geneva. As early as 1552 Franc appears to 
have been engaged on a new Psalter, for in that 
year he obtained a licence to print one at Geneva, 
there being then no press at Lausanne. No 
copy of this book, if it was ever published, is 
known to exist, but the terms of the licence 2 

1 This refers to the additional versions then being written by Marot. 

2 This important document, which has only lately been discovered 
in the registers of the Council of Geneva, deserves to be quoted in 

ful1 :— Jeudi 28 iuillet 1552. 

. . . Sur ce qui le dit maistre Jacques, ministre de Lausanne, a pro- 
pose 1 que a Lausanne ilz ne se sont peult estre d'accord de chanter les 
pseaulmes change's icy par maistre Loys Bourgois, ny ceulx qu'il a 
myst en cbans du sieur de Beze, ilz sont en propos de faire imprimer 
les pseaulmes translatez par Marot en leur premier chant, et aussy 
ceulx qu'a translate' le sieur de Beze en vng chant que y a mis le 
chantre de Lausanne pour les chanter, ce qu'ilz n'hont ausd faire 
sans licence. Pourquoy il a requis permettre les imprimer icy. Ar- 
rete que, attendu que c'est chose raissonable, il leur soit permys. 



94 



FRANC 



FRANCESINA, LA 



show that it consisted of the psalms of Marot 
with their original melodies, and the thirty-four 
psalms translated by Beza the year before, to which 
Franc, probably in rivalry with Bourgeois, had 
adapted melodies of his own. At any rate, in 
1565, three years after the completion of the 
Genevan Psalter, that of Lausanne appeared, 
under the following title : — ' Les Pseaumes mis 
en rime franchise par Clement Marot et Theo- 
dore de Beze, auec le chant de l'eglise de Lau- 
sane [sic] 1565. Auec priuilege, tant du Roy, 
que de Messieurs de Geneue.' 

In the preface Franc disclaims any idea of 
competition with those ' who had executed their 
work with great fidelity,' or even of correcting 
' what had been so well done by them. ' He 
gives no intimation that he had himself taken 
any part in that work, and states, with respect 
to his own book, that in addition to a selection 
of the best tunes then in use in the church of 
Lausanne as well as in other Reformed Churches, 
he had supplied new ones to such of the psalms, 
then recently translated, as had not yet been set 
to music, and were consequently sung to the 
melodies of psalms in the older editions of the 
Psalter. He adds that his object was that each 
psalm should have its proper tune, and confusion 
be thereby avoided. 

Stress has been laid by some writers who 
attributed the Genevan melodies to Franc, on a 
letter written to Bayle by David Constant, pro- 
fessor of theology at Lausanne at the end of 
the 17th century, in which he states that he 
had seen a certificate bearing date Nov. 2, 1552, 
and given by Beza to Franc, in which Beza tes- 
tifies that it was Franc who had first set the 
psalms to music. Constant adds that he himself 
possessed a copy of the psalms in which the 
name of Franc appeared and which was printed 
at Geneva under the licence of the magistrates of 
that city. Baulacre, however, writing in 1745 
in the Journal Helvetique, after investigating 
the accuracy of Constant's statement, shows that 
the account he sent to Bayle of Beza's letter was 
erroneous, as that letter contained no reference 
to the authorship of the melodies. Even had it 
done so, we have seen above that in that very 
year Franc had obtained a licence to print a col- 
lection of psalms for Lausanne, and the Psalter 
to which Constant refers is that of 1565, also 
compiled for local use. 

In this latter collection twenty-seven melodies 
are composed or adapted by Franc to the psalms 
left without them in the Geneva Psalter of 1562, 
(51, * 53, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 76, 
77,78,82,95, 98, 100,108, 109, 111, 116,127,! 
139, 140, 142, and 144), nineteen are selected 
from the tunes previously in use at Lausanne, and 
the rest are taken from the Genevan Psalter. 

i Psalms 51 and 127 had proper tunes in the Genevan Psalter, to 
which Beza's versions of 69 and 117 were respectively sung. Franc 
retained the Genevan melodies for the later psalms, and adapted dis- 
tinct tunes to the older ones. Of these tunes, that which Franc set 
to 51 was its original melody, to which Bourgeois adapted it in 1542, 
but which he had replaced by another in 1551. 



Before long, however, Lausanne followed the 
example of the other Reformed Churches, and 
the Psalter of Franc was superseded by that of 
Bourgeois. 

Franc's tunes are of small merit. Some speci- 
mens of them are given by Douen in his Cle> 
m&nt Marot et le Psautier Hugumot, 2 vols. 
Paris, 1878-79, from which the materials for this 
article are chiefly derived. See also Bovet, 
Histoire du Psautier des e'glises rcformdcs, Neu- 
chatel et Paris, 1872 ; G. Becker, La Musique 
en Suisse, Geneve et Paris, 1874 ; Riggenbach, 
Der Kirchengesang in Basel; and six articles by 
the present writer in the Musical Times, June- 
November 1881. [See Psalter, and Riv. Mus. 
Ital. vol. vi. p. 496.] G. A. c. 

FRANCESCA DA RIMINI, (i.) Tragic opera 
in three acts, by Hermann Goetz ; the first two 
acts finished, and the third sketched, by the 
composer ; completed by Ernst Frank, and pro- 
duced at Mannheim, Sept. 30, 1877. (ii.) 
Grand opera in four acts, by MM. Barbier 
and Carre, music by Ambroise Thomas ; pro- 
duced at the Grand Opera, Paris, April 14, 
1882. (iii. ) A symphonic poem by Tchaikovsky, 
called ' Orchestral fantasia ' and numbered op. 
32 ; written and first performed in 1876 ; first 
played in England at the Cambridge University 
Musical Society's concert, June 12, 1893, when 
the degree of Mus.D. was conferred on the 
composer. m. 

FRANCESINA, LA, Elisabeth Duparc, 
detta, a French singer, who sang for some years 
in Italy, where she acquired her sobriquet. In 
the autumn of 1736 she came to London, and 
1 had the honour to sing (with Merighi and 
Chimenti) before her majesty, the duke, the 
princesses at Kensington, and met with a most 
gracious reception ; after which the Francesina 
performed several dances to the entire satisfaction 
of the court.' (London Daily Post, Nov. 18.) 
The accomplishment of dancing, however, she 
does not seem to have kept up. Her name as 
a public singer is not found until Jan. 7, 1738, 
when she played Clotilda in Handel's ' Fara- 
mondo ' on its first representation, the first part 
ever written for her by the great German. She 
seems to have had an easy, warbling style of 
execution, which Burney calls 'lark-like,' and 
pleased both composer and public. La Francesina 
appeared again in Pescetti's ' Conquista del Velio 
d' Oro ' and in Handel's ' Serse ' that same year ; 
and in 1739 she took part in 'Acis,' 'Saul,' 
'Israel,' and 'Dryden's Ode.' In 1740 she re- 
appeared in ' L' Allegro, ' and in ' Imeneo ' by the 
same composer ; the latter ' advertised for Nov. 
29, but deferred for near a fortnight, on account 
of the indisposition of Francesina ' (Burney). 
On January 10, 1741, she sang in Handel's last 
opera 'Deidamia,' in which, according to Burney, 
' Nascondi Vusignol, which finishes the first act, 
is a light, airy, pleasing movement, suited to 
the active throat of the Francesina.' In 1744 



FRANCHETTI 



FRANCK 



95 



and 1745 she took part in Handel's 'Joseph,' 
'Belshazzar,' and 'Hercules' ; she had quitted 
the stage, ' but constantly attached herself to 
Handel, and was first woman in his oratorios for 
many years ' (Burney). She enjoys the doubtful 
honour of having sung the four Italian songs 
which Handel was compelled to ' intermix ' in 
'Israel in Egypt' in 1739, to carry it over a 
third performance. In 1737 her portrait was 
engraved by J. Faber in mezzotint from a paint- 
ing by George Knapton. It is a half-length, and 
represents a pleasant, intelligent woman ; she 
holds a book, on a page of which are the words, 
'Ua sei amabile sparanza,' the beginning, prob- 
ably, of one of her favourite songs. J. m. 

FRANCHETTI, Alberto, born of wealthy 
parents at Turin, Sept. 18, 1860 ; studied at 
first under Nicol6 Coccon and Fortunato Magi, 
subsequently under Draeseke at Dresden and at 
the Munich Conservatorium. From his German 
teachers he seems to have learnt very great skill 
in the manipulation of masses of sound, such 
as are required for operas on a large scale ; yet 
the thoroughness of his training has not secured 
him a very high position in the estimation of the 
best Italian critics, although his private means 
have enabled him to command the attention of 
the public, and to have his works produced 
under the most favourable conditions. His 
operas are five in number ; ' Asrael, ' in four acts, 
was produced at Brescia in 1888, and afterwards 
at the Scala, and elsewhere, with great success. 
His 'Cristoforo Colombo,' in four acts, produced 
at Genoa in October 1892, contains an admir- 
ably worked ensemble in the first act, but ap- 
peals to the public rather by its scenic panorama 
of the voyage than by anything else ; the 
three-act ' Fior d'Alpe' (Milan, 1894) and the 
three -act ' Signor di Pourceaugnac ' (Milan, 
1897), were less successful than 'Germania,' 
(Milan, 1902). See a detailed analysis in the 
Riv. Mus. Ital. ix. 377. A symphony in E 
minor completes the number of his works. 

Some critics have called Franchetti the Meyer- 
beer of modern Italy, and there are certain 
points of resemblance between the two, besides 
the accident of their outward circumstances, 
circumstances, it may be hinted, that are not 
always entirely advantageous in the long run. 
It is true that Franchetti is at his best when 
there are many characters on the stage, or 
when inspired by some spectacular effect on the 
scene. His music is not profoundly emotional, 
not very often distinguished, but it is not gener- 
ally realised that his workmanship is sound and 
scholarly, and the fact that he owes little or 
nothing to Wagner, and stands entirely apart 
from the hysterical school of Young Italy, 
should not be reckoned against him. M. 

FRANCHOMME, Auguste Joseph, born at 
Lille, April 10, 1808, learned the rudiments 
of the violoncello from a player named Mas, 
entered the Paris Conservatoire in March 1825, 



at once attracted the notice of Levasseur and 
Norblin the Professors, and in his first year took 
the first prize for his instrument. He then 
joined the orchestra of the Ambigu-comique, in 
1827 that of the Opera, and in 1828 fixed him- 
self at the Theatre des Italiens. In conjunction 
with Alard and Halle he formed an annual series 
of classical quartets, which attained the highest 
rank. Franchomme was in Paris at the time of 
Mendelssohn's visit, in the winter of 1831, and 
is mentioned by Hiller (Mendelssohn, 1819) as 
one of the artists who most warmly appreciated 
him. They were just of an age, and knowing 
Mendelssohn's predilection for the violoncello 
it is not difficult to believe that they often 
played together. He was very intimate with 
Chopin, and was one of those who witnessed 
his last sufferings and received his latest words. 
Franchomme travelled very little, and a visit to 
England in 1856, when he played at the Musical 
Union, appears to be almost his only journey. 
He was Professor at the Conservatoire from 
Jan. 1, 1846. He died in Paris, Jan. 22, 1884. 
Franchomme's playing was remarkable for a 
command over technical difficulties of all kinds, 
very pure intonation, and a beautiful and ex- 
pressive singing tone. He was the possessor of 
the violoncello of Duport, said to be the finest 
Stradivarius in existence, for which he gave 
£1000. His compositions consist chiefly of 
potpourris and variations, with one concerto. 
He also published with Chopin a Duo on airs 
from ' Robert le Diable, ' another with Bertini, 
and a third with Osborne. His Adagios are 
much esteemed. [A comparison of the two 
versions of Chopin's Polonaise for pianoforte 
and violoncello, in C, op. 3, will show how great 
were the improvements in the violoncello part, 
which were due to Franchomme.] g. 

FRANCISCELLO, a great violoncellist of the 
early part of the 18th century, but of whom 
neither the date nor place of birth or death are 
known, and who in fact would have left no trace 
of his existence but for the fact that he was 
heard by Quantz, Benda, and Geminiani. He 
seems to have first appeared in Rome shortly 
after the death of Corelli (1713). He was at 
Naples in 1725 ; Quantz heard him there, and 
Geminiani, there or in Rome, was witness to 
the rapture with which the great Alessandro 
Scarlatti accompanied him on the harpsichord. 
In 1730 he was at Vienna, where F. Benda, 
then a young man, was so struck by his style 
as to say that it influenced him for ever after. 
He is heard of afterwards at Genoa, where he 
may have died about 1750, but nothing is 
known. G. 

FRANCK, Cesar, born Dec. 10, 1822, at 
Liege, studied music at first at the Conservatoire 
of that place. Coming to Paris at the age of fifteen, 
he entered the Paris Conservatoire (then directed 
by Cherubini) in Oct. 1837, where he was in 
Leborne's class for counterpoint and fugue, and 



96 



FRANCE 



FRANCK 



that of Zimmerman for piano. In 1 8 3 8 he gained 
an accessit in the former subjects, and subsequently 
the first prize in the latter. He obtained this 
last by a feat rare in the annals of the institu- 
tion ; having played Hummel's concerto in A 
minor to perfection, he was set to read a passage 
for the first time, when he transposed it to a 
third below the original pitch, without hesitation. 
The jury made him hors concours and awarded 
him a first pi'ix d'honncur. Having entered the 
composition class of Berton in 1838, he carried 
off the second prize in the following year, and, 
in 1840, the first prize for counterpoint and 
fugue. In October 1840 he entered the organ 
class of Benoist, and obtained the second prize 
in 1841. The registers of the institution show 
that he left it voluntarily in April 1842, his 
father unfortunately exercising his parental 
authority by forbidding him to enter for the 
prix de Rome. As Franck junior had no taste 
for the musical acrobatics of the typical young 
prodigy, he threw himself ardently into the work 
of composition and of teaching. At first he was 
for two years in his native Belgium, but returned 
to Paris, where he established himself with his 
family in 1844. From that time he led a busy 
and laborious life, his strong constitution, cour- 
age, and tenacity of purpose enabling him to 
give as many as ten lessons of an hour every day 
in piano, accompaniment, and harmony, as well 
as to lay the foundations of the gigantic amount 
of composition he left behind him. Amidst all 
this work, his life was regular and tranquil. In 
1858 the post of organist at Ste. Clotilde was 
offered him, and he filled it for thirty-two years, 
until his death. It is easy to picture him seated 
at his organ, giving to a circle of faithful admirers 
a foretaste of some great work, perhaps one of 
his motets, remarkable for the wealth and variety 
of their polyphonic combinations. A portrait 
painted from life by Mile. Jeanne Rongier 1 shows 
him at the organ, leaning a little forward, with 
his left hand on the keys, and his right on one 
of the stops. It is a three-quarter face, with the 
eyes half- closed, as though the master were 
listening to mystic chants whispered in his ear 
from above. His peculiar, charm was not merely 
the masterly authority of his teaching, but 
goodness of heart, and a kindly manner that 
never grew less during the long years of his 
professional career. 

Naturalised a Frenchman in 1870, Cesar 
Franck took charge of the first organ class of 
the Paris Conservatoire on Feb. 12, 1872, about 
thirty years after his retirement from the famous 
school. From that time his life was devoted 
exclusively to teaching and composition. The 
long hours of his professional work were never 
allowed to interfere with the creative side of 
his labours, and the extent of his compositions 
is a sufficient proof of his incessant activity. If 

1 Reproduced in Daniel Gregory Mason's From Grieg to Brahms, 
New York, 1902. 



a musical idea occurred to him in the course of 
teaching, he would rise quietly and write a few 
lines, then resuming the interrupted lesson. He 
became the centre of a group of young composers 
who were anxious to study orchestral composi- 
tion without passing through the Conservatoire, 
where no attention was paid to the symphonic 
style, care being only given to operatic com- 
position. 

Though the earlier masters were his especial 
favourites, yet he was a great admirer of the 
symphonic composers, of Haydn, Mozart, Beet- 
hoven, Schubert, and Schumann. Equally keen 
was his enthusiasm for the masterpieces of 
dramatic art, whether those of Gluck, Weber, 
Wagner, and Berlioz, or of the old French 
operatic writers, Gretry, Monsigny, and, above 
all, Mehul, from whose ' Euphrosine et Coradin ' 
he was fond of singing the fine duet of jealousy. 
His mind , accessible to all kinds of beauty, open 
to every innovation, free from all jealousy, wel- 
comed with the utmost warmth the compositions 
of his contemporaries who, more fortunate than 
himself, reached worldly success. Another char- 
acteristic trait was a kind of indifference to the 
plaudits of the multitude. The few came to 
him, understood and admired him ; those per- 
formances of his works which came up to his 
ideal delighted him, and that sufficed. Ap- 
parently he was not even conscious of the in- 
difference for his work displayed by the public ; 
he lived in a world of his own, too remote for 
such things to touch him. Art for Art's sake 
was his heaven. 

Thanks to his robust health, Cesar Franck 
passed through life untouched by physical 
trouble. He lived to a green old age, and 
when attacked by the pleurisy from which he 
died, on Nov. 8, 1890, he was still in full 
vigour. In the dusk of a rainy day a few 
faithful friends followed his body to the tomb. 
There was no ceremonious funeral, no official 
discourse of eulogy, merely a few touching words 
spoken by a friend and a disciple. Such a 
funeral befitted the modesty of his whole life. 



Cesar Franck, whose work reminds us not 
a little of that of Sebastian Bach — due pro- 
portion being kept between the two — was like 
an artist of another age, traversing the ordi- 
nary paths of life like a dreamer, unconscious 
of what might be passing around him, and 
living for his art alone, and for the few 
disciples who were destined to be the apostles 
of a new religion. In the present day it is 
clear that the work of this single-minded fol- 
lower of truth, this 'primitif' born out of due 
time, has borne worthy fruit, and is destined 
to grow and spread still farther. His artist- 
soul, though full of gentleness and goodness, 
was never appealed to by worldly grandeur ; he 
lived apart from mortals in a super-terrestrial 
world. Thus he could bear the disdain or in- 




C^SAR FRANCK 



FRANCK 

difference with which his early work was re- 
ceived by the crowd ; and in general he seemed 
absolutely unconscious of their indifference. His 
daily work, too, occupied his time so fully that 
he was in a manner a stranger in the world in 
which he lived. Like all great geniuses he had 
a lofty ideal, together with a naive satisfaction 
in what he had accomplished. 'You will see,' 
he would say, ' I have just finished something 
that is very beautiful.' The author of ' Les 
Beatitudes ' might well say that. Such a revolt 
as that which Berlioz made against the judg- 
ment of his contemporaries was foreign to 
Franck's nature, which was amply satisfied with 
the appreciation of the faithful few. His nature 
was of a rare and fine type, wholly devoted to 
what was good and beautiful. 

What was it that was so new and penetrating 
in Franck's actual teaching ? He introduced 
his pupils at once to a prodigious wealth of 
novel harmonies, and allowed them to apply 
their harmonic originality to the composition 
of oratories, symphonies, and chamber music, 
with a happy audacity in combinations of tone, 
a broad amplitude of development, and very 
characteristic tone - colouring. He was not 
merely a pioneer of high musical culture, but 
he appeared at a time when the need of a much 
more profound as well as a more detailed study 
of the symphonic and polyphonic arts was 
beginning to make itself felt. The knowledge 
of the masterpieces of the symphonic composers, 
which were just then beginning to be heard at 
the larger concerts, opened a new path for the 
younger French writers, and consequently im- 
posed upon them a special kind of study. 
Cesar Franck, with his natural bent towards 
the richness and amplitude of the symphonic 
form, came at the psychological moment to be 
the master of what might be called the higher 
study of musical rhetoric. With characteristic 
graciousness he welcomed the generation that 
was seeking, in the intimate union of instru- 
ments with voices, in a more elaborate orchestra- 
tion, for the rejuvenation, if not the complete 
abandonment, of the ancient formulae, and for 
a form in closer accord with modern tendencies. 
Among those who received instruction or 
counsel from him, who were his disciples and 
friends, and who gained from his teaching a 
marvellous skill of technique as well as a rare 
ease and certainty in handling the orchestra, 
may be mentioned Alexis de Castillon, Vincent 
d'Indy, Henri Duparc, Ernest Chausson, Arthur 
Coquard, Samuel Rousseau, G. Pierne\ Augusta 
Holmes, Charles Bordes, Guy Ropartz, and 
Camille Benoit. 

The central character of his music may be 
described by the single word 'mysticism.' This 
was a region unexplored in music before his 
time, and all his works bear strong traces of 
the quality. Before him, music was scholastic, 
naive, graceful, dramatic, emotional, passionate, 
VOL. II 



FRANCK 



97 



descriptive, or picturesque, but this new quality 
had been unrevealed. Even the mysticism of 
' Parsifal ' has little in common with that of 
' Les Beatitudes. ' The nature of Cesar Franck, 
who passed so much of his time in divine con- 
templation, under whose fingers the organ of 
Ste. Clotilde conversed rather with angels than 
with men, led him towards this new develop- 
ment of his beloved art ; well was he called the 
' Angelic Doctor ' or the < Pater Seraphicus ' of 
music, for his life and his art were closely allied. 
In seeking for an analogy from the history of 
painting, the names of Fra Angelica among the 
ancients, and of Puvis de Chavannes among 
moderns, occur to the mind. 

A close study of his music reveals certain 
especially characteristic marks of his musical 
personality, such as his revival and enrichment 
of the ancient form of canon, his frequent em- 
ployment of chromaticism, his fondness for 
successions of the smallest intervals, his habit 
of modulating by thirds, his use of unison in 
chamber -music, of conflicting rhythms and 
syncopations ; and lastly, the suggestion of 
mystery resulting from the introduction of 
silences. On the other hand, adverse criticism 
might point to the length which disfigures many 
of his compositions, and to the monochrome 
tints of his orchestration. In spite of these 
defects the work of Franck reveals a beauty 
which, at first perceived by a few minds during 
the master's life, became, and will become, as 
time goes on, ever more and more clear to the 
world in general. As Franck's outward aspect 
was full of character and nobility, so his music 
was full of individuality, and is of great import- 
ance in the history of the art in the 19th century. 
The master employed every form of the art : 
oratorios, cantatas, Biblical scenes, symphonies, 
symphonic poems, operas, chamber music, music 
for organ and for piano, and vocal works. On 
the one hand, his sacred music, such as his 
oratorios and organ pieces, has, as it were, put 
new life into the older forms of music, notably 
that of Bach ; and on the other he gave a 
vigorous impulse to chamber music, enlarging 
its scope as well as that of piano music and 
song. Lastly, he left two operas (in addition 
to ' Le Valet de Ferme,' written in 1848 for the 
Opera National, under Adolphe Adam), 'Hulda' 
and ' Ghisele, ' both of which contain beauties 
quite worthy of the author of ' Les Beatitudes.' 
As has already been said, all are united by the 
common bond of mysticism. 

His first compositions, it is true, do not give 
any definite signs of the tendencies that after- 
wards distinguished him. The three trios for 
piano and strings (op. 1) written in 1842, the 
fourth trio in B minor (1843), the pianoforte 
duet on 'God save the King' (1843), the 
' Grandes Fantaisies ' for piano on themes from 
Dalayrac's 'Gulistan' (opp. 11 and 12, 1844) 
do not in any way foreshadow the glories of 



98 



FRANCK 



FRANCK 



the quintet for piano and strings (1880), the 
string quartet (1889), or the sonata for piano 
and violin (1886). But in 'Ruth,' notwith- 
standing the fact that it was written as early 
as 1846, the genius and personality of the com- 
poser begins to assert itself. The adorable 
naivete' and limpid clearness of this ' Eglogue 
biblique ' procured it the approval of Spontini 
and Meyerbeer when, on Jan. 4, 1846, it was 
performed for the first time at the Conservatoire. 
Its instrumentation is sober and graceful, and 
its melodies tender and simple. The finest 
passages are the picturesque prelude, the chorus 
of Moabites, the march in G minor, Ruth's air 
in the first part, the brilliant and original 
chorus of reapers, and the charming duet 
between Ruth and Boaz in the second, and the 
whole of the final scene. Franck's other works 
for solos, chorus, and orchestra, are ' Redemption,' 
a ' poeme symphonique ' ; and ' Les Beatitudes,' 
an oratorio ; ' Rebecca, ' a Biblical idyll ; and 
' Psyche, ' a ' poeme symphonique. ' The first 
of these was finished Nov. 7, 1872, and first 
performed at the Concert National (Theatre de 
l'Odeon), on April 10, 1873, under the direction 
of Colonne. The publisher, Georges Hartmann, 
who had discerned the composer's genius and 
had brought out ' Ruth, ' was the chief promoter 
of ' Redemption, ' the words of which, by 
M. Edouard Blau, had originally been offered 
to M. Massenet. If ' Redemption ' does not 
reach the height of 'Les Beatitudes' (and certain 
choruses are not free from banality), all the 
mystic portion of the work is absolutely delicious. 
For the choruses of angels, the airs of the arch- 
angel, and the admirable number in which is 
painted the joy of the world at the advent of 
Christ, Cesar Franck found an inspiration full 
of purity and simple grace. 

'Les Beatitudes,' written in 1870, and pub- 
lished in 1880, is a splendid oratorio of solid 
architectural design, and infinitely superior to 
a good many works which at the time of their 
appearance enjoyed a rapid but ephemeral 
success. The scheme is a poetic paraphrase on 
the Gospel by Mme. Colomb, and the work opens 
with a prologue in w T hich the various elements 
in the composition are musically combined with 
masterly skill. Satan, a figure of Miltonic 
grandeur, vanquished by Christ ; humanity, 
assailed by every terrestrial misery, regenerated 
by the Redeemer, — such is the main thread of 
the poem which Franck has enhanced by the 
happiest effects of contrast, by a style of 
orchestration that is wonderfully skilful, 
although rather concise, by an astonishing 
truthfulness of dramatic expression, by melodic 
richness, and by the clever union of voices and 
instruments. What accents of tenderness and 
of divine compassion in the voice of Christ 
preaching the glad tidings ! What bitterness 
in that of Satan struggling until he is finally 
overcome ! and what dramatic force in his 



attack, notably in the eighth beatitude ! How 
happy are the effects due to orchestral and vocal 
polyphony ! Especially admirable is the care- 
ful gradation between the sad and vehement 
choruses. In the famous vocal quintet, ' Les 
Pacifiques ' in the seventh beatitude, how the 
expression of the voices is intensified in the 
orchestra ! The third beatitude is a master- 
piece, in which a mother weeps over an empty* 
cradle, an orphan mourns its misery, wedded 
pairs lament their separation, and slaves sigh 
for liberty. Throughout, the voice of Christ 
soars through the serene air ; finally, the crown 
is placed upon the work in the grand hosanna 
with which the eighth beatitude closes. 

In ' Rebecca, ' a Biblical idyll for solo, chorus, 
and orchestra (on a poem by Paul Collin), 
dating from 1881, Cesar Franck returned to 
the style of ' Ruth, ' his first work of this kind. 
It is a short scene in which the composer, while 
choosing the tonality of oriental scales, has in- 
vented delicate modulations, delicious effects of 
colour, and graceful themes. The introductory 
chorus, ' A l'ombre fraiche des palmiers,' and the 
chorus of camel-drivers, are highly picturesque. 

' Psyche,' set to words by. MM. Sicard and 
Fourcaud in 1887-88, was first performed at the 
Concerts du Chatelet, under M. Colonne's direc- 
tion, Feb. 23, 1890. From the first pages the 
hearer is impressed by the mastery of the writ- 
ing and the nobility of the ideas. He will 
admire the ' Sommeil de Psyche,' a prelude frill 
of a mysterious language, and a piece that will 
remind him of Wagner, not in actual material, 
but in the theories and style. He will recognise 
the composer's talent in translating the strange 
sounds that precede the scene in which Psyche 
is carried by the zephyrs into the gardens of 
Eros ; he will find an exquisite tenderness in 
the third theme of Psyche reposing amongst the 
flowers, and saluted as sovereign by the powers 
of nature ; he will detect a certain relationship 
between the phrase sung to Psyche to the words, 
' Souviens-toi que tu ne dois jamais de ton 
mystique epoux connaitre le visage,' and the 
phrase uttered by Lohengrin to Elsa in a situa- 
tion exactly parallel ; and he will welcome and 
retain many other pages of the score. But he 
will regret the lack of variety and the length 
which robs the work of part of its charm. 

Franck's symphonic and chamber music, 
though of no great extent, yet contains things 
that are very remarkable ; with the exception 
of the four trios already mentioned, it was com- 
posed between 1875 and 1890. Like the vocal 
works, these compositions are full of mystic 
character, and the employment of the canonic 
and chromatic style is perhaps almost too con- 
stant. There are 'Les Eolides,' a symphonic 
poem (1876), with its thrilling aerial sounds ; 
• Le Chasseur maudit' (1883), with its striking 
appeal to the feeling of terror ; ' Les Djinns,' 
symphonic poem for piano and orchestra (1884), 



FRANCK 



FRANCK 



99 



a charming fantasia with most ingenious develop- 
ments ; the ' Variations symphoniques ' for piano 
and orchestra (1885), an example of splendid 
climax, and lastly the symphony in D minor 
(1889). If the last work is separated from the 
classical models by its introduction .of the 
employment of the principal theme in all the 
movements, and by the freer development of 
the material, it has a breadth of style in the 
orchestration that carries us back to Beethoven. 
There is also a remarkable attempt to treat the 
families of the instruments in separate groups. 
An ecstatic sentiment is reflected throughout 
the symphony, but particularly in the lento that 
precedes the allegro non troppo. The opening 
theme of this allegro is of a free and flowing 
beauty. Interrupted by the recurrence of the 
lento, it is definitely established in order to lead 
to a vigorous conclusion. It is open to criticism 
on account of a too frequent use of chromatic 
writing, and of tremolo effects in the string 
parts. The second movement, allegretto, has a 
charming theme for cor anglais, supported by 
harps and strings, pizzicato ; the following theme, 
with its rapid motion given out at first by the 
muted strings, has some likeness to a dance of 
sylphs ; then the melancholy phrase of the cor 
anglais returns, and the two are heard in com- 
bination. The finale is in D major, and amongst 
various themes, some of them taken from pre- 
vious movements, there is one that has the 
character of a carol (or ' Noel '), which gains 
special prominence at the close. 

Franck's three great productions in chamber 
music are the quintet for piano and strings, the 
sonata for piano and violin, and the quartet for 
strings. The style of all is very modern, and 
their character full of originality. The com- 
poser's mastery of resource is shown in the first, 
in which, after a first movement built more or 
less regularly on two themes, an andante follows, 
the theme of which is given out successively by 
the violin, the quartet of strings, and lastly the 
piano ; the finale is of surpassing brilliance. 
The well-known violin sonata begins with a 
passage of the most dreamy ecstasy, followed by 
a dashing allegro the passionate vehemence of 
which reminds the hearer of passages in Schu- 
mann's sonatas ; a noble recitative leads to the 
youthful gaiety of the finale, which might be 
paraphrased from some old carol. The quartet 
is the master's swan-song, and was composed 
only a few months before his death. 

It was natural that an artist who had passed 
so many years of his life as an organist, should 
leave fine compositions for that instrument. 
In a set of pieces written in 1863-65, we must 
place in the first rank a ' Prelude, Fugue et Varia- 
tions,' and a Fantasia in C major. In these two 
Franck displays the rarest qualities of genius, 
such as the freedom and admirable development 
of his themes, with due regard to a conciseness 
which is not always his. He is as completely 



master of the resources of the organ as of those of 
the orchestra. When he avoids giving too free 
a rein to his inspiration and does not allow him- 
self to develop his ideas at too great length, we 
find, as in op. 18, the • Prelude, Fugue et Varia- 
tions,' a justice of design, a perfect proportion, 
and the charm of ideas skilfully presented. An 
infinitely tender, mystic, and graceful character 
breathes from the andantino, which returns at the 
close in the variations. In the Fantasia in C 
the composer proves his descent from Sebastian 
Bach. In the poco lento, a theme of most 
reposeful character enshrines a canon upon which 
is superimposed a very expressive subject. Both 
themes in the allegretto cantando in F minor are 
of exquisite delicacy. The adagio in C minor, 
beginning with a powerfully dramatic crescendo, 
has a theme that is absolutely seraphic, and is 
made still more emotional by the use of the ' vox 
humana ' stop. The ' Priere ' in C sharp minor 
(op. 20) and the ' Grande Piece symphonique ' 
in F sharp (op. 17) must be spoken of with 
some reserve, though they, too, present striking 
analogies with the work of Bach, pages of 
eloquent beauty and of wonderful power, notably 
in the fugue and chorale which terminates the 
latter work. The composer has not always suc- 
ceeded in restraining his imagination ; he talks, 
as it were, too long with his beloved instrument, 
forgetting that he wrote for a public which 
demands conciseness in organ pieces as much as 
in symphonic works. They are indeed sym- 
phonies, and are divided into distinct sections, 
like the work in F sharp. 

To the pieces for organ or harmonium may be 
added the sacred works, such as the beautiful 
mass for three voices composed in 1861, to 
which the composer added the famous ' Panis 
angelicus ' in 1872, the motets for the office of 
the ' Salut, ' the offertorium and the hymn. 

The pianoforte works are not numerous, but 
the ' Prelude, Choral et Fugue, ' dating from 
1884, and the ' Prelude, Aria et Finale * (1889), 
are both important. The secular works, whether 
for solo or chorus, are even more noteworthy. 
There are some charming things, some of which 
have enjoyed great success, especially since the 
master's death. Suffice it to mention the 'Ma- 
nage des Roses, ' ' Les Cloches du Soir, ' and ' La 
Procession,' among the songs ; and 'La Vierge 
a la Creche,' ' L'Ange gardien,' ' Les Danses de 
Lormont, ' ' Soleil, ' ' Premier sourire de Mai, ' 
among the part-songs for female voices. 

In the last period of his life, Franck wrote 
two operas : ' Hulda, ' in four acts, on a poem 
by Grandmougin, after B. Bjornson, written in 
1879-85, and 'Ghisele,' also in four acts, to a 
poem by G. A. Thierry, composed in 1888-89. 
The orchestration of the last was only finished 
as far as the end of the first act ; the others were 
orchestrated by MM. P. de BreVille, E. Chausson, 
Vincent d'Indy, Samuel Rousseau, and Arthur 
Coquard. Both operas were first produced at 



100 



FKANCK 



FRANCO 



the theatre of Monte Carlo ; the first on March 
4, 1894, and the second on April 6, 1896. 
There are a few unpublished compositions. 

In his capacity for work, his prodigious facil- 
ity, his profound harmonic science, in the lofti- 
ness of his ideals, and in his steadfast faith in 
his art, C^sar Franck is a singularly fascinating 
figure among musicians. His characteristic 
creations, a rich treasury whence his successors 
will draw inspiration for many a year, ensure 
him a high place among the composers of the 
19 th century. 

The list of his works is as follows : — 

Op. 

1. Three trios for piano and strings (F sharp, B flat, B minor). 

1842. 

2. Fourth trio for piano and strings, in B major. 1843. 

3. Eclogue for pf. 1843. 

4. First duet for pf. on ' God save the King.' 1843. 

5. First Caprice for pf . 

6. Andantino quietoso for pf. and vln. 

7. Souvenir d'Aix la Chapelle, for pf . 

8. Four songs of Schubert, transcribed for pf. 

9. Ballad for pf. 1844. 

10. Solo for pf. with quintet acconipt. 

11. First Grande Fantaisie for pf. on Dalayrac's ' Gulistan.' 1844. 

12. Second ditto ditto. 1844. 

13. Fantaisie for pf . 

14. Duet for piano and vln. on Dalayrac's ' Gulistan.' 

15. Fantaisie for pf. on two Polish airs. 1845. 

16. Fantaisie for organ. 

17. Grande Piece symphonique for organ. 

18. Prelude, Fugue et Variations, for organ. 

19. Pastorale for organ. 

20. PriSre for organ. 
2i. Finale for organ, 

22. Quasi Marcia for harmonium. 

WORKS DATED, BUT WITHOUT OPUS NUMBERS. 
Ruth, ' eglogue biblique,' in three parts, for soli, choir, and orch. 

1846. 
Le Valet de Ferme, opera. 1848. 
Les Beatitudes (words by Mme. Colomb), oratorio for soli, choir, 

and orch. 1870-80. 
Redemption, 'poeme-symphonique,' in two parts (Ed. Blau), for 

soli, choir, and orch. 1872. 
Les Eolides, 'poeme-symphonique.' 1876. 
Hulda, ' drame lyrique,' in four parts and a prologue (words by 

Grandmougin, after Bjornson). 1879-85. 
Quintet in F minor, for pf. and strings. 1880. 
Rebecca, ' scene biblique,' for soli, choir, and orch. 1881. 
Le Chasseur Maudit, ' podme-symphonique,' after Burger's ballad, 

for orch. 1884. 
Les Djinns, ' poeme-symphonique,' pf. and orch. 1884. 
Morceau symphonique de ' Redemption,' new version. 1885. 
Variations symphoniques, pf. and orch. 1885. 
Sonata in A for pf . and vln. 1886. 

Psych6, 'poeme-symphonique,' for choir and orch. 1887-88. 
Ghisele, opera in four acts (words by Gilbert Augustin Thierry). 

1388-89. 
Symphony in D. 1889. 
Quartet for strings in D. 1889. 

WORKS PUBLISHED WITHOUT DATE. 

Andantino for vln. with pf. accompt. 

Mass for three solo voices, choir, and orch. 

Hymne, to words of Racine, for four-part male chorus. 

Five pieces for harmonium. 

Fifty-nine Motets for harmonium. 

Nine Grandes Pieces for organ. 

Three Offertoires for soli and choir. 

Four motets. 

Salut, comprising three Motets with organ accompt. 

Veni Creator, duo for tenor and bass. 

Ave Maria. 

O Salutaria (extr. from the Mass, for bass solo). 

Chants d'Eglise, harmonised in three and four parts, with organ 
accompt. 

Prelude, Choral et Fugue, for pf. 

Prelude, Aria et Finale, for pf . 

Transcriptions for organ (from ancient compositions). 

Second duet for piano on ' Lucile.' 

Sonata for pf. 

Les Trois Exiles, ' chant national,' for bass and baritone voices. 

Le Garde d'Honneur, ' Cantique sacre.' 

Six Duos for equal voices (solo or choral), with pf. accompt. ; 
L'Ange gardien, Aux petites enfants, La Vierge a la Crfeche, 
Les danses de Lormont, Soleil, La chanson du Vannier. 

SONGS. 
La Procession (words by Brizeux), with orch. 
Les Cloches du Soir (Mme. Desbordes-Valmore). 
Le Mariage des Roses (E. David). 
L'ange et l'enfant (J. Reboul). 
Robin Gray (Floriau). 
Souvenance (Chateaubriand). 
Ninon (A. de Musset), for tenor and soprano. 
Passez, passez toujours (V. Hugo). 
Aimez (Mery). 
Roses et Papillons (V. Hugo). 



Lied (Lucien Pate). 

Le Sylphe (A. Dumas), with violoncello accompt. 

Nocturne (L. de Fourcaud). 

Premier Sourire de Mai (V. Wilder), for three female voices. 

Paris (1870). EL I. 

FRANCE, Melchior, prolific composer of 
church music and lieder, born, according to 
Wetzler's Lieder -Historie, at Zittau on the 
borders of Saxony and Silesia about 1573, lived 
at Augsburg in 1601 and Nuremberg in 1602, 
and was capellmeister to the Duke of Coburg 
from 1603 until his death, June 1, 1639. [The 
Quellen-Lexikon contains a list of over seventy 
works by him, now become very scarce.] He did 
much to improve the instrumental accompani- 
ment of songs, a point to which little attention 
was paid before his day. Doring (Choralkunde, 
p. 84) gives a list of thirteen of his Chorales 
which survived him, among which ' Jerusalem, 
du hochgebaute Stadt ' and ' Wenn ich in Todes- 
nbthen bin ' are still sung. He is also said to 
have written the words of several hymns, ' O 
Jesu, wie ist deine Gestalt, ' ' Der Brautigam wild 
bald rufen,' etc. [A four-part madrigal, 'Kein 
Lieb' ohn Leid,' is given in the first volume of 
Avion, from his Musicalischer Bergkreyen, 1602, 
and a selection of instrumental works in the 
Denkmaler Deutscher Tonkunst, vol. xvi. f. g. 

FRANCO, Magister (Franco de Colonia ; 
Franco Leodiensis ; Franco Parisiensis ; Franco 
of Cologne ; Franco of Liege ; Franco of Paris). 

Though the claim of Magister Franco to the 
honour of having written the earliest known 
dissertation upon Measured Music has been very 
generally admitted, the confusion which prevails 
with regard to his personal identity has been 
increased rather than diminished by the en- 
deavours of successive historians to set the ques- 
tion at rest. If we are to accept the contradictory 
theories that have been handed down to us, since 
the times of Burney and Hawkins, we shall find 
it impossible to avoid the conclusion — either, 
that three distinct Francos flourished at dif- 
ferent epochs, in Cologne, Liege, and Paris ; or, 
that a certain Magister Franco held scholastic 
appointments in those three cities, at impossibly 
distant dates. 

The chief source of uncertainty is, the very 
grave doubt as to whether the writer of the 
famous musical tracts is, or is not, identical with 
a certain philosopher, named Franco, who was 
equally celebrated, in the 11th century, for his 
knowledge of Mathematics, Alchemy, Judicial 
Astrology, and Magic. 

Sigebertus Gemblacensis, 1 who died in 1113, 
tells us that this learned writer dedicated a tract, 
' De Quadratura Circuli, ' to Herimanus, Arch- 
bishop of Cologne ; and, as this Prelate died in 
February, 1055, the work must have been com- 
pleted before that date. Trithemius 2 attributes 
this same tract, ' De Quadratura Circuli, ' together 
with another, ' De Computo Ecclesiastico, et alia 
plura, ' 3 to Franco, Scholasticus Leodiensis Eccle- 

1 Chron. ad aim. 1047. - De Sciipt. Eccles. (Lut. Par. 1512.) 

3 Among these was one ' De Motu perpetuo.' 



FRANCO 



FRANCO 



101 



siae ; who , he says, flourished under the Emperor, 
Henry III., about the year 1060, though there 
is evidence, of another kind, to prove that Franco 
continued in office at Liege, at least until the 
year of 1083. 

The authors of the Histoire LitUraire de la 
France 1 assure us that this Scholastic of Liege 
was the author of the tract ' De Musica Men- 
surabili. ' 

But, in direct opposition to this, Kiesewetter 2 
brings forward evidence enough to satisfy himself, 
at least, that the tracts on Measured Music were 
written neither by the Alchemist and Magician 
of Cologne, nor by the Scholastic of Liege, but 
by some other Franco, who flourished not less 
than 130 or 150 years later — i.e. towards the 
close of the 12th century. This opinion — in 
which it is only fair to say that he is followed 
by De Coussemaker, Von Winterfeld, and Perne 
— rests, however, upon no stronger ground than 
the supposition that the period interposed be- 
tween the writings of Guido d'Arezzo and Franco 
was insufficient for the development of the im- 
proved system described by the last-named 
master. Fetis, reasonably enough, protests 
against a conclusion unsupported by any sort of 
historical, or even traditional evidence. Kiese- 
wetter first stated his views in the Leipzig 
Allgem. mus. Zeitung for 1828, Nos. 48, 49, 
50. Fetis, in his Dictionary, opposed the new 
theory. Kiesewetter replied to the objections 
of Fetis in the Allgem. mus. Zeitung for 1838, 
Nos. 24, 25. And, in the meantime, De Cousse- 
maker, in his Histoire de VHarmonie au moyen 
dge (pp. 144-147), suggests, somewhat con- 
fidently, that the real author of the disputed 
tracts was another Franco, who is known to 
have flourished at Dortmund, in Westphalia, 
about the year 1190. But, since not a particle 
of trustworthy evidence has ever been adduced 
in favour of these fanciful theories, we shall do 
well, until more light can be thrown upon the 
subject, to believe, with Fetis, and our own 
Burney and Hawkins, that the tracts attributed 
to Franco were really written by the philosopher 
of Cologne, about the year 1060. 

The musical tracts attributed to Franco are — 

1. Ars Magistri Frauconis de Musica Mensurabili. 

2. Magistri Frauconis Musica. 

3. Compendium de Discantu, tribus capitibus. 

The earliest known copy of the first of these 
MSS, is said to be preserved at Vire, in Nor- 
mandy. The second tract — in the Bodleian 
Library, at Oxford 3 — is an exact transcript of the 
first, under a different title ; though the authors 
of the Hist. Litt. de la France do not appear to 
have been aware of the fact. The third tract — 
also in the Bodleian Library 4 — contains the best 
account of Discant, immediately after the time 
of Guido, that We possess. Copies of the Ars 
Cantus mensurabilis are also to be found in the 

1 L'Eist. Litt. de la France. Tom. viii. p. 122. (Paris, 1747.) 

2 Oetchichte der europaisch • abendl&ndischen Musik. (Leipzig, 
1846.) 

3 MS. Bodl. 842, f. 49. * MS. Bodl. 842, f. 60. 



Ambrosian Library at Milan, in the Paris 
Library, and in the British Museum (Add. MS. 
8866, a fine MS. of the 15th century, unknown 
to Burney). Fetis discovered a copy of the 
Compendium de Discantu in the Paris Library ; 
and another MS. copy was presented to the 
Vatican Library by Queen Christina of Sweden. 
The Compendium begins with the words, ' Ego 
Franco de Colonia,' the genuineness of which 
Kiesewetter disputes. 

Franco's claim to the honour of having in- 
vented the Time-Table rests, partly, on the 
contents of the treatise De Musica Mensurabili, 
and, partly, on the authority of MSS. of later 
date than his own. 

Marchetto di Padova, in his Pomerium de 
Musica Mensurata, written about 1283, mentions 
him as the inventor of the first four musical 
characters — i.e. the Long, the Double-Long, the 
Breve, and the Semibreve. Joannes de Muris, 
in a MS. written about 1330, and bequeathed 
by Christina, Queen of Sweden, to the Vatican 
Library, 5 speaks of ' Magister Franco, qui in- 
venit in Cantu Mensuram figurarum,' and his 
testimony is particularly valuable, since he him- 
self was, for a long time, very generally re- 
garded as the inventor of Measured Music. 
Franchinus Gafurius 6 twice mentions Franco 
as the inventor of the Time-Table. Morley 7 
says, ' This Francho is the most antient of al 
those whose works of practical Musicke haue 
come to my handes ' ; after which, he proceeds 
to describe Franco's treatment of the Long, and 
the Breve. And Ravenscroft 8 also tells us that 
Franchinus (sic) de Colonia was the inventor 
of the ' four first simple notes of Mensurable 
Musicke. ' 

On the other hand, it is certain that Franco 
cannot lay claim to all the inventions mentioned 
in his Ars Cantus Mensurabilis, since he him- 
self says, in that very tract, ' Proponimus igitur 
ipsam Mensurabilem Musicam sub compendio 
declarare, benedictaque aliorum non recusabi- 
mus interponere, errores quoque destruere et 
fugare, et si quid novi a nobis inventum fuerit, 
bonis rationibus sustinere et probare.' 

The four primary characters are described in 
the Second Chapter of the MS., where they are 
figured thus — 

Longa. Duplex looga. Brevis. Semibrevis. 

=3j wq ■ ♦ =1 

1 I 

The Perfect Long, he tells us, is equal to three 
Breves, ' quia a summa Trinitate, quae vera est 
et pura perfectio, nomen sumpsit.' The Imper- 
fect Long, represented by the same figure, is 
equal to two Breves only. The Breve was also 
Perfect, or Imperfect, under the same conditions. 
Two consecutive Longs, or Breves, were always 

5 Compendium Joannis de Muris ; in Bibl. Vat. No. 1146. 
8 Practica Musicae, Lib. ii. cap. 5. 

7 Plaine and Easie Introd., in the Annotations at the end of the 
volume. 

8 Brief e discourse of the true Use of charactering the Degreet in 
Mensurable Musicke, p. 3. (London, 1614.) 



102 



FRANCO 



FRANCO 



Perfect ; but, when a longer note was preceded 
or followed by a shorter one, the longer note 
was Imperfect, the time of the shorter one being 
needed to complete its Perfection. Nevertheless, 
an Imperfect Long, or Breve, could be rendered 
Perfect, by means of the sign called a Tractulus, 
the effect of which, when used in this way, was 
precisely similar to that of the comparatively 
modern Point of Augmentation. 

Longs, Breves, and Semibreves, were grouped 
together in certain combinations called Moods, 1 
of which Franco admits five only, though he 
says that other Musicians used six, or even seven 
— a clear sign that he did not invent them. Of 
these Moods, the First consisted of Longs only, 
or of a Long followed by a Breve ; the Second, 
of a Breve followed by a Long ; the Third, of 
a Long and two Breves ; the Fourth, of two 
Breves and a Long ; and the Fifth, of Breves 
and Semibreves. From which it follows, that 
the First Mood expressed the rhythm of the 
Spondee, or Trochee ; the Second, that of the 
Iambus ; the Third, that of the Dactyl ; and 
the Fourth, that of the Anapaest ; the entire 
series performing the functions allotted to the 
Mood, Time, and Prolation of a later period. 2 

The Third Chapter of the MS. treats of Liga- 
tures ; 3 and the Fourth Chapter, of Rests, of 
which he gives some complicated examples, all 
reducible, however, to the simple form shown 
in the article Notation. In connection with 
these, Franco also describes the Finis Punctorum, 
drawn across all the lines, and serving to divide 
the phrases of a melody, precisely after the 
manner of the bar, or double -bar, of modern 
music, of which it is the evident homologue. 

It is interesting to observe — though we be- 
lieve no one has hitherto called attention to the 
fact — that the system of notation here described 
is precisely that employed in the Reading Rota, 
' Sumer is icumen in,' in which the melody, in 
Mode XIII. transposed, is phrased in Franco's 
First Mood, each Long being Perfect when fol- 
lowed by another Long, and Imperfect when 
followed by a Breve. Moreover, the Reading 
Rota is written upon a stave precisely similar 
in principle to that employed by Franco, who 
always uses the exact number of lines and spaces 
needed to include the entire range of his vocal 
parts. 4 

The Compendium de Discantu, second only 
in interest to the Ars Cantus Mensurabilis, de- 
scribes a form of Discant immeasurably superior 
to the Diaphonia taught, less than half a cen- 
tury earlier, by Guido d'Arezzo, in his Micro- 
logus. 6 Unhappily, in the Oxford MS. — first 
described by Burney — the examples are lament- 
ably incomplete ; the staves, in every case, being 

1 We have here followed, for the sake of clearness, the plan adopted 
by our early English writers, of translating the word Modus as 
Mood, when it relates to rhythm, and Mode when it refers to the 
Ecclesiastical Scales. 

2 See Mood, Notatioh, Pkolation, and Time. 

3 See Ligature. 

* See the facsimile in the article Sumer is icumen in. 
5 See Guido d'Arezzo. 



duly prepared for their reception, while the 
notes themselves are wanting. Dr. Burney, 
after long and patient study of the text, was 
able to restore the following passage, in a form 
which he believed to be ' nearly ' complete. 






m 



1 



Virgo Dei, 

* A A 



^L -&L ^ -<SL 



AAA 



Maria. 



P 



g=!=S 



^ 



32: 



Amoris. 



Making every allowance for the jaunty modern 
air communicated to this little composition by 
Dr. Burney's employment of ordinary 18th cen- 
tury notation, it must be admitted, that, with 
the sole exception of the unison on the eighth 
note, and the hidden octaves between the last 
crotchet in the tenor and the last note but two 
in the bass, as indicated by the asterisks, the 
rules of Strict Counterpoint, as practised in the 
16th century, are observed in the disposition of 
every note, even to the formation of the Clau- 
sula vera at the end. The apparently gross con- 
secutive octaves between the last two phrases 
offer no exception to the rule ; since the inter- 
position of the Finis Punctorum between them 
invests the first note of the concluding phrase 
with the importance of a new beginning. If, 
therefore, the learned historian's penetration 
should ever be justified by the discovery of a 
more perfect copy of the MS., we shall be fur- 
nished with a clear proof that Magister Franco 
was on the high road towards the discovery of 
Strict Counterpoint, in its present form. It is, 
however, only fair to say that Kiesewetter dis- 
putes both the correctness of Burney's example, 
and the existence of the rules upon which he 
bases it. w. s. K. 

[A passage from an anonymous treatise printed 
in Coussemaker's Scriptores, i. 342, has often 
been quoted as evidence of the existence of two 
Francos. The writer is describing the choral- 
books of Perotin, and says that the style of 
notation in which they were written was gener- 
ally followed ' usque in tempus Magistri Fran- 
conis Primi et alterius Magistri Franconis de 
Colonia, qui inceperunt in suis libris aliter pro 
parte notare ; qua de causa alias regulas proprias 
suis libris apropriatas tradiderunt ' ( ' down to 
the time of Master Franco the First and the 
second Master Franco of Cologne, who began in 
their books to use a somewhat different notation, 
and for that reason handed down different rules 
suited to their own books '). This, however, 
may refer to oral tradition only. It is possible 
that the Franconian system was for many years 
handed down orally from teacher to teacher, 
each of whom incorporated the improvements 
of his day, and that it was not committed to 



FRANCGEUR 



FRANKLIN 



103 



writing in the form of a treatise till the 13th 
century. The language of Johannes de Muris 
when introducing the Ars Cantus Mensurabilis 
into his treatise (Coussemaker, i. 117) lends 
some support to this view. He speaks of it as 
the doctrine of John of Burgundy ' as we have 
heard it from his own lips, or, according to the 
common opinion, of Franco of Cologne.' The 
theorists of the 14th and 15th centuries only 
know one ' Magister Franco,' and the quotations 
that they make from his works are, with few 
exceptions, always to be found in the writings 
attributed to Franco of Cologne. It is worthy 
of note that one manuscript of the Ars Cantus 
Mensurabilis describes Franco as chaplain to 
the Pope and preceptor of the Hospital of 
St. John of Jerusalem at Cologne (Coussemaker, 
i. 135, note). The Vatican records do not go 
back to this early date, but it is known that 
the Hospital of St. John at Cologne was not 
founded till 1263 (Coussemaker, Notice sur un 
Manuscrit Musical de la Bibliotheque de Saint- 
Did, p. 9). J. F. R. S.] 

FRANCCEUR, Franqois, violinist and com- 
poser, born at Paris, Sept. 28, 1698. He 
entered the band of the Opera in 1710, was for 
many years a member of the king's private band, 
was composer to the king in 1733, and from 
1736 was manager of the Opera conjointly with 
Rebel [from 1760 to 1778 he was 'surinten- 
dant de la musique du roi ']. He died at Paris, 
August 6, 1787. He published two sets of 
sonatas, which, according to Wasielewsky, show 
considerable progress in form and in treatment 
of the instrument, when compared with similar 
works by Rebel and other French composers of 
the period. It is worth mentioning as a peculi- 
arity of his, that he occasionally employs the 
thumb of the left hand on the finger-board for 
taking the bass note of a chord — a proceeding 
hardly in accordance with legitimate treatment. 
He also composed a number of operas conjointly 
with Rebel (the names of three, together with 
those of several ballets, etc., are given in the 
Quellen-Lexikon), which, however, do not rise 
above the level of the period. 

His nephew, Louis Joseph, an eminent 
violinist and clever conductor, was born at 
Paris, Oct. 8, 1738, and died there March 10, 
1804. He was first leader and afterwards con- 
ductor and manager of the Opera (from 1792) 
and of the royal band, and composed a number 
of operas. He also published a treatise on in- 
strumentation, which Fetis considers a meri- 
torious work. [See Quellen-Lexikon.'] p. d. 

FRANK, Ernst, a highly distinguished con- 
ductor and a meritorious composer, was born at 
Munich, Feb. 7, 1847, and was educated at the 
Munich University ; he studied the piano under 
Mortier de Fontaine, and composition under 
Franz Lachner, and obtained a position at the 
Court Opera as ' Chorrepetitor. ' In 1868 he 
was capellmeister at Wurzburg ; in 1869, chor- 



director of the Court Opera at Vienna, acting 
at the same time as conductor of two choral 
societies. From 1872 to 1877 he was Court 
capellmeister at Mannheim, where he earned the 
lasting gratitude of musicians by befriending 
Hermann Goetz, and bringing out his ' Wider- 
spanstigen Zahmung ' in 1874. The story of 
Goetz's visit to the kind-hearted conductor, 
with his score under his arm, and an apologetic 
manner for having dared to write an opera at 
all, is one of the most touching in musical 
history. The seeds of consumption were already 
sown, but Frank's encouragement gave the 
composer a new lease of life, and without it the 
world would undoubtedly have been the poorer 
by many beautiful compositions, in the pre- 
paration and publication of which Frank's 
knowledge of the world and practical acquaint- 
ance with music stood Goetz in good stead. 
The latter's second opera, ' Francesca da Rimini,' 
was finished by Frank and produced at Mann- 
heim in 1877, after the composer's death. In 
1877 Frank went to Frankfort, where Otto 
Devrient had just been appointed Intendant ; 
the two worked together with the best results, 
and when Devrient was dismissed in 1879, 
Frank also retired from his post, but was ap- 
pointed in the same year to succeed Von Biilow 
at Hanover as capellmeister of the Court Opera 
there. He remained there until 1887, when 
his mental condition compelled him to retire ; 
he died in the asylum of Oberdobling, near 
Vienna, August 17, 1889. The period of his 
conductorship at Hanover was one of ceaseless 
activity, and he kept up the fine traditions of 
the place, producing and reviving many operas 
of importance, both German and foreign. As a 
composer he failed to attain very high rank, 
although his works were scholarly in design, 
skilful in execution, and thoroughly sound in 
artistic principle. He wrote three operas : 
1 Adam de la Halle ' (produced at Carlsruhe in 
1880), ' Hero ' (Berlin, 1884), and « Der Sturm,' 
after Shakespeare's Tempest (Hanover, 1887). 
He also wrote many songs of great merit, and 
part-songs, etc., as well as a set of very pretty 
duets to words from Kate Greenaway's At the 
Window. He made excellent German transla- 
tions of Stanford's ' Veiled Prophet ' (brought 
out under his direction in 1881), 'Savonarola,' 
and Mackenzie's 'Colomba.' An interesting 
article on Frank was written by Stanford in 
Murray's Magazine for May 1890. M. 

FRANKLIN, Benjamin, born 1706 at Bos- 
ton, U.S.A., died at Philadelphia 1790, claims 
mention here for his connection with the Har- 
monica, or musical glasses, which he so far 
improved as to make the instrument practically 
available. [Harmonica.] The invention is 
described by him in a letter to Beccaria dated 
London, July 13, 1762, and printed in Sparks's 
edition of his works (vi. 245). That Franklin 
had considerable musical faculty is evident from 



104 



FKANZ 



FRANZ 



his letters on Scotch music and on the defects 
of modern music (vi. 263, 269), which are also 
full of his happy mother- wit. M. c. c. 

FRANZ, Karl, player on the French horn 
(Waldhorn) and the baryton ; born in 1738 at 
Langenbielau in Silesia. His first post was 
under the Archbishop of Olmiitz in 1758 ; his 
next under Prince Nicholas Esterhazy at Eisen- 
stadt, where he remained from 1763 to the end 
of 1776. He was afterwards in the band of 
Cardinal Bathiany at Presburg until 1784. His 
adoption of so difficult an instrument as the 
baryton probably arose from the fact that the 
Prince himself played it, and that Haydn com- 
posed much for it for his use. At any rate Franz 
played it very finely, and on leaving the Pres- 
burg band made several tours, in which his per- 
formance on it excited the greatest enthusiasm. 
Like Abel with the gamba, Franz was accustomed 
to call the baryton the king of instruments. In 
1787 we find him established in Munich as 
' Kammermusikus, ' and he died there in 1802. 
That he was greatly esteemed by Haydn is 
proved by a cantata for voice and baryton, 
composed by that master for him ; he performed 
it on his tours, singing and accompanying him- 
self. The cantata was written apropos of the 
death of Frederick the Great, and begins 'Er ist 
nicht mehr ! Ton' trauernd, Baryton ! ' c. f. p. 

FRANZ, Robert, the son of Cristoph Franz 
Knauth, who in 1847 adopted his second name 
as surname, born June 28, 1815, at Halle, 
Handel's birthplace, was one of the most im- 
portant representatives of the German Lied. 
His reputation was of tardy growth, and has 
apparently not yet reached its height. It can, 
however, be asserted, without fear of dissent from 
any competent judge, that his best songs will 
stand their ground by the side of those of 
Schubert and Schumann, to which they are 
closely related. Over and above their uniform 
and elaborate perfection of workmanship, in 
which it is difficult to equal and impossible to 
surpass them, they have a peculiar physiognomy 
and subtle charm of their own that are sure to 
endear them to singers and players able to deal 
with them at all. It is true that they have 
hitherto been ' caviare to the general, ' and are 
likely to remain so for some time, and that ' the 
general,' as Franz has found to his cost, includes 
the majority of professed vocalists and pianists. 

Nearer akin to the warm but contemplative 
enthusiasm of Schumann than to the passionate 
spontaneity of Schubert, Franz's songs are any- 
thing but cold, nor do they in any case smell 
of the lamp ; they are reticent rather than out- 
spoken, timid rather than bold, pathetic with- 
out conscious pathos, eloquent without studied 
rhetoric ; always true, giving more than they 
seem to give, saying more than they seem to say ; 
frequently naif yet far from trivial, here and 
there profound, rarely ecstatic or voluptuous, not 
once perverse or dry or commonplace. All forms 



and phases of lyrical speech, as far as the German 
language, peculiarly rich in songs, has been able 
to furnish the ground work — from Luther's sturdy 
hymns to the love-ditties of Heine, from the 
primitive weal and woe of huntsman and soldier, 
the simple sounds of forest and field, to the 
classic finish and spring-like grace of Goethe 
and the nocturnal melancholy of Lenau — Robert 
Franz has set and sung. "Without touching the 
highest heavens or deepest depths, he has illus- 
trated with his music the entire world of German 
lyrical poetry. 

If Schubert at his best grasps a poem with the 
intense grip of a dramatist, and sings as though 
he struck up from the centre of some dramatic 
situation ; if Schumann declaims his verse like a 
perfect reader, or illuminates it as an imaginative 
draughtsman might grace the margin of some 
precious book, or dreams over it as a tender and 
profound musician is prone to dream over some 
inexpressible sentiment, — Franz pursues a path 
of his own ; he translates the poem into music, 
that is to say, he depicts in musical outlines the 
exact emotional state from which it appears to 
have sprung ; and contrives to reproduce closely, 
with photographic truth, the very essence of the 
poem, following strictly in the wake of the poet's 
form and diction. Franz never repeats a word 
or a line, never garbles the sense of a sentence, 
never muddles a phrase or mars any rhythmical 
emphasis. Without Schubert's dramatic passion, 
or Schumann's concentrated heat or ecstatic 
sentiment, with far less specifically musical in- 
vention — melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic — than 
Schubert, or even than Schumann, Franz im- 
presses one nevertheless as a rare master — a 
marked individuality, complete and perfect in 
its way. 

The son of a respectable citizen of Halle, 
Robert Franz had fair opportunities of getting a 
good schooling, and might have gone through the 
regular university curriculum if it had not been 
for his strong musical predilections. He had to 
gratify his taste for music on the sly, and it was 
only after years of delay, and much against the 
grain, that his parents could be brought to see 
that he was destined to be a musician. As a 
lad he had contrived to play the pianoforte and 
organ enough to be able to act as accompanist 
in the choral works of Handel, Haydn, and 
Mozart. In 1835 he obtained the consent of his 
parents to make a trial of his musical gifts as 
pupil of Schneider at Dessau. There he continued 
for two years, playing, studying harmony and 
counterpoint, and making ambitious attempts 
at composition, all of which he afterwards 
destroyed. 

On his return to Halle, in 1837, as the black 
sheep of the family, with whom his mother alone 
had any sympathy, Franz vegetated in a dreary 
manner for some six years, unable to get any 
sort of musical employment, yet obstinately unfit 
for anything else. But he made good use of his 




ROBERT FRANZ 



FEANZ 



FRASI 



105 



time, studying Bach, Beethoven, and Schubert. 
In 1843 he published his first set of twelve 
songs, which at once attracted the attention of 
Schumann (Neue Zeitschrift, July 31), whose 
frankly expressed admiration was soon shared 
by Mendelssohn, Gade, Liszt, and other eminent 
masters. At length the authorities at" Halle 
thought fit to appoint Franz organist at the 
Ulrichskirche, and conductor of the 'Sing- 
academie ' ; and in due course of time he ob- 
tained the titles of 'Koniglicher Musikdirector' 
and doctor of music, which latter title was offered 
by the University of Halle, on his lecturing to 
its students on musical subjects. Unfortunately 
as early as 1841 his sense of hearing began to 
decline, his troubles were aggravated by serious 
nervous disorders in 1853, and became so grave 
that in 1868 he had to relinquish his employ- 
ments, and give up writing altogether. The 
distressing pecuniary difficulties which arose in 
consequence were, however, effectually overcome 
by the generous exertions of Liszt, Joachim, 
Frau Helene Magnus, and others, who in 1872 
got up concerts for Franz's benefit, and realised 
a sum of £5000. 

In his latter years Franz devoted much time 
to editing and arranging the works of Bach and 
Handel, by furnishing proper polyphonic accom- 
paniments in cases where the composer's inten- 
tions are only indicated by a figured bass, 
rewriting the part sketched for the organ for a 
group of wind instruments, so as to facilitate 
performance in concert-rooms, supplying proper 
substitutes for parts written for obsolete instru- 
ments, etc. Detailed critical essays upon and 
about Robert Franz's songs and arrangements, 
have been published by Saran, Schaffer, Ambros, 
Hueffer and Liszt, of which the first and last 
are the most important. See also vol. i. pp. 
43/. 

Franz's own contributions to the literature of 
music are : — Mittheilungen uber J. S. Bach's 
Magnificat (Halle, 1863) ; and Offcner Brief an 
Eduard Hanslick uber Bearbeitungen dlterer 
Tonwerke, namentlich Bach'scher and Handel' - 
scher Vocalmusik (Leipzig, 1871). His composi- 
tions and arrangements consist of 257 songs for 
a single voice with pianoforte accompaniment, 
in 45 sets ; a Kyrie, a cappella, for four-part 
chorus and solo voices ; the ll7lh Psalm, a 
cajypella, for double choir in 8 parts, and a liturgy 
for the evangelical service ; 6 chorales ; four- 
part songs for mixed voices, and 6 ditto for 
male chorus. His arrangements are as follows : — 
Of Sebastian Bach — the ' Passion according to 
St. Matthew ' ; ' Magnificat in D ' ; ' Trauerode' ; 
10 cantatas ; 6 duets and numerous arias. Of 
Handel — the 'Jubilate' ; ' L' Allegro, il Penseroso 
ed il Moderato ' ; 24 operatic arias and 12 duets ; 
Astorga's ' Stabat Mater ' ; and Durante's ' Mag- 
nificat.' Of Mendelssohn — a Hebrew melody 
for piano and violin ; 6 two- and four-part songs 
arranged for one voice with piano ; Mozart's 



quintets in C minor and major, and Schubert's 
quartet in D minor, transcribed for piano duet 
(1878). Franz died at Halle, Oct. 24, 1892. e.d. 

FRASCHINI, Gaetano, was born at Pavia 
in 1815. Originally intended for the study of 
medicine, he soon found himself possessed of a 
most powerful tenor voice, and devoted himself 
to its cultivation. Having received some in- 
struction from a master named Moretti, he made 
his first attempt (1837) in the cathedral of his 
native city, and was immediately engaged to sing 
the second tenor role in ' Belisario ' at Pavia, 
and Rodrigo in ' Otello ' at the fair at Bergamo. 
In 1 840 he sang at Milan ; and from thence went 
to Naples, where he remained several years 
attached to the Opera. Fetis heard him there 
in 1 84 L, and admired his voice, and the bold style 
in which he attacked the most difficult notes ; 
nine years later he heard him again at Bergamo, 
and found to his surprise not only that his 
energy and purity of tone were undiminished, 
in spite of the violence of the music which he 
had been executing during that period, but 
that he had learned to sing better than before. 
Fraschini visited Bologna, Venice, Turin, Padua, 
Vicenza, London, and Vienna ; and sang fre- 
quently at the latter place down to 1852 with 
constant success. In 1847 he made his debut 
at Her Majesty's Theatre. ' Though originally 
gifted with greater vocal power ' than another 
singer, says Mr. Chorley, ' Signor Fraschini was 
less fortunate . . . The newcomer, naturally 
anxious to recommend himself by the arts which 
had delighted his own people, seemed to become 
more and more violent in proportion as the "sen- 
sation " failed to be excited. But he " piled up 
the agony, "forte on forte, in vain.' He con- 
tinued to appear for many years more, and 
afterwards retired and lived at Pavia, where the 
theatre is called after him, Teatro Fraschini. 
He died at Naples, May 24, 1887. J. M. 

FRASI, Giulia, appeared in London in 1743 
with Galli, and remained in public favour for 
many years. ' She was young and interesting 
in person, with a sweet, clear voice and a smooth 
and chaste style of singing, which, though cold 
and unimpassioned, pleased natural ears and 
escaped the censure of critics ' (Burney). She 
took part that year in the revival of Handel's 
' Alessandro,' and in the first performance of 
Galuppi's ' Enrico. ' Her instructor was a musi- 
cian named Brivio ; but she doubtless owed much 
more of the formation of her taste and style to 
Handel and his singers, than to her first master. 
In 1746 she was still in an inferior position, but 
in 1748 played a more important part in the 
pasticcio ' Lucio Vero, ' in operas by Hasse, and 
in the comic operas instituted by Croza. Frasi, 
however, now entered on a career which will 
do more to render her memory lasting than 
any small successes she ever achieved in opera. 
In 1749 she sang in Handel's Oratorios for 
the first time, taking part in ' Solomon ' and 

h 



106 



FREDERICK 



FREE REED 



' Susanna ' ; she sang in ' Theodora ' in 1750, in 
'Jephtha' in 1752, in 'Joshua' at Oxford in 
1756, and in the < Triumph of Time and Truth ' 
in 1757. She did not, meanwhile, sever her 
connection with the stage, but appeared in 1750 
in Ciampi's ' Adriano in Siria ' and Pergolesi's 
' Serva Padrona. ' In 1 7 5 5 Frasi was called upon, 
in consequence of the indisposition of Mingotti, 
to perform her part in Jommelli's ' Andromaca,' 
as she had been twice in ' Riccimero,' the preced- 
ing season. Smith's ' Fairies ' in this year owed 
its success principally to Guadagni and Frasi. 
At her house Dr. Burney at that time ' attended 
her as her master.' In 1758 she appeared in 
' Issipile ' by G. Cocchi. She sang also in the 
City at both the Swan and Castle concerts. 

Dr. Burney relates that ' when Frasi told him 
[Handel], that she should study hard, and was 
going to learn Thorough-Base, in order to ac- 
company herself : Handel, who well knew how 
little this pleasing singer was addicted to appli- 
cation and diligence, said, " Oh — vaat may ve 
not expect ! " ' There is a portrait of Frasi, in 
mezzotint (folio), in which she is turned to the 
left, singing from a sheet of music held in both 
hands, on which is engraved a song beginning 
with the words ' Voi amante che vedete. ' It has 
neither name nor date, and is very rare. J. M. 

FREDERICK the Great (Friedrich II.), 
King of Prussia, a distinguished amateur, born 
at Berlin, Jan. 24, 1712, died at Sans-Souci 
near Potsdam, Aug. 17, 1786. He passionately 
admired German music while detesting that of 
Italy and especially of France, which was the 
more remarkable from his well known love of 
French literature. He said on one occasion, ' la 
musique francaise ne vaut rien. ' His first musi- 
cal instructor when Crown Prince was Gottlob 
Hayn, the Cathedral organist, for whom he 
always retained a regard, and who presented 
him with a composition every year on his birth- 
day. In 1728 he began to learn the flute from 
Quantz, who was a strict master, while Frederick 
was a docile pupil. [Quantz.] He was after- 
wards, however, compelled to study in secret, 
as his father, Frederick William I., considered 
music an effeminate pastime, and declined to 
allow him instructors or musicians of any kind. 
He was therefore driven to engage musical 
servants, and often played duets with his valet 
Fredersdorf, until he was able in 1734 to have 
a private band at his own castle of Reinsburg. 
On his accession to the throne in 1740 he estab- 
lished a court band at Berlin, and sent Graun 
to Italy to engage singers. [Graun.] He also 
had designs made for a new opera-house, which 
was opened Dec. 7, 1742. An amusing account 
of his difficulties with Barberina the ballet dancer 
will be found in Carlyle (Bk. xiv. chap. 8). 
His expenditure on music was lavish, though it 
has been exaggerated. Quantz's salary amounted 
to 2000 thalers, besides 25 ducats for each of his 
compositions for flute solo, and 100 ducats for 



every flute he made for the king. According 
to Reichardt, Frederick practised perseveringly, 
playing the flute four times a day. It is in 
one of these eager practisings that Gerome has 
represented him in an admirable picture. Quantz 
died in 1773 while composing his 300th concerto 
for the king, who completed the work. Freder- 
ick's execution of an Adagio is said by Fasch 
[see Zelter's biography of Fasch] to have been 
masterly, but in quick movements he betrayed 
a want of practice, and in matter of time his 
playing was so impulsive and irregular, that to 
accompany him was an art in itself. In later 
years he again took up the clavier, not having 
sufficient breath, it is stated, for the flute. He 
invited Sebastian Bach to Potsdam, and the visit, 
of which Forkel gives an account, and the result 
of which was Bach's Musikalisches Opfer, took 
place on May 1 7, 1747. He particularly admired 
Silbermann's pianofortes, and bought all he 
could hear of. He was also a composer. The 
Hohenfriedberg March was nominally by him, 
as well as a march inserted in Lessing's play, 
' Minna von Barnhelm.' He also composed a 
' Sinfonia ' for ' Galatea ed Acide ' and portions 
of an opera ' II Re pastore ' ; an Aria for ' II 
trionfo della fedelta ' ; another for Graun's 
' Coriolano ' (of which he wrote the libretto) ; 
and added fioriture for Hubert the singer to 
an air in Hasse's 'Cleofile.' In 1835 a search 
was instituted by King Frederick William III., 
and 120 pieces composed by Frederick the 
Great were found ; these were edited by Spitta, 
and published in 1889 by Breitkopf und Hartel. 
He had an eye to the improvement of the sing- 
ing in the public schools, and an official decree 
of his, dated Oct. 18, 1746, contains the follow- 
ing passage : ' Having received many complaints 
of the decline in the art of singing, and the 
neglect of it in our gymnasiums and schools, His 
Majesty commands that the young people in all 
public schools and gymnasiums shall be exercised 
more diligently therein, and to that end shall 
have singing-lessons three times a week' — a com- 
mand which has doubtless materially contributed 
to the prevalence of music in Germany. (See 
Friedrich d. G. als Kenner und Dilettant . . . 
by C. F. Muller, Potsdam, 1847. [W. Kothe's 
Friedrich der Grosse als Musiker, etc. (Leipzig, 
1869), Spitta's essay on the edited works, and 
G. Thouret's Friedrichs des Grossen Verhaltniss 
zur Musik (1895). See list of compositions in 
the Quellen-Lexikon.)~\ F. G. 

FREE REED. Organ stops of the Free-reed 
class are more frequently made by continental 
than by English artists. The sound-producing 
part of a pipe of this species is formed thus : — A 
surface of metal or wood has a vertical opening 
made through it as a passage for the wind : in 
front of this a strip or tongue of metal — in some 

1 [See Spitta's J. S. Bafh, Engl, tr., iii. 231, as correcting the date 
April, given in the first edition of the Dictionary on the authority 
of Thomas Carlyle ; and as correcting the footnote on p. 151 of vol. i. 
of the present edition.] 



FREGE 



FRESCOBALDI 



107 



large examples wood — is adjusted, fastened at 
the upper end and left at liberty at the lower, 
which is so slightly smaller than the opening as 
almost exactly to fit into it. This tongue is by 
the current of air carried a short distance through 
the opening, when it springs back by reason of its 
own elasticity ; and the sound results from the 
periodical and regular beats which the tongue, 
vibrating to and fro, imparts to the passing air. 
The c vibrators ' of a harmonium are really free 
reeds ; but in the case of an organ -pipe the 
tongue is furnished with a tube, which, upon the 
principle of a speaking-trumpet, greatly augments 
and amplifies the sound produced. There are 
some free reed 16- and 32-feet posaunes in the 
pedal organ of Schulze's fine instrument at 
Doncaster parish church. E. J. h. 

FREGE, Madame (n4e Livia Gerhard), was 
born at Gera, June 13, 1818, received her musi- 
cal education at Leipzig, and was taught to sing 
by Pohlenz. She made her first appearance in 
public on July 9, 1832, when just entering her 
fifteenth year, at a concert given at the Gewand- 
haus by the still more juvenile Clara Wieck, then 
only thirteen. She had at that time a cultivated 
voice of lovely quality, especially in the upper 
register, perfect intonation, and good style. She 
was engaged for the next series of Gewandhaus 
Concerts, and began with a very large repertory, 
as is evident from the pieces ascribed to her in 
the reports of the concerts. She first appeared 
on the stage at Leipzig, in ' Jessonda,' in March 
1833. A residence in Dresden enabled her to 
profit by the example and advice of Schroder 
Devrient. In 1835 she entered the regular com- 
pany of the Theatre Royal at Berlin. After 
delighting the public by a large range of charac- 
ters, in which her acting was equal to her singing, 
she made her last appearance on June 25, 1836 
(as Elvira), and left the boards to be married 
to Dr. Frege of Leipzig. After that time she 
sang only at concerts. Her house was always 
a centre of the best music. She had a singing 
society there of fifty voices, with a select band, 
led by David, and conducted by Lange, at 
which the best and least known music, old 
and new, was performed in perfection. Men- 
delssohn was her intimate friend, often con- 
sulted her on his music, and took her his songs 
to try before making them public. ' You don't 
know my songs,' said he to a friend in London ; 
1 come to Leipzig and hear Mme. Frege, and you 
will understand what I intended them to be.' A 
letter to the ' Frau Doctorin Frege,' dated Lon- 
don, August 31, 1846, and describing the first 
performance of ' Elijah,' is printed in the second 
volume of his Letters. It was at her house, on 
Oct. 9, 1847, in trying over the songs which form 
op. 71, that he was struck with the first of the 
attacks which ended in his death on Nov. 4. 

Mme. Frege's characteristics were delicacy and 
refinement — not a large voice, but a great power 
of expression in singing her words, a perfect style, 



and the highest musical intelligence. She died 
at Leipzig, Sept. 22, 1891. g. 

FREISCHUTZ, 1 DER. Romantic opera in 
three acts, words by Kind, music by Weber (his 
eighth opera) ; completed, as ' Die Jagersbraut, ' 
May 13, 1820. (See Jahns's Catalogue.) Pro- 
duced at Berlin, June 18, 1821 ; in Paris as 'Robin 
des Bois,' with new libretto by Castile Blaze and 
Sauvage, and many changes, 2 at the Odeon, 
Dec. 7, 1824, but with accurate translation by 
Pacini, and recitatives by Berlioz, at the Aca- 
demie royale, June 7, 1841, as 'Le Franc Archer.' 
In London, as ' Der Freischiitz, or the seventh 
bullet,' by Hawes, at English Opera-house, with 
many ballads inserted, July 23, 1824 ; in 
Italian as ' II Franco arciero,' at Co vent Garden, 
March 16, 1850 (recitatives by Costa, not by 
Berlioz) ; in German, at King's Theatre, May 9, 
1832. It was revived at Astley's Theatre with 
a new libretto by Oxenford, April 2, 1866. 

FRENCH HORN. The designation of 
' French ' is commonly added to the name of 
the orchestral Horn, from the fact that a circular 
instrument of this nature, without crooks or 
other appliances, was, and still is, used in France 
for hunting. It is carried over one shoulder, 
and beneath the arm of the other side, usually 
on horseback. The great length of tube enables 
a long series of harmonic sounds to be obtained ; 
and these, organised into ' calls ' or signals, serve 
to direct the order of the chase. At the first 
introduction of the Horn into the Orchestra it 
was much objected to on this account ; and its 
tones were considered coarse and boisterous, only 
fit for the open air and for woodland pastimes. 
[Horn.] w. h. s. 

FRENCH SIXTH. See Sixth. 

FRESCOBALDI, Girolamo, the most distin- 
guished organist of the 17th century, born at Fer- 
rara [in 1583 (register of his baptism in cathedral 
of Ferrara, Sept. 9, 1583). He studied under 
the cathedral organist, Luzzasco Luzzaschi]. 
Quadrio tells us that he possessed a singularly 
beautiful voice ; and it is certain that while still 
a youth he enjoyed a great reputation both as 
singer and organist. In 1 608 he was at Antwerp, 
as he dates from there the preface to his first 
book of five-part Madrigals (Antwerp, Phalesio) 
dedicated to Guido Bentivoglio, Archbishop of 
Rhodes ; but in the same year he returned to 
Italy, as his second book of ' Fantasie a 4 ' was 
published at Milan in that year ; and he was 
appointed organist at St. Peter's in Rome. His 
first performance there attracted, according to 
Baini, an audience of 30,000 persons. In 1628, 
dissatisfied apparently with his scanty pay at 
Rome, he sought leave of absence, and accepted 
an invitation to Florence from Ferdinand II., 

1 Frei-schiitz, say the dictionaries, = free -marksman, one who 
shoots with charmed bullets. There is no equivalent English term. 

2 ' Assassine ' is Berlioz's word for this outrageous proceeding (no 
singularity in France, nor indeed in London, eighty years ago), by 
which he states that Castile Blaze made more than 100,000 francs 
(Mimoires de Berlioz, 57, 61). There were Divertissements made up 
of the dance music in ' Preciosa ' and ' Oberon,' and of the Invitation 
to the Waltz scored by Berlioz for the purpose. 



108 



FRETS 



FRETS 



Grand Duke of Tuscany, who named him his 
organist. Social and political troubles in Tuscany 
obliged him to leave Florence in 1633 ; and, re- 
turning to Rome, he was re-installed in his former 
postas organist of St. Peter's, which he continued 
to hold till 1643. Froberger was his pupil from 
Sept. 30, 1637, to April 1641, and thus the 
noble style of his organ playing was handed on 
to other schools. He died March 2, 1644. 

Fresaobaldi's compositions are important, and 
give us a high idea of his powers. His works 
comprise, besides the two named above — 'Ricer- 
cari e canzoni francesi' (Rome, Borboni, 1615); 
'Toccate . . . e partite d'intavolatura ' (1614- 
15-27-37); ' Secondo libro di toccate, etc' 
(Rome, 1627-28-37); 'Primo libro delle canzoni 
a 1, 2, 3, 4 voci' (Rome, 1623-1628) ; 'Primo 
libro, Arie musicali' (Florence, 1630); ' Fiori 
musicali,' op. 12 (Rome, 1635) ; and ' Capricci 
sopra diversi soggetti ' (Rome, 1624, Venice, 
1626). An extract book of Dr. Burney's in the 
British Museum (Add. MS. 11,588) contains 
a copy of the first of these works. A Canzona 
for the organ will be found in Hawkins (chap. 
130), and many other pieces in Commer's Musica 
sacra, and Collection des compositions, etc. 
and F. Riegl's Praxis Organcedi (1869). [Five 
organ pieces are in the Trdsor des Pianistes, and 
Torchi's L'Arte Musicale in Italia contains 
twenty- three compositions ; twelve of the toccatas 
were published in Pauer's Alte Meister. An 
article by F. X. Haberl in the Kirchcnmusilca- 
lisches Jahrb. fiir 1887 (Regensburg) contains a 
careful bibliography, and the list in the Quel- 
le?!- Lexikon is even more complete.] r. o. ; 
with corrections and additions from authorities 
quoted. 

FRETS (Fr.Lestons; Ital. Tasto; Ger. Bundc, 
Biinde, Toribunde, Bander, Griff e, Bundsteg). 
On stringed instruments that have finger-boards, 
like the lute or guitar, the small pieces of wood 
or other material fixed transversely on the finger- 
board at regular intervals are called frets. The 
object they serve is to mark oft' the length of 
string required to produce a given note. Pressure 
upon a string immediately above a fret makes 
at the point of contact of string and fret a 
temporary 'nut,' and the string, set in motion 
as far as the bridge on the sound-board by pluck- 
ing with plectrum or finger, or bowing, gives a 
higher note in proportion to the shortening of 
the string. Frets therefore correspond in their 
use with the holes in the tube of a wind instru- 
ment. 

The use of frets to give certainty to the fingers 
in stopping the notes required is of great anti- 
quity, the Chinese in a remote age having had 
movable frets for the strings of their Che. For 
the Hindu Vina, a finger-board instrument with 
nineteen frets, a divine origin is claimed, thus 
implying a remote origin. " And the Egyptians, 
as may be seen in the British Museum, de- 
picted by themselves about the time of Moses, 



had either frets or coloured lines serving a 
like purpose on the finger-boards of their lutes. 
In the present day the Balalaika of the Russian 
country people has coloured lines that serve for 
frets. It is most likely that the use of frets 
came into Europe through Spain and Southern 
France from the Arabs. In the Middle Ages 
bow instruments had them, as well as those 
played with plectrum or finger. The Rebec, 
the Viols da gamba, da braccio, d'amore, the 
Italian Lire, Lirone, all had them. But the 
French Gique of the 12th-14th centuries, like 
our modern fiddles, had none. In the modern 
highly-developed technique they would be an 
impediment, and the feeling for temperament 
has only been satisfied by their rejection. In 
lutes, guitars, and zithers, however, they are 
retained. In performance the end of the finger 
must be placed immediately above the fret, and 
not upon it, as vibration would be interfered 
with ; while if too much above, the string would 
jar upon the fret. 

The finger-board has been differently divided 
in diiferent epochs and countries according to 
the scale-system prevailing. It has been gener- 
ally accepted since the researches of Villoteau, 
a member of the expedition sent to Egypt by 
Napoleon Bonaparte {Description de VEgypte, 
tomes xiii. etxiv., Paris, 1823), that the octave 
on the finger-board of the Arabic lute ortamboura 
was divided into eighteen, or it may be seventeen 
intervals ; but as the collection of instruments 
formed by Villoteau is not now in existence, 
we are unable to endorse his statement that 
they were equal intervals of three to the major 
tone, nor can we, on the other hand, give entire 
credit to the late Dr. Land's contention {La 
Gamme Arabe, Leyden, 1884) that Al-Farabi's 
obviously Greek division of seventeen limmas 
and commas was the practical musician's Arab 
scale. In Persia and Arabia there would be 
smaller division than our chromatic, third tones 
as well as half. Although the third of a tone 
is almost a chromatic semitone, it does not 
appear that either Persian or Arab lutenists 
have used equal thirds of a tone. The Arabic 
(and Egyptian) division has been proved to be 
a succession of three intervals, smaller than an 
equal semitone, which are known as ' limmas, ' 
or ' commas. ' To mark off the hemitonic 
division, the eighteenth part of the length of 
the string to the bridge must be measured off 
from the nut or ledge at the top of the finger- 
board over which the strings pass — in Italian 
capo tasto, 'head fret.' [Capo Tasto.] This 
gives the place to fix the first fret. Another 
eighteenth from this fret to the bridge gives 
the place of the second, and so on until the 
division is complete. The method implies a 
nearly equal temperament and uniform tension, 
but in practice there is room for some modifica- 
tion by the finger. High frets demand a greater 
finger pressure, and slightly sharpen the pitch 



FKEZZOLINI 



FRICHOT 



109 



of the notes. To correct this the frets must 
be shifted towards the nut. The Hindu uses 
finger pressure, or in other words, greater tension, 
to get his half-tones from a diatonic fret system, 
and in the Japanese koto the finger of the left 
hand is pressed upon the string on the opposite 
side of the movable fret to the side plucked 
by the finger of the right hand ; thus semitones 
are produced in certain ornaments. To the 
instrument maker the disposition of the frets 
is a difficult task, requiring nice adjustment. 
On the side that the strings are thicker the 
frets should be higher, and the finger-board 
must be concave in the direction of its length 
to allow the thicker strings to vibrate. The 
frets are gradually lowered as they descend 
towards the bridge, the chanterelle, or melody- 
string, having often a longer series extending 
only partly across the finger-board. The personal 
peculiarity of the hand or touch finally modifies 
the adaptation of the frets. 

Narrow slips of wood are generally glued up 
the sides of the finger-board to prevent the frets 
projecting. The convex finger-boards of bow 
instruments requiring convex frets, fretted viols 
had catgut bound round the finger-board and 
neck at the stopping distances. Hence the 
German ' Bunde ' — binds. (See the cut of 
Gamba.) The French 'ton' indicates the note 
produced ; the Italian ' tasto ' the touch pro- 
ducing it. The English ' fret ' perhaps implies 
the rubbing or friction of the string at the point 
of contact, but the derivation of the word is 
doubtful. Some take the original meaning of 
I fret ' to have been a note, and thence the stop 
by which the note was produced. Shakespeare 
puns upon the word in Hamlet, 'though you 
can fret me you cannot play upon me.' The 
writer has been much assisted by the exhaustive 
article of Herr Max Albert on ' Bunde ' in 
Mendel's Lexikon. a. j. h. 

FREZZOLINI, Erminia, was born at Orvieto 
in 1818 ; received her first lessons in singing 
from her father, a buffo cantante ; and afterwards 
from Nuncini at Florence. She had further 
instruction from the elder Ronconi at Milan, 
and from Manuel Garcia ; and completed her 
musical education under Tacchinardi at Florence. 
In this town she made her debuts in 1838, in 
'Beatrice di Tenda' and in the 'Marco Visconti' 
of Vaccaj. She sang also in that year at Siena 
and Ferrara, and in 1839 at Pisa, Reggio, Peru- 
gia, and Bologna. She played ' Lucrezia Borgia ' 
at Milan in 1840 with brilliant eclat, and then 
went to Vienna. Returning to Turin, she mar- 
ried the tenor, Poggi ; but continued to be known 
on the stage as Frezzolini. In 1842 (not 1841, 
as stated by Fetis) she came with her husband 
to London, during Grisi's temporary absence, but 
did not succeed in seizing the popular sympathy. 
' She was an elegant, tall woman, born with a 
lovely voice, and bred into great vocal skill (of a 
certain order) ; but she was the first who arrived 



of the "young Italians" — of those who fancy that 
driving the voice to its extremities can stand in 
the stead of passion. But she was, nevertheless, 
a real singer ; and her art stood her in stead for 
some years after nature broke down. When she 
had left her scarce a note of her rich and real 
soprano voice to scream with, Madame Frezzolini 
was still charming ' (Chorley). In London, 
however, she never took root. She returned to 
Italy, and in 1848 was engaged for St. Peters- 
burg. But the climate drove her back to Italy 
in two years. In 1850 she reappeared in Lon- 
don at Her Majesty's Theatre, and in 1853 was 
at Madrid. In November of that year she made 
her first appearance in Paris, in the 'Puritani' ; 
but notwithstanding her stage-beauty, and her 
nobility of style and action, she could not achieve 
any success ; her voice had suffered too much 
from wear and tear, and showed signs of fatigue. 
She subsequently met with the usual enthusi- 
astic reception in America ; but her career was 
over, and she was not heard again in Europe. 
She died in Paris, Nov. 5, 1884. j. m. 

FRIBERTH, Karl, born June 7, 1736, at 
Wullersdorf in Lower Austria, where his father 
was schoolmaster ; came early to Vienna, and 
studied singing under Bonno and composition 
under Gassmann. He had a fine tenor voice, 
and sang at St. Stephen's, at Prince Hildburg- 
hausen's concerts, and in Italian operas at court. 
In 1759 he was engaged by Prince Esterhazy, 
and while in his service formed an intimate 
friendship with Haydn, in whose operas he sang. 
He himself wrote several librettos. In 1768 he 
married Maria Magdalena Spangler, a singer in 
the Prince's company, and removed with her in 
1776 to Vienna, where he was appointed capell- 
meister to the Jesuits and to the Minorites. 
During a visit to Italy in 1796 Pope Pius VI., 
' on account of his services to music,' made him 
a knight of the Golden Spur — the order to 
which Gluck and Mozart also belonged. Fri- 
berth was an active member of the 'Tonkiinstler- 
Societat,' and took Haydn's part warmly in the 
discussions there. As a composer he restricted 
himself almost entirely to church music [but 
see QuelUn-Lexikon\ He died August 6, 1816, 
universally respected both as a man and an 
artist. In the museum of the ' Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde ' at Vienna, there is a portrait of 
him in oils, showing a fine head and expressive 
countenance. c. F. P. 

FRICHOT, a Frenchman, who claimed to have 
invented the bass-horn or ophicleide, settled in 
London about 1790, published there in 1800 
' A complete Scale and Gamut of the Bass-horn 
. . . invented by Mr. Frichot.' This in- 
strument supplied a new and powerful bass 
for wind instruments in aid of the bassoon, 
which was too weak, and the serpent, which 
was very imperfect. It is now generally 
superseded by the Bombardon and Euphonium. 
[Ophicleide.] m. c. c. 



110 



FKICK 



FRIEDLANDER 



FRICK, or FRIKE, Philipp Joseph, born 
near Wiirzburg, May 27, 1740, originally organist 
to the Margrave of Baden, remarkable per- 
former on the harmonica ; travelled much from 
1769, spending some years in Russia. He came 
to London about 1780, and played in public with 
brilliant suocess both on the pianoforte and har- 
monica. His health obliged him to give up the 
latter instrument in 1786, and he then main- 
tained himself by teaching until his death, June 
15, 1798. He published various treatises and 
some music, none of which is of any permanent 
value (see Quellen- LexHcon). The harmonica 
he used was one on Franklin's system. He 
tried in vain to adjust a keyboard to the 
instrument, an attempt in which Rollig suc- 
ceeded. M. c. c. 

FRICKENHAUS, Fanny, was born June 7, 
1849, at Cheltenham. Her maiden name was 
Evans, and she married Mr. Augustus Fricken- 
haus. She received instruction in music from 
George Mount, afterwards at Brussels from 
Auguste Dupont, and later from William 
Bohrer. Her first important engagement was 
on Jan. 11, 1879, at one of the Saturday 
Evening Concerts, where she played with 
such success that she was engaged for the re- 
mainder of the series. She was next heard at 
the London Ballad and Promenade Concerts. 
Since then she has played at all the principal 
London concerts, viz. at the Philharmonic, 
March 4, 1886 ; at the Crystal Palace, where 
she first appeared Nov. 27, 1880, in Mendels- 
sohn's 'Serenade and Allegro giojoso,' and where 
she has been since heard in concertos of Mozart, 
Schutt, and Dupont, the last two for the first 
time in England ; at Cowen's Concerts, Nov. 27, 
1880, where she played the Pianoforte Concerto 
of Goetz for the first time in London ; at the 
Brinsmead Concerts, Dec. 19, 1886, in the 
Prize Concerto of Oliver King, and at the Popu- 
lar Concerts, where she first appeared Jan. 27, 
1883, and has since played with success. 

From 1884 to 1887 Mme. Frickenhaus gave, 
in conjunction with Mr. Joseph Ludwig, several 
series of chamber concerts. They introduced 
several important novelties — Dvorak's ' Baga- 
tellen' for piano and strings, June 11, 1886 ; 
Fritz Steinbach's septet for piano, strings, and 
wind, June 17, 1886 ; a sonata for piano and 
violin by Oliver King ; and on May 21, 1887, 
a work entitled ' The Strolling Musicians, ' for 
piano duet, violin, and violoncello, by Arnold 
Krug. Brahms's second piano and violin sonata 
(op. 100) was announced for first performance 
in London at one of these concerts, but it was 
actually played the day before at one oi Halle's 
recitals. Since 1888 she has introduced at her 
annual recitals many modern works of interest, 
by Smetana, Dvorak, Sinding, Richard Strauss, 
Arensky, etc. On April 19, 1893, she brought 
forward, with M. Ren£ Ortmans, the sonata for 
piano and violin of C6sar Franck. The most 



remarkable characteristics of Mme. Frickenhaus's 
playing are her extraordinary perfection and 
ease of technique, combined with great intelli- 
gence, a. c. 

FRIDERICI (Friderich), Daniel, was 
born at or near Eisleben, sometime before 1600, 
but afterwards settled at Rostock in Mecklenburg, 
where from 1617 to at least 1654 he was cantor 
at the St. Marien- Kirch e. He was a prolific 
composer, chiefly of German secular songs for 
three to eight voices, of which various collections 
appeared with fanciful titles. In 1 624 he edited, 
with adaptation to German words, Thomas 
Morley's madrigals for three voices. One of 
Friderici's own madrigals for four voices 
(' Einstmals das Kind Cupido ') has been edited 
with English words by Mr. Lionel Benson in 
the publication Arion, vol. i. J. R. M. 

FRIEDHEIM, Arthur, an eminent pupil of 
Liszt, was born of German parents at St. Peters- 
burg, Oct. 26, 1859. He lost his father at a 
very early age, and was educated by some 
wealthy relatives. After passing through the 
usual school curriculum at the Gymnasium, and 
absorbing as much of musical instruction as 
happened to come his way, he began the serious 
study of music at the age of eight, and appeared 
as a pianist at nine in Field's A major concerto. 
After passing through the university, he became 
successively conductor of various small tneatre 
orchestras in Germany, whereby he obtained 
much beneficial experience. For some years 
Friedheim was a pupil and fast personal friend 
of Liszt, who, however, for some years would have 
nothing to do with him as a pupil ; he lived 
with him and studied in Rome in 1880-81 and 
1881-82, and subsequently at Weimar. Later he 
lived in Leipzig ; next, for some years as teacher 
and concert player in North America (1894), 
where he was appointed Seidl's successor, but 
was unable to accept the post. He then came 
to London, where he appeared publicly on occa- 
sions from 1889 onwards, and subsequently was 
appointed pianoforte professor in the Royal 
College of Music, at Manchester. This latter 
post he has recently (1904) resigned. Fried- 
heim was regarded for years as one of the fore- 
most exponents of Liszt's music. He has toured 
in Russia, Austria, Germany, Italy, Scandinavia, 
America, Egypt, and England. He is a pianist 
of immense technical ability, and of real tem- 
perament, and a musician of wide knowledge and 
genuine gifts. An opera, written and composed 
by him, ' Die Tanzerin, ' was tentatively accepted 
at the Grand Ducal Opera House, Carlsruhe, in 
1897, but seems never to have been produced, 
since in the autumn of 1904 the report gained 
ground that its first appearance was due about 
that time at Cologne. R. H. l. 

FRIEDLANDER, Max, was born at Brieg 
in Silesia, Oct. 12, 1852, and studied singing 
under Manuel Garcia in London and Julius 
Stockhausen in Frankfort. He travelled much 



FRIEDLANDER 



FROBERGER 



111 



and was widely known as a baritone singer. 
He sang at the Crystal Palace on April 19, 1884, 
and elsewhere in London. He took the degree 
of Dr. in Philosophy at Rostock m 1887, and 
since 1894 has been a teacher of music at the 
University of Berlin. He has taken up musical 
investigation, especially in connection with 
Schubert ; and has edited the new edition of 
Peters' collection of Schubert's songs with a 
supplement of variants ; Schubert's duets ; 
Schubert's quintet, ' Nur wer die Sehnsucht ' ; 
Gluck's Odes ; revised edition of the text to 
Schumann's songs ; 100 Deutsche Volkslieder 
(not before published) ; Stockhausen's Gesangs- 
technik (with the author). For many years 
he has devoted himself to the collection of 
materials for an exhaustive biography of 
Schubert, for which he is well qualified. He 
made an interesting collection of the original 
setting of Goethe's poems. a. 

FRIEDLANDER, Thekla, a distinguished 
soprano singer, whose fame was principally 
established in London ; according to the Monthly 
Musical Record (June 1, 1875), she was a pupil 
of Ferdinand Hiller, and Schneider of Cologne. 
On Dec. 11, 1873, she made a most successful 
first appearance in the soprano part on the pro- 
duction of Bruch's ' Odysseus ' at the Gewand- 
haus, Leipzig. She made her debuts in England, 
May 8, 1875, at the New Philharmonic Concert, 
and sang on June 7 at the Philharmonic, Nov. 
13, at the Popular Concerts, March 18, 1876, at 
the Crystal Palace, and at all the Halle recitals 
of the same year. On May 27, 1876, she 
sang with Frl. Redeker (Lady Semon) in duets 
of Rubinstein at the New Philharmonic on the 
latter's debut in this country, and was fre- 
quently engaged with her in singing duets at 
the Popular Concerts and elsewhere before the 
marriage of the last named. Miss Friedlander 
sang also at the Richter and Henschel Concerts, 
and on March 25, 1886, at the Bach Choir in 
the third part of Schumann's ' Faust, ' and in 
the provinces, etc. About this time she returned 
permanently to Germany. The possessor of a 
sympathetic soprano voice of great delicacy and 
refinement, she excelled in old Italian airs, and 
the lieder of her own country, viz., Schubert, 
Schumann, and Brahms. A. c. 

FRITZ, Barthold, celebrated mechanician 
and maker of instruments, son of a miller, born 
near Brunswick, 1697. He had no education, 
but found out for himself the principles of organ- 
building, and made in all nearly 500 organs, 
clavecins, and clavichords, beginning in 1721 
with a clavichord of 4 octaves. The tone of all 
his instruments was good, especially in the bass. 
He died at Brunswick, July 17, 1766. He pub- 
lished ' Anweisung, wie man Claviere ... in alien 
zwblf Tonen gleich rein stimmen konne, etc. 5 
(Leipzig, 1756-57-80), a new system of tuning 
keyed instruments by means of fifths and octaves, 
which, though erroneous, had much success, 



having gone through three editions, and being 
translated into Dutch by no less a person than 
Hummel. m. c. c. 

FROBERGER, 1 Johann Jacob, eminent or- 
ganist, born, according to Mattheson, at Halle in 
Saxony, where his father was Cantor, but at what 
date is unknown. On the accession of the Emperor 
Ferdinand III. (Feb. 15, 1637) he was appointed 
court organist at Vienna. There are entries of 
his salary in the accounts of the Hofcapelle, from 
Jan. 1 to Sept. 30, 1637, 2 i'rom April 1, 1641, to 
Oct. 1645, and from April 1, 1653, to Oct. 30, 
1657. The interval from 1637 to 1641 was 
occupied by his stay in Italy as Frescobaldi's 
pupil, and a grant of 200 florins for his journey 
is entered in the accounts under June 22, 1637. 
[In 1649 he was in Vienna again (see Huygens' 
Correspondence, 1882, p. cxcix. )]. In 1 6 5 7 he left 
the Emperor's service. In 1662 he journeyed 
to London, where he was twice robbed on the 
way, and arrived in so destitute a condition 
that he thankfully accepted the post of organ- 
blower at Westminster Abbey, offered him by 
Christopher Gibbons, then organist of the Chapel 
Royal and the Abbey. Gibbons was playing be- 
fore the Court on the occasion of Charles II. 's 
marriage, when Froberger overblew the bellows, 
and thus interrupted the performance, on which 
the enraged organist overwhelmed him with 
abuse and even blows. Froberger seized the op- 
portunity a few minutes after to sit down to the 
instrument, and improvised in a style which was 
at once recognised by a foreign lady who had 
formerly been his pupil and knew his style. She 
presented him to the King, who received him 
graciously, and made him play on the harpsi- 
chord to the astonishment of all. This curious 
anecdote is not mentioned by English writers, 
but is given by Mattheson (Ehrenpforte) from 
Froberger's own MS. notes. Mattheson states 
that he became a Roman Catholic during his visit 
to Rome, but it is almost certain that he was 
already one when he entered the Emperor's ser- 
vice in 1637. The late Anton Schmidt, Custos 
of the Imperial Library, maintained that he again 
became a Lutheran after his visit to London, and 
was dismissed from his post of Court organist on 
that account. The contradiction has never been 
explained, but that he died a Catholic we know, 
from an autograph letter of Sibylla, Duchess 
Dowager of Wurtemberg, who was his pupil, 
and who offered him an asylum in her house 
at Hericourt, near Montbelliard, where he died, 
May 7, 1667. See Zwei Brief e uber J. J. Fro- 
berger ... by Dr. Edmund Schebek (Prague, 
1874). His printed works — here first given 
accurately — are 1. 'Diverse ingegnosissime e 
rarissime Partite di Toccate, Canzone, Ricercari 
. . . Stampate da Lodovico Bourgeat . . . Mogont. 
1693 ' — two copies in possession of the writer, 

1 So, and not Frohberger, is the name spelt by the last Investigator, 
Dr. E. Schebek. 

2 This alone shows that the received date of his birth, 1635, must 
be wrong. 



112 



FROHLICH 



FRUYTIERS 



one with Italian title, the other with Italian and 
German. The copies quoted in other works 
with dates 1695, 1714, are printed from the 
same plates, but with different titles. 2. ' Di- 
verse . . . etc., Prima continuazione. Mog. 1696.' 
3. ' Suites de Clavecin, par Giacomo Frobergue,' 
Amsterdam, Roger (a copy of the first edition 
in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge). The 
second edition is in the library at Berlin, where 
are also several autograph vols, of Froberger's 
dated 1649 and 1656, containing, amongst 
others, some of the pieces in the above collec- 
tions. The Imperial Library at Vienna also 
contains a MS. of 222 sheets of Toccatas, 
Caprices, etc. [see the Quellen-Lexikon. A large 
selection of the clavier and organ works was 
published in the DenJcmaler d. Tonkunst in 
Oesterreich (see Denkmaler), edited by Guido 
Adler ; they were afterwards republished alone, 
in two volumes (Artaria, and Breitkopf & 
Hartel)]. f. g. 

FROHLICH. There were four sisters of 
this name, all natives of Vienna. 

1. The eldest, Nanette (Anna), born Sept. 
19, 1793, a pupil of Hummel for the piano, and 
of Hauss and Siboni for singing, became an 
excellent artist in both branches. From 1819 
to 1854 she was teacher of singing at the Con- 
servatorium of Vienna, where she trained many 
dramatic and concert singers, since celebrated. 
She will be always gratefully remembered for 
having induced F. Schubert to write the follow- 
ing pieces : — ' Gott ist mein Hirt ' (Psalm xxiii. ), 
op. 132; and 'Gott in der Natur,' op. 133. 
both for four-part female chorus ; ' Nachthelle, ' 
op. 134, for tenor solo and four -part male 
chorus ; the Serenade (' Zogernd, leise '), op. 
135, for alto solo and four-part female chorus ; 
the Song of Miriam, op. 136 ; and Des Tages 
Weihe ('Schicksalslenker'), op. 146, for soprano 
solo and chorus. Grillparzer wrote the words 
for the Serenade and the Song of Miriam also 
at her instigation. 

2. Barbara, born August 30, 1797, excelled 
both as a contralto singer and a painter of por- 
traits and flowers. She married Ferdinand 
Bogner, a government employe and eminent 
flute player, who was honorary professor at the 
Conservatorium from 1821 until his death in 
1845. 

3. Josephine, born Dec. 12, 1803, a dis- 
tinguished singer, pupil of her sister at the 
Conservatorium (1819-21), made her debut at 
concerts so successfully that she was immediately 
engaged for the court theatre (1 821-22). Shortly 
afterwards, however, she went to Copenhagen, 
and completed her studies under Siboni, who had 
settled there. As a concert singer she was very 
well received in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, 
and was appointed private singer to the King 
of Denmark. Later she went to Italy, and sang 
in the operas of Venice (1829) and Milan (1831) 
with brilliant success. The Societa Apollinea of 



Venice elected her an honorary member. After 
her return to Vienna she seldom appeared at 
concerts, and turned her attention almost 
entirely to teaching singing. She died May 7, 
1878. 

4. Katharina, born June 10, 1800, though 
not a musician, must not be omitted from this 
band of sisters. Her cultivated mind and 
sympathetic disposition eminently fitted her to 
be the intimate friend and associate of the great 
Austrian poet Grillparzer, who was deeply sus- 
ceptible to music, and passed the greater part 
of his life in the house of these sisters until his 
death in 1872. It was ' Kathi ' especially, 
with her quiet, unassuming ways, whom the 
poet reverenced as his purest ideal, and who 
inspired many of his poems. She died March 
3, 1879. c. f. p. 

FROTTOLE, early Italian songs, of which 
nine books, containing each on an average sixty- 
four, were published by Petrucci at Venice 
between 1504 and 1509. Many of them are 
by Tromboncino, who so far may be called the 
Gordigiani of his day. As far as can be gathered 
from the account of Ambros, 1 the Frottola was 
essentially a popular melody, or street -song, 
treated with a certain amount of contrivance. 
It stood midway between the strict and compli- 
cated Madrigal, and the Villotta or Vilanella, 
which was a mere harmonisation of a tune ; and 
in fact as the use of counterpoint increased it 
disappeared, its better elements went into the 
Madrigal, its lower into the Vilanella. The 
words of the Frottole were often comic (in fact 
the word is a synonym for a joke) but still 
oftener extremely sentimental. Ambros (iii. 
478) cites some in which the song of the cicada, 
and the mewing of a cat are imitated. The 
poem was in verses, sometimes very numerous. 
The music was set almost exclusively for four 
voices. Besides those printed at Venice, a book 
of twenty- two was published at Rome by Junte 
in 1526. See Ambros, as below, Eitner's Biblio- 
graphie, and Vogel's Bibliothek der gedruckten 
weltlichen Vocalmusik Italiens. G. 

FRUYTIERS, Jan, Flemish poet and musi- 
cian of the 16th century, was living at Antwerp 
in 1565. He was a Lutheran, and author of the 
words and music of ' Ecclesiasticus of de wijse 
sproken Jesu des soons Syrach,' etc. (Antwerp, 
Selvius, 1565), a metrical translation of the book 
of Ecclesiasticus. The music is printed in the 
fine type of Plan tin. This scarce book is the 
more remarkable as it was published by per- 
mission of Margaret of Parma, Governess of the 
Netherlands, only a few months before she 
enforced the decrees against the heretics which 
brought about the War of the Gueux. The 
melodies are chiefly popular Flemish airs. The 
35 th Cantique (Ecclus. xxiv.) is set to a French 
dance of the 15th century, called ' L'homme 
ariney — not to be confounded with the celebrated 

l Oeschichtc, iii. 464-489. 



FUCHS 



FUENTES 



113 



song of the same name, so often used as a theme 
for entire masses by composers of the 15 th and 
16th centuries. The song is in 3-2 time, the 
dance in 2-4, and in the form of a round. 
[L'homme arme\] m. c. c. 

FUCHS, Aloys, bass singer in the Imperial 
chapel from 1836, and government employe in 
the war department at Vienna, born June 23, 
1799, at Raase in Austrian Silesia, remarkable 
as an ardent collector of autographs. His collec- 
tion of music, books, portraits, etc., purchased 
out of a small salary by dint of rigid economy, 
has often been described in detail. It contained 
specimens from all nations, though the Italian 
and German masters were most fully represented, 
and especially Mozart. These materials were 
partly used by Otto J ahn in his Life of that master. 
Fuchs contributed articles to several musical 
.periodicals, and took a keen interest in every- 
thing connected with the history and literature 
of music. Severe illnesses compelled him to part 
with his treasures one by one, and thus his 
whole collection was scattered. Thalberg bought 
the remaining autographs ; the Mozarteum a fair 
copy of Mozart's works ; Grasnick of Berlin the 
collection of portraits ; the ecclesiastical in- 
stitution of Gottweig the library ; and Butsch, 
the bookseller of Augsburg, the rest of the papers 
and biographical articles. Fuchs died at Vienna, 
March 20, 1853. c. f. p. 

FUCHS, Anton, born at Munich on Jan. 29, 
1849. Baritone singer of distinction, who has 
also devoted himself with conspicuous success to 
the work of operatic stage management, in which 
capacity he has been engaged since 1880 at the 
Munich Opera, and since 1882 in the Festspiele 
at Bayreuth. w. w. c. 

FUCHS, Carl, violoncellist, born in 1865 at 
Offenbach in Germany, was a pupil of Cossmann 
at the Frankfort Conservatoire until 1886, when 
he studied at St. Petersburg under Davidov. Is 
now settled at Manchester, where he is a professor 
at the Royal College, soloist at the Halle- Richter 
concerts, and member of the Brodsky Quartet. 
He is an excellent chamber-music player, having 
often performed at the London ' Popular Con- 
certs ' with success. He draws a rich, full tone 
from his instrument. w. w. c. 

FUCHS, Ferdinand Karl, born in Vienna, 
Feb. 11, 1811, died there Jan. 7, 1848. Popular 
song- writer ; produced two operas at Vienna in 
1842. w. w. c. 

FUCHS, Georg Friedrich, born at Mayence, 
Dec. 3, 1752, died at Paris, Oct. 9, 1821, won 
considerable fame as a clarinettist in his day. 
Was a professor at the Paris Conservatoire and 
composer of various works for wind instru- 
ments, w. w. c. 

FUCHS, Johann Nepomuk, born at Frauen- 
thal, May 5, 1842, an accomplished, all-round 
musician, has held the appointment of capell- 
meister in various towns (since 1880 at the 
Vienna Opera). In 1894 he was appointed a 
vol. II 



director of the Vienna Conservatorium. Com- 
posed in 1872 the opera ' Zingara.' w. w. c. 

FUCHS, Karl Dorius Johann, pianist, con- 
ductor, and critic, was born at Potsdam, Oct. 22, 
1838. Pupil of his father, an organist, he was 
compelled to give lessons on the pianoforte whilst 
yet a collegian. In 1859 was a student at the 
University of Berlin, and at the same time took 
lessons on the pianoforte under Von Biilow. 
Henceforth his life was divided between music 
and literature. In 1869 he was organist at 
Stralsund, and in 1870 took the degree of Dr. 
Phil, at Greifswald, his thesis being Praliminarien 
zu einer Kritik der Tonkunst. In 1871-75 he 
lived in Berlin as pianist, teacher, and critic ; 
in 1875-79 at Hirschberg, where he founded a 
musical society of which he was the conductor ; 
and in 1879 moved to Danzig, where he has held 
several appointments. His leaning is towards 
philosophical analysis, a tendency which reacts 
on his playing, which is of the intellectual order. 
In conjunction with Hugo Riemann he wrote a 
Praktische Anleitung zum Phr aster en (1886) of 
which an English translation has appeared in 
New York. Said by Riemann to be ' the first 
who attempted phrasing in orchestral perform- 
ances.' w. w. c. 

FUCHS, Robert, brother of J. N. Fuchs, was 
born at Frauenthal, Feb. 15, 1847. He has been 
since 1875 professor of theory at the Vienna 
Conservatoire, and is chiefly known to the out- 
side world as composer of five Serenades for 
string orchestra, which enjoy wide popularity. 
Has also composed a Symphony (op. 37 in C), a 
piano Concerto, a Mass, several works for the 
chamber, and two operas. w. w. c. 

FUHRER. See Dux. 
FUHRER, Robert, born at Prague, June 2, 
1807; in 1839 succeeded his master Wittasek as 
organist to the Cathedral there. His irregular 
life, however, lost him the post, and in 1843 he 
left Prague. In 1853-55 he was organist at 
Gmunden and Ischl, and then settled in Vienna, 
where he died, Nov. 28, 1861, in great distress 
in a hospital. His compositions, published from 
1830 in Prague and Vienna, are numerous and 
good. (For list see Fetis.) They comprise 
masses, graduales, offertories, preludes, fugues, 
a method for the pedal -organ, a handbook 
for choirmasters, a Praktische Anleitung zu 
Orgelcompositionen, etc. Whatever his merits 
as a musician, however, he was a dishonest 
man, for he actually published Schubert's 
Mass in G under his own name (Marco Berra, 
Prague, 1846), a fact which requires no com- 
ment. M. 0. c. 

FUENTES, Don Pasquale, born about the 
beginning of the 18th century at Albaida in the 
province of Valencia in Spain, was maestro de 
capilla at first at the church of St. Andrea, and 
from 1757 at the cathedral of Valencia. He 
died there April 26, 1768. Fetis gives a list of 
sacred and secular compositions, one of which, a 



114 



FUKSTENAU 



FUGUE 



'Beatus vir'a 10, is printed in Eslava's Lira 
Sacro-Hispana (Quellen-Lexikon. ) 

FURSTENAU, a family of distinguished 
flautists and good musicians. 

1. Caspar, born Feb. 26, 1772, at Minister, 
was early left an orphan under the care of A. 
Romberg, who tried to force him to learn the 
bassoon, as well as the oboe, which he had been 
already taught ; but his preference for the flute 
asserted itself, and he shortly became so pro- 
ficient, as to support his family by playing in a 
military band, and in that oi the Bishop. In 
1793-94 he made a professional tour through 
Germany, and settled at Oldenburg, where he 
entered the Court band, and gave lessons to the 
Duke. In 1811 the band was dispersed, and 
Caspar again travelled with his son. He died 
at Oldenburg, May 11, 1819. 

2. Anton Bernhard, a finer flautist than 
his father, born Oct. 20, 1792, at Miinster ; first 
appeared at a Court con-ert in Oldenburg when 
only seven. He remained with his father, the 
two taking long journeys together. In 1817 he 
was engaged for the municipal orchestra of Frank- 
fort, from whence he removed in 1 820 to Dresden, 
where he remained in the service of the King of 
Saxony till his death, Nov. 18, 1852. In 1826 
he accompanied Weber on his last sad journey 
to London, tended him with anxious care, and 
assisted him to undress the night before his 
death. (See Max Maria von Weber's Life of his 
father, ii. 703.) He composed several pieces 
and two Methods for the flute. 

3. His son Moritz, born in Dresden, July 26, 
1824, also a flautist, at seventeen entered the 
royal band. He made some valuable contribu- 
tions to the history of music, such as Beitrdge zur 
Geschichte der kbniglichen sdchsischen musika- 
lischen Capelle (1849) ; Zur Geschichte des 
Theaters und der Musik in Dresden, 2 vols. 
(1861) ; and Die Fabrication musikalischer In- 
strumente in Voigtlande (1876). In 1852 he was 
appointed Custos of the royal collections of music, 
and received the order of Albert of Saxony. From 
1858 he was flute professor at the Dresden Con- 
servatorium, and he died at Dresden, March 25, 
1889. F. G. 

FUGATO. A name given to an irregularly 
fugued movement, in which the fugue-form is not 
strictly followed (especially as to strettos and 
pedal-points), though the structure is fugal and 
contrapuntal. Fugato passages are often intro- 
duced in orchestral music with the happiest 
effect, as in first and last movements of the 
Eroica Symphony, in the Allegretto of No. 7, 
both by Beethoven, and in the first movement of 
Mendelssohn's Italian Symphony, immediately 
after the double bar, etc. f. a. g. o. 

FUGHETTA. A short condensed fugue— a 
miniature fugue — correct and complete as to 
form, but with all its dimensions curtailed. 
No. 10 of Bach's thirty Variations is a Fughetta, 
as is also No. 24 of Beethoven's thirty- three 



Variations (op. 120). Both are in two sections, 
each repeated. F. a. g. o. 

FUGUE. A musical movement in which a 
definite number of parts or voices combine in 
stating and developing a single theme, the 
interest being cumulative. 

This definition immediately suggests two 
points : — 

1. The main idea of a fugue is that of one 
voice contrasting with others ; not, as in the 
first movement of a sonata, of one section con- 
trasting longitudinally with other sections. In- 
deed the fugal form may be said to be ' a question 
of texture rather than of design, ' 1 and it has 
even been suggested that the term ' a fugue ' is 
incorrect and that we should rather speak of a 
composition being written in fugue, just as we 
speak of a poem being written in hexameters. 
This essential of a fugue brings us to the second 
point in our definition. 

2. It is essential that a fugue be conceived in 
a definite number of parts or voices : 2 two parts 
at least are obviously necessary, so that one may 
contrast with the other. It is possible to imagine 
an entirely melodic sonata ; an entirely melodic 
fugue is a contradiction. For similar reasons a 
texture of harmonic blocks of chords is quite 
alien to the fugal form. 

From what has been said it is clear that the 
fugue is of more artificial and less primitive 
origin than the ' cyclical ' forms. The sonata 
form can be traced directly back to the folk-song ; 
the fugue seems to be descended from the 
contrapuntal experiments of mediaeval monks. 
For this reason perhaps, and partly because fugue 
writing is so excellent a scholastic training, the 
idea has grown up that a fugue is necessarily dull 
and pedantic, justifying the famous aphorism 
that 'a fugue is a composition in which one 
voice runs away from the others and the hearer 
from them all.' It is surely clear that a form 
which has inspired the most magnificent music 
of the greatest composers must be something 
more than an academic exercise or an arbitrary 
collection of scholastic regulations. Indeed just 
as the ' rules ' of the sonata have been shown to 
be based on deep principles which underlie the 
whole of musical form, so the rules of fugue may 
be shown to be based on principles equally deep. 

The fugue, like every other form of art, has had 
its origin and development. In the 1 6th century 
the word meant a movement in canonic form ; 
indeed the name • canon ' is merely short for 
' fuga per canonem,' a fugue according to rule. 
In these times there were two species of fugue, 
the limited fugue, which was what we now call 
a strict canon, and the unlimited fugue which 
started canonically and soon broke off into free 
passages, with occasional points of imitation. It 
was the text- book of Fux (1725) which placed 

1 D. F. Tovey, Lecture on Beethoven's ' Missa Solennis.' 

2 The term ' voice ' is used throughout this article as the equir*- 
lent of ' part,' not necessarily a vocal part. 



FUGUE 



FUGUE 



115 



the fugue on its present basis, though still in a 
very simple and undeveloped form. Thus the 
way was prepared for J. S. Bach, who took the 
fugue form as set forth in Fux's Gradus ad 
Pamassum and applied to it the new key-system 
with its endless possibilities of modulation, 
enriching it at the same time with his boundless 
wealth of melodic and harmonic imagination. 
Bach rose superior to all the rules and regula- 
tions with which Fux had hedged in the fugue, 
and evolved out of Fux's skeleton the living 
fugue, the quintessence of fugue, freed from all 
the impurities of pedantry. From the time of 
Bach the word ' fugue 'has connoted a very definite 
musical form which will now be described. 

As this is not a text-book, no attempt will 
be made to enumerate all the rules which are 
found in primers. 1 Only those factors of a 
fugue will be described here which are essential 
to its nature as set out in the above definition. 
All the principles enunciated will be referable 
to the examples set by great composers ; they, 
and not the theorists, will be taken as the 
criterion. 2 Writers on music have a tendency 
to divorce theory from practice, and in no branch 
of the art is this the case more than in the 
fugue. It is an extraordinary thing that hardly 
any of the well-known treatises on fugue so 
much as mention Bach ; 3 and one modern teacher, 
it is understood, actually used to forbid the 
study of Bach's fugues because they are 'contrary 
to the rules. ' 4 

We can now proceed to a detailed description 
of the fugal form. It is obvious that the theme 
on which the whole work hangs must be clearly 
and unequivocally presented at the outset, and 
this cannot be done better than by giving it to 
the voice or voices sufficient to enunciate it 
entirely unaccompanied. This is, as a matter 
of fact, the way in which a fugue does invariably 
start, and the theme thus propounded is called 
the subject. 5 The subject of a fugue must be 
of a character to arrest and hold the attention 
whenever it is heard. Cherubini's somewhat 
oracular remark, ' the subject must neither be 
too long nor too short, 'really contains the nucleus 
of the matter. The subject must be long enough 
to contain a definite idea, it must not be so 
long that the memory cannot retain it. Here 
follow examples of the longest and shortest fugue 
subjects in Bach's Wdhlt. Clavier. 

(a) 'Wolilt. Clav.,' No. 34. 



^ ^g-U-ijJ ^a^:-g^ 



^ms 



X 



1 For the sake of completeness the famous treatises on fugue 
should be mentioned : Fux, 1725; Marpurg, 1753; Albrechtsberger, 
1790 ; Cherubini, 1333 ; Richter, 1876. For English students there 
are two excellent primers by J. Higgs and E. Prout. 

2 Prof. Prout is one of the few writers on fugue who have deliber- 
ately taken the works of the great masters as their standard. 

3 Marpurg is an honourable exception. 

* Quoted in the preface to Prout's Fugue. 

6 There is an apparent exception in the case of an ' accompanied 
fugue,' in which case the announcement of the subject is heard 
simultaneously with a full harmonic accompaniment. This will 
b« dealt with later. 



psfepi^l^s 



g^p^isdi^ 



(5) 'Wohlt. Clav.,'No. 4. 



ggH3=^=|j 



^Z- 



Although the subject is always announced 
by itself yet this does not mean that only one 
voice is heard at the beginning. The subject 
may be in two, three, or even four parts, and 
in these cases the subject should be described 
as a double, triple, or quadruple subject. As 
a matter of fact fugues with subjects in two or 
more parts are usually called fugues on two 
subjects, or even double fugues, but it is plain 
that there can only be one subject to a fugue, 6 
and this subject, when it is in two or more parts, 
almost invariably makes its various appearances 
as a whole and not in its separate parts. The 
name double fugue seems better applied to those 
Cases where a secondary theme appears during 
the course of the movement (this will be dealt 
with later). 

(a) Haydn, 'Achieved is the glorious work,* 
from the Creation. 
Subject in 2 parts. 



Be 



=Pi2=iMfp 



j ^ggffjgEE g jfffczjffig 



(6) Leo, ' Dixit Dominus.' 
Subject in 3 parts. 






S 









aEgEEpEgE 




(c) Cherubini, ' Et vitam. ' 
Subject in 4 parts. 




@$ 



_S^AMUj 



m^ 



SI 



g g%fe 



Fugue subjects can be divided roughly into 
three classes : — 

" Cherubini recognises this and refuses to use the nomenclature 
•fugue oa two subjects,' saying that a fugue 'cannot have more 
than one principal subject.' He proposes to call such fugues ' fugue* 
on one subject with one, two, or three counter-subjects.' 



116 



FUGUE 



FUGUE 



1. Those that are in themselves complete 
melodies usually of a very definite rhythmical 
nature. In fugues on such subjects the interest 
of the fugue depends chiefly on the intrinsic 
beauty of the subject itself at its various ap- 
pearances. Such subjects are usually called 
'andamenti.' (See Andamento.) 

2. Those which consist of some short passage 
with perhaps a characteristic interval. Such a 
subject is not necessarily beautiful in itself but 
becomes so when treated and developed in the 
course of the movement. Such subjects come 
under the class of 'soggetti.' (See Soggetto.) 

3. Those which consist merely of a short 
figure and are usually called ' attacco ' (q. v. ) 
The ' attacco ' seldom forms the subject of a 
complete fugue ; there is, however, an example 
in Bach's Wohltemperirtes Clavier, No. 27. 

(a) Bach, Organ fugue G Minor 
(andamento). 



#^ BggE gl 




(&) Bach, ' Wohlt. Clav.,' No. 26 (soggetto). 



i 



miz3j 



^Bfczijed^ ^gH -ii— 



g^ 



(c) Bach, 'Wohlt. 

Clav.,' No. 27 jjj gEJEJ 
(attacco). =«2£: 

The subject having been stated, another voice 
enters with an answer to this statement. In 
most text-books the answer is described as an 
imitation of the subject, and, this definition 
having been given, it is found necessary to em- 
ploy several paragraphs in explaining that the 
answer is not an imitation but a modification 
of the subject. The truth is that the answer 
is not in its essence an imitation of the subject. 
The answer is what its name implies, a reply. 
The subject alone is a • broken arc' ; it requires 
the answer to complete the 'perfect round.' 
The subject and answer may be compared to 
the obverse and reverse of a medal. 1 

This answering of the subject can be brought 
about in more than one way : — 

1. The answer may be a repetition of the 
subject in a different key. This is called a real 
answer. If the subject is entirely in the tonic, 
the real answer is usually in the dominant 
(occasionally in the sub - dominant). If the 
subject is in the dominant, the real answer is in 
the tonic. 

(a) Bach, 'Wohlt. Clav.,' No. 1. 
Sub. in tonic. 




i Rockstro describes the answer very well as a ' fore-shortening ' 
of the subject. 



Ans. in dom. 




(6) Beethoven, Quartet Ctf Minor. 
Sub. in tonic. 



^Mmf&^£3^3 



Ans. in sub-dom. 



« it ans. in suD-uuin. 



(c) Handel, ' Then shall they know' 

(Part II) ; Samson. 
Sub. in dom. Ans. in tonic. 




(See also Real Fugue, below.) 

2. Recourse is frequently had to the universal 
feeling which divides the octave into two unequal 
portions at its fifth note, so that the interval of 
a fifth from tonic to dominant is felt to have 
its exact correlative in the interval of a fourth 
from dominant to tonic. It was this feeling 
that led the early ecclesiastical musicians to add 
to each ' authentic ' mode, which was divided 
into two parts at its fifth note, a corresponding 
' plagal ' mode, starting at that fifth note, and 
itself divided into two parts at its fourth note, 
that is, the final of the authentic mode. This 
analogy between plagal and authentic seems to 
be universally perceived in music. This can be 
shown by the two following examples drawn from 
very different sources, neither of which can be 
suspected of being influenced by fugal considera- 
tions, since one is from a comic opera and the 
other from a German chorale. 

(a) From Dorothy, Cellier. 
(1) Introduction. (2) Opening chorus. 




(b) From hymn tune ' Eisenach.' 



$ 



EEglfffflf-^Eg 



g£££ 



In the same manner the answer to a fugue- 
subject is often compressed into the plagal or 
extended into the authentic compass, inversely 
according as the subject is authentic or plagal. 
An answer conceived on this plan is called a tonal 
answer. Many rules are given in the text-books 
for finding the correct tonal answer to a fugue. 
It will serve our purpose better to give several 
examples of tonal answers by great composers to 
show the various modifications which theyadopt. 
These examples will also prove how very far from 
being a mere imitation of the subject a fugue 
answer generally is. (See Tonal Fugue, below.) 

(a) Bach, ' Wohlt. Clav.,' No. 25. 
Sub. Ans. 



11111111 




*§J=£:Il2: 



FUGUE 



FUGUE 



117 



(b) Handel, 'Hallelujah,' Messiah. 

Sub. Ans. 



ffiJ^j^JSgg^ 



3-elcT 



(c) Bach, ' Ich hatte viel Bekiimmerniss,' 
final fugue. 




1 — * 



Ans. 



iEEE 



^^^w^mmm 



$ 



(d) Mozart, Quartet in E Major. 
Sub. Ans. .««=,. 



s 



W- 



Sub. 



(e) Bach, Organ Fugue, Eb. 



s; $=^=p 



Ans 

P 



&$=^=^=3E^^E£ 



(/) Bach, • Matthew Passion.' 
Sub. Ans. 



^fpgfp^^p 



(g) KlRNBERGER. 
Sub. (2nd half). 



W^^rf^^f^- 



&- 



i 



Ans. (2nd half). 



os 



3 



(ft) Beethoven, Pf. Sonata, op. 101. 

Sub. 




Sub. 



(&) Mozart, Quartet G Major. 



SB^fc^ gSggp^E 



Ans. 



PW^g gg g^ ef^^ f 



Sub. 



(£) Brahms, Requiem. 



Ans. 



3. The answer is occasionally an inversion, 

diminution, or augmentation of the subject. 

(a) Bach, ' Kunst der Fuge,' No. V. 
. Sub. 



^^ 



— T 



5E 



J=^ -i+^-^ g 



Ans. by inversion. 



^^^^f^^-hr-p^ 



(6) No. VI. 

Ans. by inv. and dim. 



r> 



^^ 



Sub 



:r 



4£^ ydj 



p • i 



(c) No. VII. 

Ans. by inv. and aug 



^ 



Snh.i 



^srm^ 



*« 






While the second voice announces the answer, 
the first voice goes on its way in counterpoint 
with it. Sometimes this counterpoint takes the 
shape of a definite theme of which further use 
is made in the course of the fugue ; it is then 
called a counter-subject. The counter-subject is 
usually in double counterpoint with the subject, 
designed, that is, to appear either above or 
below it as occasion requires. A counter- subject 
is by no means an inalienable factor in a fugue ; 
for instance seventeen of the forty-eight fugues 
of Bach's Wohltemperirtes Clavier have no 
regular counter-subject. 

Bach, ■ Wohlt. Clav.,' No. 44. 
Ans. 



i 



W 



Sub 

Bee 



m 



^g^^ 




Counter-sub. 




When the subject and answer have been thus 
propounded, the other voices enter in turn with 
subject or answer alternately. Sometimes the 
duet between the first two voices is lengthened 
by a few bars before the entry of the third voice : 
this small digression is called a codetta. 

Handel, ' And with His stripes,' Messiah. 
Sub. 



^Etd 



^J, 



msmmmm 



Codetta. 



118 



FUGUE 



The complete statement of subject or answer 
by all the voices employed is called the exposi- 
tion. The exposition usually consists of subject 
and answer entering alternately, 1 and one or 
more short codette. If there is a counter-subject, 
it appears in that voice which last had the 
subject or answer. 2 This fugal exposition is in 
itself such a very definite and unmistakable 
mode of expression that it is often introduced 
into choral and instrumental works which are 
not fugues. Such a torso is called a fugato 
passage or merely ' fugato. ' Beethoven was 
particularly fond of the fugato : good examples 
are found in the slow movements of his first and 
seventh symphonies. 

Now it is necessary, before the subject, as the 
hero of the plot, sets out on its career of adven- 
ture, that its nature and characteristics should 
be thoroughly impressed on the attention. Some- 
times the exposition alone suffices for this ; but 
sometimes an extra entry of the subject is added 
at the end of the exposition before any modula- 
tion takes place : this most frequently happens 
in those fugues where the relative positions of 
subject and counter-subject have been the same 
throughout the various entries of the exposition. 
The extra entry then presents the subject in a 
new aspect with regard to the counter- subject. 

Bach, ' Patrem ' from B Minor Mass 
(inner parts omitted). 
Counter-sub. 




(Sub. extra entry). 



wmmt 



& 



fH^f^F-f-^—r-i 



Sometimes this extra entry is not enough by 
itself, and the exposition is followed by a whole 
series of extra entries, a sort of complement to 
the exposition ; this is called the counter -exposi- 
tion. In the counter - exposition the answer 
usually leads off, followed by the subject ; some- 
times both subject and answer are inverted in 
the counter-exposition 3 (e.g. Bach. Wohlt. Clav. 
No. 15). 

Up to now there have been no serious modula- 
tions in the fugue, but when the exposition and 
counter- exposition are over, there begins what 
is known as the middle section of the fugue. 
This consists of a contrapuntal web gradually 
leading through some definite scheme of modula- 
tions to the final section or climax of the fugue. 
This contrapuntal web consists of a series of 
episodes (usually founded on the main subject 
and counter-subject) interspersed with entries 
of the subject in various new situations and 
guises. At the time when the rules of fugue 

1 This is not invariable. 

2 The counter-subject originally appears as a counterpoint to the 
answer ; therefore when it accompanies the subject it often has to 
be modified. This modified form bears the same relation to the 
original counter-subject as the subject bears to the answer, and might 
well be called the ' counter-answer,' but this term is never used. 

3 Sometimes exposition and counter-exposition are separated by 
an episode, e.g. Wohlt. Clav. No. 11. 



FUGUE 

were crystallised by Fux, modulations were of 
a very mild nature and as a consequence the 
later theorists, regardless of musical progress, 
have strictly circumscribed the modulations 
which a fugue writer ' is allowed ' to make. It 
need hardly be said that the rules for fugal 
modulation are of no more value than any of 
the other arbitrary rules of fugue. Not a single 
one of the fugues, either in the Wohltemperirtes 
Clavier or in the Kunst der Fuge, follows the 
scheme of modulation which was afterwards 
prescribed by Cherubini. 4 

The various ways in which the successive 
entries of subject, answer, and counter-subject 
are made to grow in interest during the middle 
section of a fugue have been codified into a 
scheme of devices, which may be summarised as 
follows : — 

(a) The subject and counter-subject may be 
themselves altered (i.) by augmentation, (ii.) by 
diminution, (iii. ) by inversion, (iv. ) by ' cancri- 
zans ' motion. 

(a) R. Strauss, 'Also Sprach Zarathustra.' 






Part of sub. 



Sub. by laug. (con 8va) 




*=> 



r 



^j-y= 






■r^^T-f 



iijy^j 



b& 




=iSfe 



rs l l JS M 




v- 



gg g|gS^ 



□ 



m 



(b) Bach, < Wohlt. Clav.,' No. 33. 

Sub. inv. and dim. 

1 



w 



EBE 



mm 



n 



Sub. 



JJ.I. v, 



p 



pE^p 



Sub. by dim. 



: ff 



-^^m 



* Cherubini's rules for modulation are as follows : When the 
fugue is in a major key— dominant, relative minor, sub-dominant, 
super-tonic minor, mediant minor, dominant. When the fugue is 
in a miuor key — mediant major, dominant minor, or sub-niediant 
major, or sub-dominant minor, or seventh major. 



FUGUE 



FUGUE 



119 



(c) Bach, ■ Wohlt. Clav.,' No. 20. 



mmm^^ m 



Sub. inverted. 

^ 





etc. 



m%=fm=rm 



(d) Beethoven, Pf. Sonata, op. 106. 
Subject. 

tr. 




mmm 





» etc. 



pH^^I 



Part of subject in ' cancrizans ' motion. 




(b) The subject with its various counter- 
subjects can be presented inverted in double 
counterpoint at various intervals (usually the 
octave, tenth or twelfth). 

Mozart, ' Kyrie/ Requiem. 



I 



£BE 



^53-JJjj^ 



eg^££| ^ gj^E^gE p: 




E 



j^^llgg 



Parts inverted at the 12th. 




^m^sP^^ ^g 



(c) The device of stretto may be made use of. 
Stretto is defined by Cherubini as 'a device 
which consists in bringing the entrance of the 
response nearer to that of the subject ' ; to which 
it may be added that a stretto often consists 
in introducing a second entry of the subject 
instead of the answer at these close quarters. 
This ' hurried ' introduction of the answer can 
often be introduced at more than one point 
of the subject, as the following examples will 
explain. When the entrance of the answer 
follows close on that of the subject, it is said to 
be a close stretto. A stretto in which all the 
voices take part, and in which each voice takes 
up subject or answer in turn in their entirety 
and without any modification, is called a masterly 
stretto or ' stretto maestrale.' 



Bach, < Wohlt. Clav.,' No. 33. 



IjfceE^^ip^ 



Ans. 

£2_ 



\AAj. 



HI 



Sub. 
Stretto maestrale. 




|e=™i==£=l^§I 






etc. 



^:etc.- 



The device of stretto may also be combined 
with the various other devices of augmentation, 
etc., just described. A good example of stretto 
combined with augmentation will be found in 
the fugue ■ Cum Sancto ' from Beethoven's 
' Missa Solennis. ' 

The emotional effect of stretto is obvious, and 
the closer the stretto the greater the excitement 
produced. Therefore, where more than one 
stretto is employed in a fugue, the simpler is 
usually placed first, and the closest and most 
elaborate is kept till later, so that the fugue 
may grow in interest. 

(d) Sometimes one or two subsidiary subjects 
are introduced in the course of the fugue. These 
may be introduced in one of two ways : (i.) 
by a regular fugal exposition in the middle of 
the fugue, as in Bach's organ fugue in C minor 
(Peters' edition, vol. iv.). (ii.) They can be 
imposed on the normal flow of the counterpoint 
as in the fourth fugue (CJJ minor) of the 



120 



FUGUE 



FUGUE 



Wohltertvperirtes Clavier. Such fugues are 
very properly called double or triple fugues. 

In the middle section of a fugue the composer 
is usually said to be ' free ' to proceed as he 
likes : this is only true in so far as it means 
that no hard and fast regulations can be laid 
down for his guidance at this point ; but it is 
just here that in reality the composer is most 
emphatically not free, except in so far as every 
composer is always free. If he wishes to make 
his fugue an organic and inevitable whole, then 
it is especially in these ' free ' passages that he 
must keep the direction and tendency of the 
whole movement most clearly in his mind. 

After the wanderings of the middle section 
there follows a natural desire for home, but 
home under a new aspect, looked at with eyes 
which have witnessed all the wonderful develop- 
ments of which the infant theme has become 
capable as it reaches maturity. This is the 
climax of the fugue, and is usually heralded 
by a return to the original key. The climax, 
then, is the place where the subject will be 
presented in its most exciting aspect. If there 
are several stretti in the fugue, the closest or 
most elaborate will be reserved for this point : 
if there is only one stretto, the composer will 
probably place it here. Indeed this portion of 
the fugue is often called the stretto, but a stretto 
is by no means universal in a fugue ; in many 
of Bach's fugues the climax is marked by an 
emphatic entry of the subject in the principal 
key. In a double or triple fugue the climax 
is usually marked by the combination of all the 
subjects previously announced separately. 

After the climax comes a peroration or coda. 
This very often contains a pedal on the domi- 
nant and sometimes also on the tonic. In 
many cases, right at the close, the contrapuntal 
texture gives way to massive blocks of harmony 
(e.g. Mendelssohn, 42nd Psalm). Sometimes 
the end takes the form of an elaborate cadenza, 
as in Bach's organ fugue in C minor (Peters, 
vol. iv.). 

Before ending this description of the fugal 
form two slight variants must be noticed : — 

I. The Fugue on a Chorale. — There are two 
species of this form : — 

(a) Where the fugue pursues its normal 
course, the chorale being superimposed as a 
canto fermo or an episode during its development 
(e.g. Mendelssohn, 3rd organ sonata, 1st move- 
ment). 

(b) Where each line of the chorale-melody is 
made the climax of a short fugal passage. The 
fugal matter being founded on the chorale (e.g. 
Bach's fugue on • Durch Adam's Fall '). 

II. The Accompanied Fugue. — A fugue is 
sometimes accompanied ; that is to say, that 
besides the regular fugal exposition and develop- 
ment there are independent parts for other voices 
or instruments. The usual form of accompanied 
fugue consists of a normal fugue sung by a 



choir of voices, while an orchestra plays a 
partly independent accompaniment. Examples 
are the ' Cum sancto Spiritu ' from Schubert's 
Mass inF, and the last chorus of Parry's 'Judith.' 
In an accompanied fugue the texture of the 
fugal parts is often much looser than in the 
ordinary fugue. In many of Handel's accom- 
panied fugues the first voice after giving out 
the subject is silent, while the second voice sings 
the answer. 

Handel, ' And He shall purify ' (voice parts 
only) from The Messiah. 



g^^^S^l^^^ 



®s± 



iEBE 



gz^ SZ j&ttP ^ jt 



J=— = ji^4li cjffl y=i5& 




This then is the construction of a fugue as 
generally understood. It will be noticed that 
it falls into three sections : exposition, middle 
section, and climax (or stretto). These three 
sections coincide with the design usually described 
by the formula A. B. A. under which nearly every 
piece of music may be said to fall. This has 
led some theorists to trace a connection between 
the fugal and the sonata forms, 1 but in reality 
there is no more intimate connection between 
them than the very vague similarity just men- 
tioned, which applies equally to every other 
musical form. The fugue is essentially contra- 
puntal in its texture, while a sonata-movement 
is harmonic. In a fugue there is no break, a 
cadence is only the signal for a fresh start. 
The sonata - movement is, on the other hand, 
by nature broken up into sections. A sonata- 
movement may be said to be sewn together, a 
fugue to be woven. It is, however, quite true 
that the sonata form has been occasionally 
affected by fugal considerations, as in Beet- 
hoven's sonatas, opp. 101, 110, and 111. 2 In 
the same way the prelude to Wagner's ' Die 
Meistersinger ' is a well-known instance of a 
movement where three subjects are at first 
presented separately and harmonically as in a 
sonata, and afterwards combined as if in the 
stretto of a triple fugue. 

The art of fugue has found its greatest ex- 
ponent in the works of J. S. Bach. Haydn 
and Mozart seem to have known little of Bach 
and his works. Moreover, their ideas seemed 



l Prout, Fugue, chap. ix. 



2 Hadow, Sonata form, chap. xL 



FUGUE 



FUGUE 



121 



to shape themselves naturally in those cyclic 
forms which were developing into the great 
symphonic form of Beethoven. Their fugues, 
fine as they are, seem to have been written 
text-book in hand, and not to be a natural mode 
of expression. The result is that the fugues of 
Haydn and Mozart actually seem old-fashioned 
compared with those of Bach, and more academic 
in their feeling. The same may be said of 
Cherubini and, in spite of their splendour, of 
Beethoven's fugues. Perhaps Bach was attracted 
to the fugal means of expression because of its 
romantic possibilities. The definite decorative 
scheme of the sonata form, with its strongly con- 
trasted sections, is eminently fitted for absolute 
music — music which stands for itself and by 
itself. Absolute music depends on contrast of 
mood ; but the essence of romantic music is 
that some idea or mood from without is grafted 
on to the musical stem. Such a scheme as 
this demands unity of mood, some central 
idea running through the whole, surrounded 
by attendant episodes, the whole in a sort of 
chiaroscuro. This is certainly the principle 
which underlies the fugal form, and it is also 
the principle which underlies the various forms 
in which the romantic composers found it 
necessary to express themselves. Can we not 
trace an analogous emotional need and an 
analogous means of expression in the fugues of 
Bach on the one hand, and on the other in 
Schumann's pianofdrte concerto with its single 
theme, in his C major fantasia with its ' leiser 
Ton,' 1 in the persistent melancholy figures of 
Chopin's preludes, in the ' idee fixe ' of Berlioz, 
and above all in the ' leit-motif ' of Wagner's 
music - dramas ? Perhaps Wagner's leit - motif 
compares more closely with a canto fermo than 
with a fugue subject, and we can trace a most 
interesting parallel between the leit-motif of 
Wagner and the fugue-on-chorale of Bach. The 
introduction of a chorale as a canto fermo in a 
fugue only makes its due emotional effect when 
the chorale is well known to the hearers, 2 
otherwise its introduction will be quite point- 
less. Thus the introduction of the chorale is 
to a certain extent dramatic in its emotional 
effect. In the same way a leit-motif imposed 
on the polyphonic web of Wagner's music makes 
its effect largely because of its dramatic power 
produced by force of association. R. v. w. 

[A few additional particulars on Real and 
Tonal Fugue, from the articles on these subjects 
by W. S. Rockstro in the first edition of the 
Dictionary, may not be out of place.] 

Real Fugue. — This is an invention of much 
older date than its tonal analogue ; andis, indeed, 
the only kind of fugue possible in the ecclesi- 

1 The motto of Schumann's fantasia could he equally well illus- 
trated by one of Bach's fugues. 

2 It may be objected that modern audiences do experience a 
decided emotional thrill at the introduction of the chorale, for 
instance in Mendelssohn's E minor fugue, without being at all 
familiar with the tune, but even in this case they do recognise 
that it i* a chorale. It calls up associations of church worship 
and a great crowd singing, and the effect is to this extent dramatic. 



astical modes. For, in those ancient tonalities, 
the Dominant differs widely from that of the 
modern scale, and exercises widely different 
functions ; insomuch that the answer to a given 
subject, constructed with reference to it, would, in 
certain modes, be so distorted as to set all recogni- 
tion at defiance. The idea of such a dominant 
as that upon which we now base our harmonic 
combinations is one which could never have 
suggested itself to the mediaeval contrapuntist. 
Accordingly, the composers of the 15th and 1 6th 
centuries regulated their subjects and answers 
in conformity with the principles of the system 
of Hexachords. When a strict answer was in- 
tended, its solmisation was made to correspond 
exactly, in one hexachord, with that of the 
subject in another. Where this uniformity of 
solmisation was wanting — as was necessarily the 
case when the answer was made in any other 
interval than that of the fourth or fifth above 
or below the subject — the reply was regarded 
as merely an imitative one. 3 [See Hexachord. ] 
But, even in imitative replies, the laws of Real 
Fugue required that a fifth should always be 
answered by a fifth, and a fourth by a fourth — 
the only licence permitted being the occasional 
substitution of a tone for a semitone, or a major 
for a minor third. In practice both the strict 
and the imitative Answer were constantly em- 
ployed in the same composition : e.g. in the 
Kyrie of Palestrina's 'Missa Brevis,' quoted as 
an example under Hexachord, the subject is 
given out by the alto in the hexachord of C ; 
answered strictly by the bass in that of F ; again 
answered, in the same hexachord, by the treble ; 
and then imitated, first by the tenor, and after- 
wards by the bass, with a whole tone, instead 
of a semitone, between the second and third 
notes. Among the best writers of the best period 
of art we find these mixed fugues — which 
would now be called ' Fugues of Imitation ' — in 
much more frequent use than those which con- 
tinued strict throughout, and forming the founda- 
tion of some of the finest polyphonic masses and 
motets. 

When the imitation, instead of breaking off at 
the end of the few bars which form the subject, 
continues uninterruptedly throughout an entire 
movement, the composition is called a perpetual 
fugue, or, as we should now say, a canon. A 
detailed classification of the different varieties 
of real fugue, perpetual, interrupted, strict, or 
free, in use during the 14th and 15th centuries, 
would be of very little practical service, since the 
student who would really master the subjectmust 
of necessity consult the works of the greatmasters 
for himself. In doing this, he will find no lack 
of interesting examples, and will do well to begin 
by making a careful analysis of Palestrina's 
1 Missa ad Fugam,' which differs from the work 
published by Alfieri and Adrien de Lafage under 

3 See the admirable exposition of the Laws of Fugue in J. J. Fux's 
Oradus ad Parnassum. Vienna, 1725, pp. 148, et teq. 



122 



FUGUE 



FUGUE 



the title of ' Missa Canonica, ' in one point only, 
and that a very curious one. In the ' Missa 
Canonica,' in the first or Dorian mode, two 
voices lead off a perpetual real fugue, which 
the two remaining voices supplement with an- 
other, distinct from, but ingeniously interwoven 
with it ; the two subjects proceeding uninter- 
ruptedly together until the end of each several 
movement — a style of composition which is 
technically termed ' Canon, four in two.' In the 
'Missa ad Fugam,' in the seventh mode, the 
four voices all start with the same subject, but 
after a few bars separate themselves into two 
choirs, each of which diverges into a perpetual 
real fugue of its own, which continues unin- 
terruptedly to the end of the movement, after 
the manner of the ' Missa Canonica.' 1 

The real fugue of the polyphonic composers, 
as perfected in the 16th century, was of two 
kinds — limited, and unlimited. With the 
limited form — now called canon — we have 
here no concern. 2 The unlimited real fugue 
started with a very short subject, adapted to the 
opening phrase of the verbal text — for it was 
always vocal — and this was repeated note for 
note in the answer, but only for a very short 
distance. The answer always began before the 
end of the subject ; but after the exact imita- 
tion carried on through the first few notes, the 
part in which it appeared became ' free, ' and 
proceeded whither it would. The imitation 
took place generally in the fifth above or the 
fourth below ; sometimes in the fourth above, 
or fifth below, or in the octave ; rarely, in 
unlimited real fugue, in any less natural 
interval than these. There was no counter- 
subject ; and, whenever a new verbal phrase 
appeared in the text, a new musical phrase was 
adapted to it in the guise of a second subject. 
But it was neither necessary that the opening 
subject should be heard simultaneously with 
the later ones ; nor that it should reappear, 
after a later one had been introduced. Indeed, 
the cases in which these two conditions — both in- 
dispensable, in a modern fugue — were observed, 
even in the slightest degree, are so rare, that 
they may be considered as infringements of a 
very strict rule. 

The form we have here described was brought 
to absolute perfection in the so-called ' School of 
Palestrina,' in the latter half of the 16th 
century. The first departure from it — rendered 
inevitable by the substitution of the modern 
scale for the older tonalities — consisted in the 
adaptation of the answer to the newer law, in 

1 Choron's edition of the ' Missa ad Fugam ' is out of print ; but 
several copies of the work are preserved iu the Library of the British 
Museum. [See Raccolta Generale ] Albrechtsberger gives the 
Second Agnus Dei as an example, in his ChruwUiche Anwmsung zur 
Composition, vol. ii. p. 330 of Merrick's Bng. Transl. (Cf>cks & Co.) 
The ' Missa Canonica ' is printed in the ' Cinq Me*ses de Palestrina,' 
edited by Adrien de Lafage (Paris, Launer ; London, Schott & Co.) 

2 Those who wish to trace the relation between the two will do 
well to study the ' Messa Canonica,' edited by La Fage, and by him 
attributed to Palestrina, or the ' Missa Canonica' of Fux, side by 
side with Palestrina's ' Missa ad Fugam ' ; taking the two first- 
named works as examples of limited, and the third of unlimited 
real fugue. 



place of its subjugation, by aid of the hexachord, 
to the ecclesiastical modes. [See Hexachohd.] 
The change was crucial. But it was manifest 
that matters could not rest here. No sooner 
was the transformation of the answer recognised 
as an unavoidable necessity than the whole 
conduct of the fugue was revolutionised. In 
order to make the modifications through which 
it passed intelligible, we must first consider the 
change in the answer, and then that which 
took place in the construction of the fugue 
founded upon it — the modern tonal fugue. 

Tonal Fugue. — The essential feature of this 
form of fugue, which is by far the more import- 
ant of the two, is the modification of the 
intervals of the subject in the answer, so as to 
return to the primary key. The essence of 
this modification consists in answering the 
tonic by the dominant, and the dominant by 
the tonic : not in every unimportant member 
of the subject — for this would neither be 
possible nor desirable — but in its more promi- 
nent divisions. The first thing is to ascertain 
the exact place at which the change from real 
to tonal imitation must be introduced. For 
this process there are certain laws. The most 
important are — 

(1) When the tonic appears in a prominent 
position in the subject it must be answered by 
the dominant — all prominent exhibitions of the 
dominant being answered in like manner by the 
tonic. The most prominent positions possible 
are those in which the tonic passes directly to the 
dominant, or the dominant to the tonic, without 
the interpolation of any other note between the 
two ; and, in these cases, the rule is absolute. 
Subject. Answer. Subject. Answer. 




zm 



-^-3=3: 



IDI 



^ & 3 



(2) When the tonic and dominant appear in 
less prominent positions, the extent to which 
Rule 1 can be observed must be decided by the 
composer's musical instinct. Beginners, who 
have not yet acquired this faculty, must care- 
fully observe the places in which the tonic and 
dominant occur ; and, in approaching or quit- 
ting those notes, must treat them as fixed points 
to which it is indispensable that the general 
contour of the passage should accommodate 
itself. 



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3; 



=3= 



(a) 



m 



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at* 



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« (c) (d) 

(a) Dominant, answered by Tonic, at (c). 
(6) Dominant, answered by Supertonic, at (d). 

(3) The observance of Rules 1 and 2 will 
ensure compliance with the next, which ordains 
that all passages formed on a tonic harmony, 
in the subject, shall be formed upon a dominant 
harmony in the answer, and vice versa. 



FUGUE 



FULDA 



123 



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Subject. 



Answer. 



£f 



3L 



Tonic Dominant Dominant Tonic "^ 
Harmony. Harmony. Harmony. Harmony. 

(4) The third, fourth, and sixth of the tonic 
should be answered by the third, fourth, and 
sixth of the dominant respectively. 
Subject. 




(d) (e) CO 

(a) Sixth of Tonic. (6) Third of Tonic, (c) Fourth of Tonic. 

(d) Sixth of Dominant, (e) Third of Dominant. 

(/) Fourth of Dominant. 

(5) The interval of the diminished seventh, 
whether ascending or descending, should be 
answered by a diminished seventh. 
Subject. Answer. 




m 



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3= 



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Subject 



Answer. 




(6) As a general rule all sevenths should be 
answered by sevenths ; but a minor seventh, 
ascending from the dominant, is frequently an- 
swered by an ascending octave ; in which case 
its subsequent descent will ensure conformity 
with Rule 4, by making the third of the domin- 
ant answer the third of the tonic. 
Subject. Answer. 



P 



^Si 



wm 



3F 

(7) The most difficult note of the scale to 
answer is the supertonic. It is frequently 
necessary to reply to this by the dominant ; 
and when the tonic is immediately followed by 
the supertonic, in the subject, it is often ex- 
pedient to reiterate, in the answer, a note, 
which, in the original idea, was represented by 
two distinct intervals ; or, on the other hand, 
to answer, by two different intervals, a note 
which, in the subject, was struck twice. The 
best safeguard is careful attention to Rule 3, 
neglect of which will always throw the whole 
fugue out of gear. 

Subject. Answer. 



s^a 



3 



m 



<«) Q>) (c) (d) ~^ 

(a) Tonic, answered hy Dominant, at (c). 
(6) Supertonic, answered by Dominant, at (d). 

Simple as are the foregoing rules, great judg- 
ment is necessary in applying them. Of all the 
qualities needed in a good tonal subject, that of 
suggesting a natural and logical tonal answer 
is the most indispensable. But some subjects 
are so difficult to manage that nothing but the 
insight of genius can make the connection be- 
tween the two sufficiently obvious to ensure its 



recognition. The answer is nothing more than 
the pure subject, presented under another aspect ; 
and, unless its effect shall exactly correspond 
with that produced by the subject itself, it is a 
bad answer, and the fugue in which it appears 
a bad fugue. A painter may introduce into his 
picture two horses, one crossing the foreground, 
exactly in front of the spectator, and the other 
in such a position that its figure can only be 
truly represented by much foreshortening. An 
ignorant observer might believe that the pro- 
portions of the two animals were entirely differ- 
ent ; but they are not. True, their actual 
measurements differ ; yet, if they be correctly 
drawn, we shall recognise them as a well-matched 
pair. The subject and its answer offer a parallel 
case. Their measurement (by intervals) is differ- 
ent, because they are placed in a different aspect; 
yet, they must be so arranged as to produce an 
exactly similar effect. We have shown the 
principle upon which the arrangement is based 
to be simply that of answering the tonic by the 
dominant, and the dominant by the tonic, when- 
ever these two notes follow each other in direct 
succession ; with the further proviso, that all 
passages of melody formed upon the tonic har- 
mony shall be represented by passages formed 
upon the dominant harmony, and vice versd. 
Still, great difficulties arise when the two char- 
acteristic notes do not succeed each other directly, 
or when the harmonies are not indicated with 
inevitable clearness. The subject of Handel's 
chorus, 'Tremble, guilt,' shows how the whole 
swing of the answer sometimes depends on the 
change of a single note. In this case a per- 
fectly natural reply is produced, by making the 
answer proceed to its second note by the ascent 
of a minor third, instead of a minor second, 
as in the subject — i.e. by observing Rule 4 with 
regard to the sixth of the tonic. 
Subject. _ n to 



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Answer. 


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=e^b= 






W. S. R. 

FULDA, Adam de, a Franconian monk, 
born about the year 1450, is chiefly celebrated 
for a famous Tract on Music, written in 1490, 
and printed by Gerbert von Hornan in his 
Scriptores cedes, de Mus. Sacr. vol. iii. p. 329. 
In this work Guilielmus Dufay is eulogised as 
the first composer who wrote in regular form ; 
and mention is made of the fact that he over- 
stepped the r ut, and e la, of Guido, by three 
degrees, below and above. The Dodecachordon 
of Glareanus contains a Motet a 4, by Adam de 



124 



FULL ORGAN 



FUX 



Fulda, of very advanced character for the period ; 
and an Enchiridion, published at Magdeburg, 
in 1673, contains a Motet ' Ach hiilff mich layd 
und senlich klag. ' [See list of MS. compositions 
in the Quellen-Lexikon, where it is pointed out 
that his reference to himself as ' musicus ducalis ' 
indicates that he held a court position, possibly in 
the service of the Bishop of Wiirzburg.] w. s. R. 

FULL ORGAN. This term, when standing 
alone, generally signifies that the chief manual, 
or Great Organ, is to be used, with all its stops 
brought into requisition. Sometimes the term 
is employed in an abbreviated form, and with 
an affix indicating that a portion only of the 
stops is to be played upon — as 'Full to Fifteenth. ' 
In the 18th century the expressions 'Full Organ/ 
'Great Organ,' and 'Loud Organ,' were severally 
used to indicate the chief manual organ. [See 
Organ.] e. j. h. 

FUMAGALLI, Adolfo, born Oct. 19, 1828, 
at Inzago in the province of Milan, received in- 
struction in music and the pianoforte from Ange- 
loni at the Conservatorio, Milan, and in 1848 
made his debut in that town as a pianist. He 
made a great success afterwards as a brilliant 
fantasia player at Turin, Paris, and Belgium, 
and in 1854 returned to Italy. He died at 
Florence, May 3, 1856, quite suddenly, after a 
three days' illness, having played at a concert 
there on the 1st. His compositions include 
fantasias, capriccios, and other light drawing- 
room pieces, among which ' Les Clochettes, ' op. 
21 (with orchestra), was popular at the time. 
His brothers, Disma (1826-93), Polibio (born 
1830), and Luca were also pianists ; of these 
the best known is Luca, born May 29, 1837. 
In 1860 he played in Paris. In 1875 an opera 
of his, ' Luigi XL,' was produced at the Pergola, 
Florence. A. c. 

FUNDAMENTAL BASS is the root note 
of a chord, or the root notes of a succession of 
chords, which might happen to be the actual 
bass of a short succession of chords all in their 
first positions, but is more likely to be partly 
imaginary, as in the following short succession 
of complete chords, which has its fundamental 
bass below on a separate stave : — 




Fundamental Bass. 

Rameau was the first to develop the theory 
of a fundamental bass, and held that it might 
' as a general rule proceed only in perfect Fourths 
or Fifths upwards or downwards.' Helmholtz 
defines it as ' the compound tone which repre- 
sents the chord, as distinguished from its bass, 
that is, the tone which belongs to the lowest 
part.' c. h. h. p. 

FURIANT, a movement of a fiery, impulsive 



character, such as would be classed under the 
general name of scherzo. Like 'Dumka,' it 
has been introduced into the terminology of 
classical music by Dvorak, who uses both 
frequently in his chamber music. 

FUX, Johann Joseph, born 1660 of a 
peasant family in the hamlet of Hirtenfeld, near 
Gratz in Styria. Nothing is known of his early 
life or studies, as he refused to give information 
on the subject even to Mattheson for his Grund- 
lage einer Ehrenpforte (Hamburg, 1740 ; see 
p. 340, letter dated 1718). From 1696, how- 
ever, all is clear. In that year he was appointed 
organist to the ecclesiastical foundation ' Zu den 
Schotten ' in Vienna ; and married a Viennese, 
by whom he had no children. In 1698 he be- 
came court composer, in 1705 second, and in 
1712 first, capellmeister to the cathedral of St. 
Stephen. In 1713 he was appointed vice- 
capellmeister to the court, and capellmeister 
to the Dowager Empress Wilhelmine Amalie. 
This post he resigned in 1718, as he had done 
that at the cathedral in 1715 upon his promo- 
tion to be head capellmeister to the court. He 
received many proofs of court favour. To the 
King of the Romans — Archduke, afterwards 
Emperor, Joseph I. — he dedicated his first opus, 
Concentusmusico-instrumentalis in seven partitas 
(Felsecker, Nuremberg, 1701), and the 'Missa 
Canonica' (1718) ; and to the Emperor Charles 
VI. his most important work Gradus ad Parnas- 
sum (1725). In 1723, when laid up with gout, 
the Emperor Charles had him conveyed in a 
litter to Prague, that he might be present at 
the performance of his opera ' Costanza e For- 
tezza, ' written for the coronation. Fux died at 
Vienna, Feb. 13, 1741, and was buried at St. 
Stephen's. Among his best pupils were Zelenka, 
Muffat, Tuma, and Wagenseil. An oil-painting 
of him in the costume of the period is in the 
museum of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde 
at Vienna. Fux considered his art in a serious 
light, and was held in general respect. He was 
courteous to all, and eminently kind and just 
in his dealings with the musicians under him. 
As a composer he was most industrious ; 405 
works by him are still in existence : 50 masses ; 
3 requiems ; 57 vespers and psalms ; 22 litanies 
and completoria ; 1 2 graduals ; 1 4 offertoriums ; 
22 motets ; 106 hymns ; 2 Dies irse ; 1 Domine; 
1 Libera (290 church- works in all) ; 10 oratorios ; 
18 operas (of which 6 were grand operas — 
' dramme per musica ' — and the other 1 2 ' com- 
ponimenti per camera ' and ' feste teatrali per 
musica ') ; 29 partitas and overtures ; and 8 
pieces for clavier. [See also list in Quellen- 
Lexikon."] The greater part of these composi- 
tions, either copied or in autograph, are in the 
Imperial Library at Vienna ; and the Gesell- 
schaft der Musikfreunde also possesses a con- 
siderable number. 

Of his works only few are printed : his Con- 
centus, already mentioned, ' Elisa, ' festa teatrale 



FUX 



FZ 



125 



(Jeanne Roger, Amsterdam, 1719), and the 
' Missa Canonica ' (see below). Proske's Musica 
divina, vols. ii. and iii., contain seven church- 
works. Specimens of his masses, motets, and 
instrumental compositions are to be found in 
the Denkmdler der Tonkunst in Oesterreich (I. i., 
II. i., and IX. ii.). Thirty-six Trios for two 
violins and bass (published about 1700) are lost. 
His dramatic works are now valueless, though 
in their day they contributed much to the lustre 
of the court ; while his oratorios, written for 
Lent, were still more quickly forgotten. Among 
his MSS. are thirty-eight sacred ' Sonate a tre,' 
which were often played in divine service, and 
are masterpieces of freshness, invention, and 
variety. It is evident that Fux enjoyed 3 -part 
writing, for in his Gradus he says ' the master's 
hand may always be detected even in 3 -part 
writing, ' and ' I have often written in three parts, 
and not unsuccessfully,' a statement which even 
Mattheson endorses (Critica Musica, i. p. 131), 
though he was as a rule no friend to Fux. In 
his church music he was always reverent, and 
though polyphonic writing was second nature to 
him, he usually abstained from unnecessary 
subtleties in sacred music. One exception to this 
must, however, be made. His 'Missa Canonica,' 
written throughout 'a cappella,' a masterpiece 
containing every species of canon, is unique in 
its way. Here Fux displays his marvellous 
knowledge of counterpoint, combined with the 
richest modulation ; and, as Marpurg says (Ab- 
handlung von der Fuge, p. 130), speaking 
specially of the double canon in the ' Christe 
eleison,' 'his harmony is gorgeous, and at the 
same time thoroughly in keeping with the 
sacredness of the occasion. ' The mass is dedicated 
to the Emperor as a proof ' that classic music, 
far from being extinct, has here gained one more 
step in advance ' (see dedication in Italian). The 
Imperial Library at Vienna contains a copy of 



it by Michael Haydn (1757), and the Royal 
Library at Dresden another by Zelenka, Fux's 
pupil. It has been printed at Leipzig by Peters 
and Kuhnel. The frequent performances of this 
mass at the cathedral and the court speak well 
for the efficiency of the singers. The most 
convincing proof of Fux's ability as a teacher is 
his Gradus ad Parnassian, written in Latin in 
the form of a dialogue between master and 
pupil, and consisting of two parts, the first on 
the theory, and the second on the practice, of 
composition. It has passed through innumerable 
editions, and been translated into four languages. 
The dates of publication are as follows : — the 
original, in Latin, Vienna, 1725 ; German edition, 
by Lorenz Mizler, Leipzig, 1742 ; Italian, by 
Alessandro Manfredi, Carpi, 1761 ; French, by 
Sieur Pietro Denis, Paris, 1773 ; and English, 
anonymous, London, 1791. Its usefulness has 
been attested by such men as Piccinni, Durante, 
P. Martini, the Abbe Vogler, Paolucci, Gerbert, 
Cherubini, and in our own day by Heinrich 
Bellermann (Der Contrapunct, etc., Berlin, 1862). 
Mozart used it in his contrapuntal exercises, 
and Haydn repeatedly studied it, and founded 
his teaching upon it. An exhaustive biography 
of the master, with a thematic catalogue of his 
compositions, has been drawn up with his usual 
accuracy by Dr. von Kdchel from authentic 
information, with the title J. J. Fux, Hof- 
compositor und Ho/kapellmeister der Kaiser 
Leopold I., Joseph I., und Karl VI., von 1698 
bis 1740 (Holder, Vienna, 1872). c. f. p. 

FZ. The abbreviation of the Italian word 
forzando, meaning that the note or chord against 
which it is played should he forced beyond the 
normal sound of the passage. It is always pro- 
portionate ; and thus a fz in a piano passage 
will be far less loud than in a forte passage. 
sfz or sf (sforzando) is more commonly used 
than/3. Q, 



G 



Q The fifth note of the natural scale — the 
* dominant of C, the relative major of E 
minor. It is sol in French and in solfaing. It 
has Fg in its signature. G minor has B|? and 
El? in the signature, and is the relative minor 
of B fiat major. G gives its name to the treble 
clef, the sign for which is nothing but a corrup- 
tion of the letter. [See Clef.] The Greek 
Gamma gives its name to the gamut or scale. 

As to its use in composition— two of Haydn's 
twelve Grand Symphonies are in G, and there are 
several others of note in the same key ('Oxford,' 
'Letter V,' etc.), but there is no remarkable one 
by Mozart, and not one by Beethoven, nor by 
Schubert, Schumann, or Mendelssohn. Of Beet- 
hoven's sixteen Quartets one (No. 2), and of his 
eleven Overtures one ('Ruins of Athens'), the 
Sonata op. 31, No. 1, two Violin Sonatas, and 
the PF. Concerto No. 4, do something to re- 
store the balance, but it is singular how much 
he avoids the key. 

G minor has Mozart's Symphony, Mendels- 
sohn's Concerto, and Brahms's quartet, op. 25, 
to ennoble it. g. 

GABLER, Johann, of Ulm, built the cele- 
brated organ in the abbey of Weingarten in 1750. 
It has four manuals, and seventy-six speaking 
stops, and is credited with 666Q pipes. It is 
also said that the monks were so pleased with 
it that they gave Gabler a florin per pipe over 
and above the contract price. He died about 
the year 1784. v. de p. 

GABRIEL, Mary Ann Virginia, of Irish 
parentage, born at Banstead, Surrey, Feb. 7, 
1825, learned the piano from Pixis, Duhler, and 
Thalberg, and harmony and construction from 
Molique. Her principal work was a Cantata 
named 'Evangeline,' founded on Longfellow's 
poem ; she wrote many operettas, one of which, 
' Widows bewitched,' was performed by the 
German Reed Company in 1867, and had a long 
run. Her Cantatas ' Dreamland ' and ' Evan- 
geline' were performed at Co vent Garden in 1870 
and 1873. Many of her songs were very popular. 
Miss Gabriel married Mr. George E. March 
(author of most of her librettos) in Nov. 1874, 
and died from the effects of an accident on 
August 7, 1877. g. 

GABR1ELI, a family of great Italian musi- 
cians. 

1. Andrea, celebrated contrapuntist, born 
about 1510, in the quarter of Venice called 
Canareggio. He was a pupil of Adrian Willaert, 
maestro di cappella of St. Mark's (1527-62). 
In 1536 he entered the Doge's choir ; in 1566 
succeeded Claudio Merulo as second organist of 
St. Mark's ; and at the time of his death, 1586, 
was first organist. His fame spread not only 
throughout Italy, but also to Germany and the 
Netherlands. His three best-known pupils were 
his nephew Giovanni, Leo Hassler, and Peter 



Sweelinck. In 1574 the Republic commissioned 
him to write the music to be performed at the 
reception of Henry III. King of France ; for 
which occasion he composed several pieces, one 
being for twelve voices in two choirs, ' Ecco 
Vinegia bella,' printed in the Gemma Musicalis 
(Venice, Gardano, 1588). His finest work is 
' Psalmi Davidici, qui poenitentiales nuncu- 
pantur, turn omnis generis instrumentorum, turn 
ad vocis modulationum accomodati, sex vocum' 
(Venice, 1583). [He edited a collection of 
' Greghesche ' by various composers, in 1564, 
under the pseudoii3 7 m Manoli Blessi, and 
afterwards (1571) acknowledged his identity.] 
Among his numerous compositions may be 
mentioned — ' Sacrae cantiones quinque vocum, 
liber primus' (1565); Madrigali, lib. 1, a 5 
(1566); lib. 2, a 5, 6, and 8 (1570); 'Missarum 
sex vocum, liber primus' (1572); 'Canzoni alia 
francese per 1' organo ' (1571); Madrigali a 
6 voci (1574); and a 3 (1575); 'Cantiones 
ecclesiasticae' (1576) ; and 'Canti concerti a 6, 7, 
8, 10, e 16 voci' (1587). In the last are ten 
pieces by his nephew. [He wrote music to the 
choruses in ' Oedipus Tyrannus ' in 1 585, and they 
were printed in 1588 ; also a set of 'Mascherate' 
(1601). Six of his vocal works are in vol. ii. 
of Torchi's Arte Musicale in Italia, and four 
organ pieces in vol. iii. An eight-part Ricercar, 
edited by H. Riemann, is published by Augener 
& Co. See Quellen-Lexikon for detailed list.] 
His organ music was printed with his nephew's 
in three vols, of Ricercari (1593-96). Andrea 
seems to have strongly felt the necessity of 
executing vocal music on instruments. Proske's 
Musica divina contains a missa brevis and no 
fewer than ten motets of his, all for four voices. 
2. Giovanni, bom in Venice, 1557, pupil of 
his uncle Andrea, by 1575 already well known 
as a composer, 1 succeeded Claudio Merulo as first 
organist of St. Mark's, Jan. 1, 1585. He died 
probably in 1612, as Gianpaolo Savii succeeded 
him on August 12 of that year, but his monu- 
ment in San Stefano gives August 12, 1613, as 
the date of his death. Although he seems never 
to have left Venice he was well known through- 
out the civilised world. The works of his pupils, 
Heinrich Schiitz, Alois Grani, and Michael Prae- 
torius, testify to the deep respect they all enter- 
tained for him. His contrapuntal facility was 
extraordinary ; his 'Sacrae symphoniae' (1597) 
contains motets for varying numbers of voices, up 
to sixteen, and in the similar collection of 1615 
nineteen parts are employed. The first part of 
the Symphoniae is dedicated to Count George 
Fugger, in acknowledgment of his having in- 
vited Gabrieli to his wedding. The necessity 
for the orchestra is still more marked in Giovanni 
than in his uncle Andrea ; his modulations are 

1 This assumes that he was identical with the Giovanni d'Andrea 
Gabrielli, who was one of the musicians of the Duke of Bavaria in 
that year. This identity is disputed by Eitner in the Quellen-Lexikon. 



126 



GABKIELLE 



GABRIELLI 



127 



often so bold and difficult that we can scarcely 
believe they were ever intended for voices. In 
this respect he may be called the father of the 
chromatic style. For particulars of his times 
and contemporaries see Winterfeld's Johann 
Gabrieli und seine Zeit (1834), two vols, of text 
and one vol. of examples, containing twenty- three 
pieces for voices (from four to sixteen), one for 
organ, and one for quartet. Others will be found 
in Bodenschatz ; Rochlitz ; in Musica sacra 
(Schlesinger, 1834), etc. Rochlitz's Collection 
(Schott) contains an In excelsis of his for Soprano 
and Tenor solo, and chorus {a 4), with violins, 
three horns, and two trombones ; also a Bene- 
dictus for three choirs. Five vocal works are in 
Torchi's Arte Musicale, vol. ii., and an organ 
piece in vol. iii. 

GABRIELLE, CHARMANTE, that is, Ga- 
brielle d'Estrees, mistress of Henri IV. The 
reign of Louis XVIII. revived an artless little 
romance, which, like the song ' Vive Henri IV.' 
[see Vive Henri Quatre], recalled pleasant 
memories of the Bearnais. ' Charman te Gabrielle ' 
was not only sung far and wide at that royal 
epoch, but the authorship of both words and 
music was attributed to the gallant king, and 
the mistake is still often repeated. True, Henri 
suggested the song to one of the poets of his 
court, but we have his own authority for the 
fact that he did not himself write the stanzas. 
The letter in which the king sent the song to 
Gabrielle is in the Recueil des Lettrcs missives 
of Berger de Xivrey (iv. 998, 999), and contains 
these words : — ' Ces vers vous representeront 
mieulx ma condition et plus agreablement que 
ne feroit la prose. Je les ay dictez, non arran- 
gez.' The only date on the letter is May 21, 
but it was written in 1597 from Paris, where 
Henri was collecting money for his expedition 
to Amiens, and making preparations to leave 
Gabrielle for the campaign against the Spaniards. 
It was probably Bertaut, Bishop of Seez, who, 
at the king's 'dictation,' composed the four 
couplets of the romance, of which we give the 
first, with the music in its revived form : — 



g -LU-f b hfcJVif r n 




_«2- 



fN 



Qa • bri - el • le, Per - c6" 



de 



PEgE^?j^3 fe!^ 



mil - le dards, Quand la gloi - re m'ap - pel - le Dans 

^> A/V 



mm^ 



les sen - tiers de Mars. Cni-el-le de" - par - 



S^Igi^ 



tl - e! Mal-heu-reux jour I Que ne suis - je sans 




vi - e, Ou sans 



mourl 



The refrain is not original ; it is to be found 
word for word in the Thesaurus harmonicas of 
Besard (1603), and in the Cabinet ou Trisor 
des nouvelles chansons (1602); and as at that 
time it took more than five or six years for an 
air to travel from the court to the people, we 
may safely conclude that it was no novelty. 
Fetis attributes the air to Eustache Du Canrroy, 
maitre de chapelle to Charles IX., Henri III., 
and Henri IV. ; but the music of that ' prince 
of musicians, ' as Mersennus calls him, is so im- 
bued with science, not to say pedantry, that it 
is impossible to suppose the author of the contra- 
puntal exercises in his ' Melanges ' to have had 
anything in common with the composer of so 
simple and natural a melody. Its origin is un- 
doubtedly secular ; and there is the more reason 
to believe it to have been borrowed from an air 
already popular that the words 'Cruelle departie, 
Malheureux jour ' occur in the ' Chansons sur les 
rirs mondains.' In the book of cantiques en- 
titled La pieuse Alouette avec son tirelire (1619) 
wo find a proof that the Church borrowed the 
air and prevailing idea of this song from the 
world, rather than the reverse, for the religious 

1*6 fr 3, in 

Douce vierge Marie, 

Secourez-moi ! 
Otez-moi ou la vie, 

Ou bien l'emoi, 

is obviously founded on the love-song of 1597. 

Such is all the positive information we have 
been able to obtain about 'Charmante Gabrielle' ; 
but the mystery which surrounds its origin rather 
increases than diminishes the attraction of this 
celebrated song. g. c. 

GABRIELLI, Catterina, born at Rome, 
Nov. 12, 1730, daughter of Prince Gabrielli's 
cook, one of the most beautiful, accomplished, 
and capricious singers that ever lived. At the 
age of fourteen, the Prince, walking in his garden, 
heard her singing a difficult song of Galnppi, 
sent for her, and after listening to her perform- 
ance, promised her his protection and a musical 
education. She was placed first under Garcia, 
lo Spagnoletto, and afterwards under Porpora. 
A great success attended her debut (1747) as 
prima donna, at Lucca, in Galuppi's ' Sofonisba.' 
Guadagni gave her some valuable instruction in 
the style in which he himself excelled, — the 
pure and correct cantabile. This she was there- 
fore now enabled to add to her own, which was 
the perfection of brilliant bravura, with a marvel- 
lous power of rapid execution and an exquisitely 
delicate quality of tone. At other theatres in 
Italy she met with equal success, singing in 
1750, at Naples, in Jommelli's ' Didone,' after 
which she went to Vienna. Here she finished 
her declamatory style under the teaching of 
Metastasio, and fascinated Francis I., who went 
to the opera only on her nights. Metastasio 
is said to have been not indifferent to the charms 
of this extraordinary singer, still known as 
la Cochetta or Cochettina, in memory of her origin ; 



128 



GABRIELLI 



GADE 



but she did not respond. Her capricious treat- 
ment of her numerous adorers gave rise to 
hundreds of stories, among which one may be 
quoted. By this it appears that the ambassadors 
of France and Portugal were both desperately 
enamoured of her at Vienna. The former, con- 
cealing himself in her apartments, saw enough 
to confirm his suspicions, and rushed upon her 
with his sword, with which he would doubtless 
have transfixed her, had not the busk of her 
bodice turned aside the point of the blade. She 
pardoned the Frenchman, who had thrown him- 
self on his knees before her, on condition of 
her retaining his sword, on which she determined 
to have the words engraved, Epie de M. . . . . 
qui osaf rapper la Gabrielli, etc. ; but Metastasio 
prevailed upon her to give up this design. In 
1765 she quitted Vienna, laden with wealth, 
and went to Sicily, where she excited the same 
furore, and exhibited the same caprices. She 
was imprisoned by the King, because she would 
not sing her part in the opera above a whisper. 
During the twelve days of her imprisonment 
she gave sumptuous entertainments, paid the 
debts of poor prisoners, and distributed alms in 
profusion. Each evening she assembled the 
other inmates of the gaol, to whom she sang 
her favourite songs in the most painstaking 
manner. The King was obliged to set her free, 
and her reputation with the public stood higher 
than ever. In 1767 she went to Parma, where 
the Infant Don Philip fell madly in love with 
her, and persecuted her so far as sometimes to 
shut her up in a room of which he kept the key. 
Terrible scenes occurred between them, and she 
called him on one occasion gobbo maladetto. 
Having escaped from Parma in 1768 she went 
to Russia, where she astonished Catherine II. 
by demanding 5000 ducats as salary, a sum, 
as the Empress objected, larger than the pay of 
a field-marshal ; to which Gabrielli simply re- 
plied, 'Then let your field -marshals sing for 
you' — as Caffarelli once replied in similar 
circumstances. She appeared in London in the 
season of 1775-76. Burney says of her that 'she 
had no indications of low birth in her counten- 
ance or deportment, which had all the grace and 
dignity of a Roman matron.' The public here 
was prejudiced against her by the stories current 
of her caprice ; and she only remained during 
one season. 1 Burney extols the precision and 
accuracy of her execution and intonation, and 
the thrilling quality of her voice. She appeared 
to him 'the most intelligent and best -bred 
virtuosa with whom he had ever conversed, not 
only on the subject of music, but on every sub- 
ject concerning which a well-educated female, who 
had seen the world, might be expected to have 
information.' She sang with Pacchierotti at 
Venice in 1777, and at Milan in 1780 with 
Marchesi, with whom she divided the public 

l F^tis is mistaken in saying that she never came to England, and 
in the whole of his explanation of her reasons for refusing engage- 
ments in London. He also erroneously calls her sister Anna. 



into two parties. After this, Gabrielli retired 
to Rome with her sister Francesca, who had 
followed her everywhere as seconda donna, and 
lived upon her savings, which amounted to no 
more than 12,000 francs per annum. She died 
in April 1796 of a neglected cold. A beautiful 
little portrait of her in mezzotint, now very rare, 
was engraved by D. Martin in 1766 from a 
painting by Pompeo Battoni. j. m. 

GABRIELLI, Domenico, dramatic composer 
and violoncellist, known as ' il Menghino del 
violoncello,' born at Bologna 1640 ; first in the 
band of San Petronio (from 1680), then in the 
service of Cardinal Pamfili (before 1691). In 
1676 he became a member, and in 1683 Presi- 
dent, of the Societa Filarmonica in Bologna. 
He died July 10, 1690. Of his eleven operas, 
produced in Bologna, Padua, and Venice, 
' Cleobulo ' (1683) was the most successful. [An 
oratorio, 'S. Sigismondo re di Borgogno,' MS. 
dated 1687, is preserved at Modena.] His 
instrumental compositions ' Balletti, gighe, 
correnti, sarabande, a due violini e violoncello 
con basso continuo,' op. 1 (Bologna, 1684), are 
interesting. f. g. 

GABUSSI, Giulio Cesare, a Bolognese com- 
poser of the 16th century, pupil of Costanzo 
Porta, was maestro di cappella in Rome about 
1580, and from 1582 to 1611 at the cathedral 
of Milan. He was for some time in the service 
of the King of Poland, and died before 1619. 
Books of madrigals appeared in 1580 and 1598, 
magnificats and other church music in 1589 
and 1619, and 1623. (See Quellen-Lexikon.) 

GABUSSI, Vincenzo, composer and teacher 
of singing, born at Bologna early in the 19th 
century, studied counterpoint under Padre Mat- 
tel. He brought out his first opera at Modena 
in 1825, and then came to London, and re- 
mained there for about fifteen years teaching 
singing and accompaniment. After this he 
retired to Bologna. In 1834 he produced 
' Ernani ' at the Theatre des Italiens, Paris, 
and in 1841 ' Clemenza di Valois ' at the Fenice 
in Venice, without success. He composed cham- 
ber music for instruments, but is best known by 
his vocal duets, which are still sometimes heard. 
He died in London, Sept. 12, 1846. M. c. o. 

GADE, Niels Wilhelm, was born Feb. 22, 
1817, at Copenhagen, the son of a maker of 
musical instruments. His first instruction in 
music was obtained from a teacher who esteemed 
mechanical industry beyond talent, and it seems 
was not very well satisfied with the progress of 
his pupil. Gade learned a little about guitar, 
violin, and pianoforte, without accomplishing 
much on either instrument. Later on he met 
with more able masters in Wexschall, Berggreen, 
and Weyse, and entered the royal orchestra 
at Copenhagen as violinist, attaining in that 
practical school the rare degree of mastery in in- 
strumentation which his publications show from 
the first. Through his ' Ossian ' overture, which, 



GA1)E 



GADSBY 



129 



on the approval of Spohr and Schneider, was 
crowned in 1841 with the prize awarded by the 
Copenhagen Musical Union, he attracted the 
attention of the music-loving king, and at once 
received, like many other men of talent in 
Denmark, a royal stipend, intended to assist 
him in a foreign journey. Thus equipped, Gade 
turned towards Leipzig, where by Mendelssohn 
he was introduced to the musical public at large. 
(See Mendelssohn's Letters, Jan. 13, March 3, 
1843.) 

After the production of his first symphony 
(March 2, 1843) and the cantata 'Comala' at 
Leipzig (March 3, 1846), Gade travelled in Italy, 
and on his return in 1844, Mendelssohn, who was 
then staying at Berlin and Frankfort, entrusted 
him with the conducting of the Gewandhaus 
concerts. In the winter of 1845-46 he acted 
as sub-conductor to Mendelssohn at Leipzig, and 
after the death of the latter conducted alone till 
the spring of 1848, when he returned to Copen- 
hagen for good, to occupy a post as organist and 
to conduct the concerts of the Musikverein. In 
1861, at the death of Glaeser, he was appointed 
Hof-capellmeister, and received the title of Pro- 
fessor of Music. He visited England for the 
first time in 1876, to conduct his ' Zion ' and 
' The Crusaders ' at the Birmingham Festival. 
He died at Copenhagen, Dec. 21, 1890. 

The intimate friend of Mendelssohn and Schu- 
mann, Gade was in some sense their disciple ; his 
earlier works showing faint traces of the influence 
of the former, as his later works do that of the 
latter. Still Gade's distinguished and amiable 
musical physiognomy is far from a mere reflex of 
theirs ; he has always had something to say for 
himself, and has from the first contrived to say 
it in a manner of his own. His musical speech 
is tinged with the cadences of Scandinavian 
folk-song, and almost invariably breathes the 
spirit of northern scenery. All his works show 
the same refined sense for symmetry, for har- 
monious colouring and delicate sentiment. His 
themes, if rarely vigorous or passionate, are 
always spontaneous as far as they go, and never 
without some charm of line or colour. As with 
a landscape painter, the fascination of his pieces 
lies in the peculiar poetical impression conveyed 
by the entire picture rather than by any promi- 
nent details ; and as in a landscape this fascin- 
ating total impression is always the result of 
perfect harmony of colour, so in Gade's works 
it is traceable to the gentle repose and propor- 
tion of his themes and the suave perfection of 
his instrumentation. The following is a list of 
Gade's compositions : — 

1. Nachklange aus Ossian, Overture, orch. 

2. Friihlingsblumen, three pieces for piano. 

3. Sange af Agnete og Havemanden. 

4. Nordiske Tonebilleder, pf. duet. 

5. First Symphony, C minor. 

6. First sonata for pf. and vln. in A. 

7. Im Houhland, Overture, orch. 

8. String quintet in E minor. 

9. Nine Lieder in Volkston, for two soprani and pf. 
10. Second Symphony, in B. 

U. Six Songs for 4-part male choir. 

12. Comala, cantata, soli, choir, and orch. 

VOL. II 



13. Five Part-songs, S.A.T.B. 

14. Overture, No. 3, in C. 

15. Third Symphony in A minor. 
16. 

17. String Octet in F. 

18. Three pianoforte pieces in march-form for four hands. 

19. Aquarellen, for pf. two hooks. 

20. Fourth Symphony, in B flat. 

21. Second sonata for pf. and vln. in D minor. 

22. Three Tonstiicke for organ. 

23. Friihlingsfantasie, cantata. 
24. 

25. Fifth Symphony in D minor. 
26. 

27. Arabeske for pf. 

28. Pianoforte sonata in E minor. 

29. Novelletten, pf. trio in A minor. 

30. Erl King's Daughter (Elverskud), cantata, for soli, choir, and 

orch. 

31. Volkstiinze, for pf. 

32. Sixth Symphony, in G minor. 

33. Five Lieder for male choir. 

34. Idyllen for pf . 

35. Friihlingsbotschaft, cantata. 

36. Der Kinder Christabend, for pf. 

37. Hamlet, concert-overture. 

38. Five songs for male choir. 

39. Michel Angelo, concert-overture. 

40. Die heilige Nacht, cantata. 

41. Four Fantasiestiicke for pf. 

42. Pf. trio in F. 
43. 

44. 

45. Seventh Symphony, in F. 

46. Ved Solnedgang, cantata. 

47. Eighth Symphony in B minor. 

48. Kalanus, cantata. 

49. Zion, cantata, for baritone solo, choir and orch. 

50. Die Kreuzfahrer (The Crusaders), cantata. 

51. Bilder des Jahres, four part-songs for female choir with solos, 

and pf. (4-hand) accompt. 

52. Den Bjaergstagne, cantata. 

53. Novelletten, four pieces for string-orchestra. 

54. Gefion, cantata. 

55. Sommertag auf dem Lande, five pieces for orch. 

56. Violin concerto. 
57. 

58. 

59. Third Sonata, vln. and pf . in B flat. 

60. Psyche, cantata. 

61. Holbergiana, orchestral suite. 

62. Fourth Sonata for vln. and pf . in B flat. (Volkstanze im nordis- 

chen Charakter.) 
63. 

64. Der Strom (after Goethe's Mahomed), cantata, for soli, choir, pf. 
obbligato, and orch. 
[In addition to the above, a cantata, ' Baldurs Drom,' for soli, 
choir, and orchestra, was written in 1858, but not published till 
1897. In 1863 he wrote a funeral march for Frederik VII. ; in 1869 
a ' Festsang i Rosenborg Have.' In 1872 he wrote a ' Festmusik ' for 
the opening of the Northern Industrial Exhibition at Copenhagen ; 
in 1879 a work for the Jubilee of the Copenhagen University ; and 
in 1883 a composition for the northern ' Kunstnermode ' (Artists' 
Congress) in the same city. From 1884 dates a ' Ulysses ' march, 
and from 1888 a 'Festmarsch' for Christian IX. 's Jubilee. The 
opera 'Mariotta' seems not to have been performed, although an 
overture and several numbers were published.] jj j) 

GADSBY, Henry, son of a musician, born 
at Hackney, Dec. 15, 1842, entered St. Paul's 
choir in 1849, and remained till 1858. The in- 
struction in harmony which he and Stainer, 
as an exception due to their .musical faculty, re- 
ceived from W. Bayley, the then master of the 
boys, is virtually the only teaching that Mr. 
Gadsby ever received ; the rest is due to his 
own perseverance. [He was organist of St. 
Peter's, Brockley, Surrey, for some time up to 
1884, when he succeeded Hullah as professor of 
harmony at Queen's College, London. He was 
one of the original professors at the Guildhall 
School of Music, and is a member of the Phil- 
harmonic Society, and a fellow of the Royal 
College of Organists. ] 

Mr. Gadsby's published works are the 130th 
Psalm ; a Cantata (1862) ; 'Alice Brand' (1870) ; 
'The Lord of the Isles' (Brighton Festival, 
1879); 'Columbus,' for male voices (Crystal 
Palace, 1881); 'The Cyclops' ; Festival Service 
(1872) ; Overture, ' Andromeda ' (1873) ; Organ 
Concerto in F; String Quartet (1875) ; Andante 
and Rondo piacevole, Pf. and Flute (187 5) ; music 



130 



GANSBACHER 



GAFORI 



to 'Alcestis' (1876), and to Tasso's 'Aminta' 
(1898). In addition to these he has in MS. 
three Symphonies, in C, in A — portions of 
which have been played at the Crystal Palace — 
and in D (Crystal Palace, 1888) ; Overtures to 
the ' Golden Legend ' and ' Witches' Frolic,' and 
an Intermezzo and Scherzo (British Orchest. Soc. 
1875) ; orchestral scene, ' The Forest of Arden ' 
(Philharmonic, 1886). He has also written many 
Songs, Part-songs, Anthems, and Services, and 
musical treatises and handbooks. g. 

GANSBACHER, Johann, capellmeister of 
the cathedral at Vienna, born May 8, 1778, at 
Sterzing in the Tyrol. At six years old he was a 
chorister in the village church of which his father 
was choirmaster. Later he learnt the organ, 
piano, violoncello, and harmony at Innspruck, 
Halle, and Botzen. In 1795 he entered the 
University of Innspruck, but on the formation 
of the Landsturm in 1796 served as a volunteer, 
and won the gold ' Tapferkeits-medaille. ' In 
1801 he was in Vienna, studied under Vogler 
and Albrechtsberger, and was recommended as 
a teacher by Haydn, Gyrowetz, and distinguished 
patrons. He next accompanied Count Firmian 
to Prague in 1807, and devoted himself entirely 
to composition. In 1809 he was at Dresden and 
Leipzig, revisited his home, and in the following 
year settled for a time in Darmstadt to renew 
his studies under Vogler. "Weber and Meyerbeer 
were his fellow-pupils, and the three formed a 
lasting friendship. Weber especially retained a 
sincere affection for him, took him to Mannheim 
and Heidelberg, where Gansbacher assisted in 
his concerts, and at a later time proposed to him 
to compete for the vacant post of court capell- 
meister in Dresden. Meantime Gansbacher lived 
alternately in Vienna, where he became acquainted 
with Beethoven, and Prague, where he assisted 
Weber with his ' Kampf und Sieg. ' He also 
served in the war of 1813, went to Italy as captain 
in military service, and was even employed as 
a courier. This unsettled life at length came to 
a satisfactory end. At the time that Weber was 
suggesting his settling at Dresden, the capell- 
meistership of the cathedral at Vienna fell vacant 
by the death of Preindl (Oct. 1823); Gansbacher 
applied for it, was appointed, and remained there 
for life. He died in Vienna, July 13, 1844, 
universally respected both as a man and an artist. 
As a composer he belongs to the old school ; his 
works are pleasing, but betray by their solidity 
the pupil of Vogler and Albrechtsberger. His 
compositions number 216 in all, of which the 
greater part are sacred, — thirty -five masses, 
eight requiems, two Te Deums, offertories, etc. 
He wrote also a symphony, several serenades, 
marches, and concerted pieces ; pianoforte pieces 
with and without accompaniment ; songs accom- 
panied by various instruments ; music to Kotze- 
bue's ' Die Kreuzfahrer ' ; a Liederspiel, etc. 
Two requiems, two masses, and several smaller 
church works were published by Spina and Has- 



linger ; three terzettos for two soprani and tenor 
(op. 4) by Schlesinger ; Schiller's ' Erwartung ' 
by Simrock ; and sonatas and trios by various 
publishers. A song of his is given in Ayrton's 
Sacred Minstrelsy. 

His son Dr.. Joseph, born 1829, was a valued 
teacher of singing in Vienna, and professor at the 
Conservatorium. c. F. p. 

GAFORI, Franchino, or Franchinus Gafu- 
rius, born at Ospitaletto near Lodi, Jan. 14, 
1451, a priest and a writer on music. His first 
instructor was Goodendag, or, as he Latinised 
his name, Bonadies. Circumstances led him to 
Mantua, Verona, Genoa, and in 1478, in company 
with the fugitive doge Adorno, to Naples. There 
he found Tinctor and two other great Belgian 
musicians, Gamier and Hycart ; and there he 
remained for more than two years till driven 
back to Lodi by war and the plague. He passed 
a short time as maestro di cappella at Monticello 
and Bergamo, and in 1484 became attached to 
the cathedral at Milan, where he died June 24, 
1522, still in full vigour. Though a man of 
much learning and research, and in some respects 
a pedant — witness the headings of his chapters 
and the terms he coined — Gafori was no mere 
archaeologist. He addressed himself to the wants 
of his time, and in consequence enjoyed for long 
a wide and special authority. His great draw- 
back was his overweening conceit, often displayed 
in the very titles of his books. Hawkins has 
devoted chapters 72, 73, 74, and 75 of his 
History to him, and has given copious extracts 
from the Practica Musicae y his most important 
work, and the Apologia. G. 

The following is a short list of the various 
editions of the musical works of this writer : — 

A. ' Theoricum opus armonice discipline.' Franciscus de Dino. 
Naples, 1480. 4to. 115 leaves. 

Gerber and Becker quote another work, ' De Effectibus . . . 
Musicae,' as published in this year. The mistake arose from the 
title of the first chapter being taken as that of the whole work. 

B. 'TheoricaMusice.' Philippus Mantegatius. Milan, 1492. Fol. 
64 leaves. 

The 2nd edition of A. 

C. ' Practica Musice.' Guillermus Signerre. Milan, 1496. Fol. 
Ill leaves. 

Becker states that an Italian translation of this work was 
published by Gotardus de Ponte in 1500, but no copy is known. It 
is probably a mistake arising from a confusion with H, which is 
written in Italian. 

D. 'Musice utriusque Cantus practica.' Angelus Britaunicus. 
Brescia, 1497. Fol. Ill leaves. 

The 2nd edition of C. 

E. ' Practica Musicae utriusque Cantus.' Bernardinus Misinta de 
Papia. Brescia, 1502. Fol. Ill leaves. 

The 3rd ed tion of C. 

F. ' Practica Musicae utriusque Cantus. Augustinus de Zannis 
de Portesio. Venice, 1512. Fol. 82 leaves. 

The 4th edition of C. 

[G. ' Practica Musicae,' etc. Venice, 1522. Fol.] 
Mentioned in Brunet's Mauual as the 5th edition of C, but 
otherwise unknown. 

H. 'Angelicum ac divinura Opus Musice.' Gotardus de Ponte. 
Milan. 1496,1508. Fol. 48 leaves. Hain (7409) mentions an edition 
dated 1500, but this is probably a misprint. 

I. ' De Harmonia Musicorum Instrumerjtorum.' Gotardus. Pon- 
tanus : Milan, 1518. Fol. 106 leaves. 

Draudius, followed by Walther, Gerber, and Becker, mentions a 
work called ' Practica Musica ' as published in 1518 ; but Fdtis points 
out that this arises from a misdescription of I. 

K. ' Apologia Franchini Gafuri . . . ad versus Joannem Spatariura.' 
A. de Vicomercato. Turin, 1520. 10 leaves. 

The British Museum possesses copies of all 
these editions (excepting G, the existence of 
which is doubtful, and the 1496 edition of H, 
the only known copy of which is in the Musee 
Calvet, at Avignon) ; copies of A, B, C, D, H 



GAGLIANO 



GAGLIANO 



131 



(1508), and I, are in the University Library, 
Cambridge ; of B, C, F, H (1508), and I, in 
Anderson's College, Glasgow; of B, E, H (1508), 
and I, at the Bodleian Library, Oxford ; of C 
at Trinity College, Dublin ; and of C and I in 
the Royal College of Music. w. B. s. 

GAGLIANO, Giovanni - Battista da, 
younger brother of Marco da G., was born at 
Florence about 1585, and educated as a priest 
and musician. In 1613 he succeeded to the 
post, formerly held by Marco da G. , of musical 
instructor to the younger priests of S. Lorenzo. 
In 1634 he is entitled musician to the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany. He died about 1650. List 
of works : — 

1. Varie musiche di Giovan-Batista da Gagliano. Libro primo. 
Nouamente coinposto e dato in luce. In Venetia, appresso Alessandro 
Vincenti. 1623. Fol. pp. 38. In the Bibl. nazionale, Florence. 
(Vogel.) 

2. Motetti per concertare a 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, e 8 voei. Venetia, Aless. 
Vincenti. 1626. 26 numbers. In the Proske Bibl. Regensburg. 
(Eitner.) 

3. Psalmi vespertini cum Litaniis Beatissimae Virginia quinis 
vocibus modulaudi auctore Joanne Baptista a Gagliano sereu. mag. 
Ducis Etruriae musi o. Opus tertium. Venetiis apud Alex. Vincen- 
tiuni. 1634. 4t<>, 13 numbers. Five part-books (the Altus missing) 
in the British Museum. 

4. II secoudo libro de' motetti a sei et otto voci per concertarsi 
nell' organo, ed altri strumenti. Di G.-B. da G. musico del seren. 
Gran Duca di Toscana. Dedicati all' illus. Sig. Marchese Cerbone 
dal Monte, Venetia, Aless. Vincenti. 1643. 4to. No. 17 ' Lauda 
Sion' by Marco da Gagliano. Seven part -books in the Breslau 
Stadtbibl. (Bohn.) 

'Salve Regina' a tre voci, No. 6 in Marco da G's Sac. Cant. 1622. 
In the Berlin konigl. Bibl. MSS. W 59 contains six motets in score 
(publ. 1643) ; and in W 35 Nos. 424-430 are songs from the ' Varie 
Musiche,' 1623. (Eitner.) q g 

GAGLIANO, Marco da (1602-1642). Al- 
though ' Fiorentino ' follows Gagliano's name 
on the title-pages of some of his books, this was 
only a way of showing respect to the town in 
which he lived from his youth, for he was born 
in the little village of Gagliano, a few miles north 
of Florence, about 1575. His father Zanobi, 
when he moved into Florence, was known by 
the name of his village 'da Gagliano,' and not 
by his surname. (See Dr. Emil Vogel, Zur 
Geschichte des fiorentiner Musiklebens von 
1570-1650, Vierteljahrsschrift fur Musikwissen- 
schafty 1889.) Marco was educated as a priest, 
and studied music under Luca Bati, maestro 
di cappella, 1595-1608, at S. Lorenzo, Florence, 
learning to play both organ and theorbo. 
In 1602 he replaced Bati as instructor in 
church music to the younger priests of S. 
Lorenzo, receiving two scudi a month. On 
the death of Bati, Gagliano became maestro 
di cappella of S. Lorenzo in November 1608, 
and before 1611 he was also appointed maestro 
di cappella to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. On 
Jan. 26, 1609, he was made Canon of S. Lorenzo, 
under the designation of SS. Cosimo and Dam- 
iano, and later, on Jan. 2, 1614, a Protonotario 
Apostolico. In the meantime he had become 
the centre of the musical life of Florence. In 
June 1607 he inaugurated the 'Accademia de- 
gl' Elevati, ' and singers, composers, and music- 
lovers became members of it. From 1608 it 
was under the protection of Cardinal Ferdinando 
Gonzaga. As a member Gagliano took the 
name of 'l'Affannato ' (the anxious one). The 



Accademia was still in existence in 1620 ; after 
that nothing more is heard of it. 

A great deal of light is thrown on Gagliano's 
life at this period by his own letters, twenty- 
nine of which are preserved in the Gonzaga 
Archives at Mantua. Written between 1607 
and 1622 the larger number are addressed to 
Cardinal Gonzaga. They may be read in the 
appendix to Dr. Vogel's paper, Viertelj. 1889. 
They show that on the invitation of Prince 
Francesco he visited Mantua towards the close 
of 1607, and it was there that his opera • Dafne ' 
was first produced ; probably the performance 
took place before the end of January 1608, for 
Caterina Martinelli, who played ' Dafne ' and 
1 Amore ' in it, was taken ill early in February 
and died on March 9. 'Dafne' was received with 
great enthusiasm and approval. Jacopo Peri, 
after seeing the score, wrote to the Cardinal 
that this was a finer setting of Rinuccini's words 
than any before made. To the present age 
' Dafne ' and other early operatic efforts represent 
' the most primitive form of modern secular 
music,' but they were 'very effective to minds 
which were absolutely free from any experience 
whatever of theatrical representation accom- 
panied by music throughout ' (C. H. H. Parry, 
Music of the 17 th Century, 1902). It must not 
be forgotten that Gagliano had been trained by 
Luca Bati, who was a pupil of Francesco Corteccia, 
in the narrow contrapuntal paths of virtue, but 
in Florence he was in the midst of a youthful 
band of reformers, determined to get away from 
old-fashioned formulae and to revive the old 
Greek idea of drama combined with music, 
under fresh conditions of expression. ' Dafne ' 
shows unmistakable progress in this direction ; 
the declamatory recitative especially has more 
life, a more emotional setting of the sense of 
the words. The work was published in 1608 
with an original and entertaining preface by 
Gagliano, expressing his personal opinions on 
many points. He protests against the habit of 
adding 'gruppi, trilli, passaggi ed esclamazioni' 
to music unless with some definite design or 
purpose, such as showing the grace and facility 
of the singer. He thinks every singer should 
articulate distinctly, so that the sense of the 
words may be understood. Turning to the 
origin of ' rappresentazioni in musica, ' he passes 
rapidly in review Peri's setting of 'Dafne,' 
Peri's ' Euridice, ' and Monteverde's ' Arianna ' 
with expressions of the warmest appreciation. 
He gives practical directions as to the perform- 
ance of his opera ; instruments accompanying 
solo voices should face the singers so that voice 
and instrument move in harmony ; at the rising 
of the curtain, to arrest the attention of the 
audience, a sinfonia should be played by various 
instruments ; the latter will also serve to ac- 
company the chorus and play the ritornelli. 
It may be noted here that the only instrumental 
piece in the score of the opera is a short ' Ballo ' 



132 



GAGLIANO 



GAGLIANO 



at the end, the rest consists of voice-parts and 
bass. Finally, he states that the songs ' Chi da 
lacci d' Amor, ' ' Pur giacque estinto al fine, ' 
' Un guardo, un guardo appena, ' and ' Non 
chiami mille volte,' which shine like stars 
among the others (' lampeggiano tra 1' altre mie 
come stelle '), were composed by one of the 
principal members of the Accademia, 'gran 
protettore della musica.' He gives no name, 
but it is fairly certain that the composer in 
question was Cardinal Ferd. Gonzaga (Vogel, 
Viertelj. 1889). Later on 'Dame' was per- 
formed in Florence, probably during the Carnival 
of 1610. Gagliano remained in Mantua for 
the wedding ceremony in May of the Duke of 
Mantua's son, receiving on his departure a 
present of 200 scudi from the Duke for his 
musical services. He returned in June to 
Florence, where Peri had been acting as his 
deputy at S. Lorenzo ; while at Mantua he had 
found time to compose the music for the Holy 
Week services at S. Lorenzo at the beginning 
of April 1608. Gagliano died Feb. 24, 1642, 
at Florence, and was buried in S. Lorenzo on 
Feb. 26. A terra -cotta bust of him is placed 
in the chapter - house with the inscription : — 
' Marcus a Galliano Zenobii filius insignis hujus 
Collegiatae ex cappellano canonicus ser. magni 
Etruriae ducis musicae cappellae magistermorum 
probitate et doctrinae praestantia celeberrimus 
obiit anno salutis MDCXLII.' 

The comparatively small amount published 
by Gagliano is partly due to the fact that he 
severely criticised his own work, and only printed 
the music he thought worthy to survive him ; 
but it is also known that a certain number of 
his compositions which were printed have now 
disappeared. For instance, the text exists of 
an opera written by Andrea Salvadori and set 
to music by Gagliano in 1619 : — 'II Medoro, 
rappresentato in Musica nel Palazzo del Ser. 
Gran Duca di Toscana in Firenza per l'elezione 
all' Imperio della S. C. M. dell' Imp. Ferdi- 
nando II. In Firenze per il Cecconcelli. ' 
During the Carnival of 1622 it was performed 
in Mantua, and Gagliano's own letters at that 
time prove him to have been the composer. 
On Jan. 31, 1622, he wrote from Florence : — 
' Invio a V. A. Sma. per il presente procaccio, 
due atti del Medoro, 1' altro non ho avuto tempo 
di scriverlo, ma con prima occasione lo mander6. 
E parso all' autore di variare i corl per rappre- 
sentarla, stimando che 1' opera potesse riuscire 
troppo grave, e percio ha mescolato il ridicolo. ' 
Again, on Feb. 7: — ' Mando a V. A. Sma. il 
restante del Medoro.' Only the text by Salva- 
dori exists of an early attempt at oratorio or 
sacred drama (' azione sacra ') by Gagliano, the 
' Rappresentazione di Santa Orsola, Vergine et 
Martire,' first performed at Florence in 1624 ; 
and the music of many of the small works 
composed for especial occasions must have been 
lost in the same way. List of works : — 



1. Di Marco da Gagliano Florentine II primo libro de' Madrigali 
a cinque voci. Novamente stampato. In Venetia, appresso Angelo 
Gardano. 1602. 4to, pp. 21. Dedicated to Kidolfo, Principe d'Hanalt. 
Also contains ' Luce soave ' by Luca Bati ; and ' Scherzo con 1' aure' 
with the second part ' Cosi d' Aruo su '1 lido ' by Gio. del Turco. Five 
part-books in Bologna Liceo Musicale. 

2. The same. Novamente ristampato. Venetia, appresso Angelo 
Gardano & Fratelli. 1606. Five part-books in the Bologna Liceo 
Musicale. 

3. Di M. da G. II secondo libro de' Madrigali. A cinque voci. 
Novamente stampato. In Venetia, appresso Angelo Gardano. 
1604. 4to, pp. 21. Dedicated to Gio. del Turco, Cavaliere di S. 
Stefano, who ' voile apparare da me gli insegnamenti del contra- 
punto, nel quale si e avanzata cotanto,' etc. : Firenze, 30 Aprile, 1604. 
Contains one madrigal by Luca Bati, one by Pietro Strozzi, and 
1 Corso hai di questa ' by Gio. del Turco, which with Gagliano's 
' Fuggi lo spirito ' in the same volume, were written in memory of 
Jacopo Corsi, who must have died early in 1604. Five part-books 
in Bologna Liceo Musicale. 

4. Di M. da G. II terzo libro de' madrigali. A cinque voci. 
Novamente stampato. In Venetia, appresso Angelo Gardano. 1605. 
4to, pp. 21. Dedicated to Cosimo Cini ; Fiorenza, 8 Febbraio, 1605. 
Contains two madrigals by Luca Bati, one by Giovanni, and one by 
Lorenzo del Turco. Five part-books in Bologna Liceo Musicale. 

5. Di M. da G. II quarto libro de' madrigali. A cinque voci. 
Novamente stampato. In Venetia, appresso Angelo Gardano. 1606. 
4to, pp. 20. Dedicated to Don Ferdinando Gonzaga, Priore di 
Barletta : Firenze, 1 Febbraio, 1606. Contains one madrigal by 
Luca Bati, one by Giovanni, and one by Lorenzo del Turco. Five 
part-books in the Cassel standische Landesbibl. 

6. Offlcium defunctorum quatuor paribus vocibus concinendum, 
una cum aliquibus funebribus modulationibus. Marco a Gagliano 
authore. Venetiis apud Angelum Gardanum et Fratres. 1607. 
4to, pp. 21. Dedicated to Conte Cosimo della Gherardesca : Fiorenze, 
15 Gennaio, 1607. Sixteen numbers, twelve with Latin text, four 
(Madrigaletti spirituali) with Italian. The Tenor and Bassus part- 
books only are known, in the Bibl. Riccardiana, Florence. 

7. La Dafne di Marco da Gagliano nell' accademia degl' elevati 
1* affannato, rappresentata in Mantova. In Firenze, appresso 
Cristofano Marescotti. 1608. Folio, pp. IV. 55. Dedicated to 
Vincenzio Gonzaga, Duca di Mantova e di Monferrato : Firenze, 
20 Ottobre, 1608. In British Museum, etc. 

8. II quinto libro de' madrigali a cinque voci. Di Marco da 
Gagliano nell' accademia degl' elevati 1' affannato. Novamente 
stampato. In Venetia, appresso Angelo Gardano e Fratelli. 1658 
(a misprint for 1608 which occurs on the title-page of each part-book, 
but is correctly printed on the inner leaf). 4to, pp. 21. Dedicated 
to Lodovico Arrighetti : Fiorenza, 25 Ottobre, 1608. Five part-books 
in British Museum, etc. 

9. Missa et sacrae cantioues, sex decantandae vocibus Marci a 
Gagliano Florentini ac musices sereniss. mag. Etruriae Duci 
Praefecti. Florentiae, apud Zenobium Pignonium. 1614. 4to, pp. 
24. Dedicated to Seren. Cosmo, Magno Etruriae Duci. Florentiae 
die 26 Aprilis, 1614. Contains fifteen motets and one mass. Six 
part-books in the Proske Bibl. Regensburg. 

10. Musiche a una, due e tre voci di M. da G. maestro di cappella 
del serenissimo Gran Duca di Toscana. Novamente composte e 
date in luce. In Venetia. 1615. Appresso Ricciardo Amadino. 
One vol. in fol. pp. 45. Dedicated to Gio. Francesco Grazzini : 
Fiorenza, 15 Ottobre, 1615. Includes 'Pur venisti cor mio' by L. 
Arrighetti. Contains the songs from the ' Ballo di donne turche 
insieme con i loro consorti di schiavi fatti liberi. Danzato nel Real 
Palazzo de Pitti all' Altezze di Toscana. II Carneval dell' anno 
1614.' Is in the Bibl. nazionale, Florence, etc. 

11. II sesto libro de' madrigali a cinque voci di M. da G. maestro 
di cappella del serenissimo Gran Duca di Toscana. Al molto illre. 
Sigr. e Patron mio collendis. il Sig. Cosimo del Sera. Novamente 
stampati. Stampa del Gardano in Venetia. 1617. Appresso 
Bartholomeo Magni. 4to, pp. 20. Contains one madrigal by L. 
Arrighetti, three ' d' Incerto,' whom Dr. Vogel thinks was probably 
Cardinal Ferd. Gonzaga. Five part-books in Bologna Liceo Musicale. 

12. The same. Novamente ristampati. 1620. Five part-books in 
the Canal Bibl. , Crespano. 

13. Basso generalis Sacrarum cantionum unis ad sex decantan- 
darum vocibus. Marci a Gagliano, insignis et Collegiatae Ecclesiae 
Sancti Laurentii Canonici, et musices sereniss. magni Etruriae 
Ducis Praefecti. Liber Secundus. Venetiis, 1622. Sub signo Gar- 
dani apud Bart. Magnum. Folio, pp. 48. In British Museum. 
With the six other part-books, publ. 1623, in the Berlin konigl. 
Bibl. Dedicated to Filippo del Nero : Firenze, 1 Agosto, 1622. 23 
compositions, No. 6 ' Salve Regina ' for three voices is said to be by 
Gio. Batt. Gagliano. At the end of this volume, addressed 'ai 
benigni lettori,' is Gagliano's protest against Mutio Effrem's attacks 
on his madrigals, with the wish that they were more openly made, 
so that he could answer them. Effrem at once published ' Censure 
di Mutio Effrem sopra il sesto libro de' madrigali di M. Marco da 
Gagliano maestro di cappella della cattedrale di Firenze.' Venetia, 
1623. Folio, pp. 30, in which he reprints Gagliano's letter with an 
impertinent reply (see Parisini, Cat. della Bibl. del L. M. Bologna, 
vol. i., and Vogel, Viertelj. 1889 app.), as well as fourteen of the mad- 
rigals in score, noting at the beginning of each the errors he or his 
pupils have been able to discover ; he added a madrigal of his own to 
show what a madrigal should be ! 

14. La Flora del Sig. Andrea Salvadori. Posta in musica da M. 
da G. maestro di cappella del seren. Gran Duca di Toscana. Rap- 
presentata nel Teatro del Seren. Gran Duca nelle reali nozze del 
ser. Odoardo Farnese, Duca di Parma e di Piacenza, e della seren. 
Principessa Margherita di Toscana. In Firenze, per Zanobi Pignoni. 
1628. Fol., p. 144. Dedicated to Odoardo Farnese. Peri composed 
the part of Clori : ' le musiche furono tutte del Sig. M. da G., 
eccetto la parte di Clori, la quale fu opera del Sig. Jacopo Peri, e 
perd sopra ciascuna sua aria si son poste le due lettere J. P.' In 
Modena Bibl. Estense, etc. 

15. Responsoria Maioris hebdomadae quatuor paribus vocibus 
decantanda Marci a Gagliano, Musices seren. Magni Etrurie 
Ducis Prefecti. Venetiis apud Bart. Magni. 1630. 4to, p. 40. 
Dedicated to D. Alex. Martio-Medici. Florentie kalendis Martii 
anno 1630. Thirty-one numbers. Four part-books complete in the 
Canal Bibl. Crespano. This was the last work published in 
Gagliano's lifetime. 



GAGLIANO 



GAILHAED 



133 



Other compositions : — ' Bel pastor ' (Dialogo di ninfa e pastore). 
Musiche di Pietro Benedetti. Libro prinio. Fiorenza. 1611. 
' Ecco solinga ' a una voce. The same. Libro secondo. Venetia. 
1613. ' O Uolce aniina ' a 5 voci. Secondo libro de' madrigali a 5 
voci di Gio. del Turco. Firenze. 1614. 'Nasce questo' a 5 voci. 
Terzo libro de' madrigali a 5 voci di Filippo Vitali. Venetia. 1629. 
' Lauda Sion ' a 8 voci. Secondo libro de' motetti a 6 e 8 voci di Gio. 
Battista da Gagliano. Venetia. 1643. 

The madrigals attributed to Gagliano in ' l)e' 
fiori del giardino ' 2da parte, Norimberga, P. 
Kaufmann, 1604, were composed by Gio. del 
Turco, and were included in Gagliano's lirst book 
of madrigals, 1602. MSS.— In the Bologna 
Liceo Musicale. — ' Benedictus qui venit ' for 
four voices, in score in the handwriting of the 
Abbe Santini. Folio score of the first (1606 
ed.), fifth and sixth books of madrigals for five 
voices. The score and separate parts of the 
Finale dell' atto IV., and the Coro di Nereidi 
e Napee in the opera ' La Flora.' In a MS. of 
the 18th century, a Messa a cinque voci con 
basso continuo ; a Messa festiva a quattro voci 
pure col basso numerato ; and a motet ' Viri 
Sancti ' a cinque voci (the last, doubtful if by 
Gagliano). Dated 1594, Firenze. It is im- 
probable that this early date is correct. In 
the Berlin konigl. Bibl. (L. 190) an 18th 
century MS. with the same three compositions ; 
the five-part mass is called 'Flores apparuerunt, ' 
and on the four -part mass is noted 'unica e 
rara.' Also the Lauda Sion for eight voices, 
published 1643 (MS. W. 59, No. 812, in score). 
The Responsi per la settimana santa for four 
voices, published 1630 (MS. L. 132). The 
Responsoria ' In monte Oliveti ' for four voices, 
with basso continuo (MS. 6910, in score). 
Recent reprints. — Robt. Eitner. Die Oper von 
ihren ersten Anfangen, etc., vol. 10 of the 
Publikation alterer prakt. u. theoret. Musik- 
werke, Berlin, 1881. The first and last parts 
of ' Dafn e.' 

F. A. Gevaert. Les Gloires de V Italic, 1868, 
vol. i. p. 116, 'Alma mia dove' a due voci; 
vol. ii. p. 116, ' Valli profondi' a una voce; 
both taken from Musiche a 1, 2 e 3 voci, 1615. 
The latter, arranged for the organ, was published 
in A. H. Brown's Select Compositions, 2nd series, 
No. 69, 1876. 

Hugo Goldschmidt. Studien zur Geschichte 
derital. Oper. 1901, App. D. From 'La Flora' : 
1. Coro 'Bella Diva' a 5 voci ; 2. Coro 'Taci 
Pane ' a 2 voci ; 3. Clori's air, composed by 
Peri ; 4. Zeffiro's song ' Eccomi un quel ' ; 5. 
Coro ' delle grazie. ' 

Luigi Torchi included a song from ' La Flora ' 
in the ' Raccolta ' published by Ricordi, Milano, 
and inserted a Benedictus and two madrigals in 
the fourth vol. of his Arte Musicale in Italia. 

The preface to the opera ' Dafne ' was pub- 
lished separately soon after 1844 in Florence 
(Parisini, i. 45). c. s. 

GAGLIANO, a celebrated family of violin- 
makers at Naples. Alessandro, the first, 
worked from about 1695 to 1725. His work, 
like that of his sons, is good and substantial, 
but it exhibits the same unattractive greyish- 



yellow varnish which was used by the sons. 
Alexander calls himself ' alumnus ' of Stradi- 
varius, and all the Gaglianos worked more or 
less on the Stradivari model. His sons, Nicolo 
(1700-40) and Gennaro (1710-50), made a large 
number of good instruments. His grandson, 
Ferdinando (1736-81), son of Nicholas, like 
all his Italian contemporaries, exhibits a maiked 
decline. The later Gaglianos established a 
manufactory of violin - strings, which to this 
day enjoys a world-wide reputation. p. d. 

GAILHARD, Pierre, born August 1, 1848, 
at Toulouse, first received instruction in singing 
there at the Conservatoire, and in 1866 and 1867 
at the Conservatoire of Paris, from Revial, where 
he gained the three first prizes for singing, opera, 
and opera-comique. On Dec. 4, 1867, he made 
his debut, with great success, at the Opera 
Comiqueas Fal staff in Ambroise Thomas's 'Songe 
d'une Nuit d'Ete,'and remained there until 1870 
playing in the 'Chalet' and 'Toreador' of Adam, 
' Mignon,' ' Haydee,' etc. On March 25, 1868, 
he sang Ferdinand VI. in a revival of Auber's 
' Part du Diable ' ; in 1869 in three new operas, 
viz. March 10, as the Count d'Arlange in Offen- 
bach's 'Vert Vert' ; Sept. 11, Barbeau in Semet's 
'Petite Fadette,' and Dec. 20, as the Chevalier 
de Boisjoli in Auber's ' Reve d'Amour.' On 
Nov. 3, 1871, he made his debut at the Grand 
Opera as Mephistopheles in ' Faust. ' He remained 
a very successful member of that company until 
Dec. 1, 1884, when he was appointed manager 
of that theatre with M. Ritt, on the death of 
M. Vaucorbeil. His parts included Leporello, 
Caspar, St. Bris, Claudius in 'Hamlet,' Don 
Pedro (' L'Africaine '), etc. : in new operas July 
17, 1874, Paulus in Membree's ' Esclave ' (Salle- 
Ventadour): April 5, 1876, Richard in Mermet's 
'Jeanne d'Arc'; Dec. 27, 1878, Simon in 
Joncieres's ' Reine Berthe'; April 14, 1882, 
Guido da Polenta in A. Thomas's ' Francoise 
de Rimini,' and finally, April 2, 1884, as Pythias 
in the revival of Gounod's ' Sapho,' wherein he 
gave an admirable presentment of a drunken 
debauchee {Annates du Spectacle). He also sang 
with success at the various concerts, notably Nov. 
19, 1874, in 'Judas Maccabaeus, ' under Lamou- 
reux. On leave of absence, from 1879 to 1883 
inclusive, he was a favourite singer at the Italian 
Opera, Covent Garden, where on May 10, 1879, 
he made a highly successful debut as Mephis- 
topheles, being, in the opinion of many connois- 
seurs, the best representative of the part since 
Faure. His parts in London included Caspar, 
Leporello, Assur in ' Semiramide,' both St. Bris 
and Marcel in the ' Huguenots,' Peter in 'L'Etoile 
du Nord'; June 26, 1880, Girod on the produc- 
tion in Italian of ' Le Pre-aux-Clercs ' ; June 9, 
1881, Osmin on the revival of the 'Seraglio'; July 
11, 1882, the title part in Boito's ' Mefistofele,' 
and July 5, 1883, the Podesta on the revival of 
' Gazza Ladra. ' He was equally excellent both 
as a singer and actor in both serious and comic 



134 



GALEAZZI 



GALILEI 



parts. The Ritt and Gailhard management of 
the Opera ended Dec. 31, 1891, on the appoint- 
ment as manager of M. Bertrand. In 1893 
Gailhard joined the latter as manager, soon 
after the production, Feb. 24, of the successful 
ballet ' Maladetta, ' scenario by himself, music 
by Paul Vidal, and on the death of his partner, 
Dec. 30, 1899, became sole manager. The chief 
features of his career were the production of 
Wagner's operas, viz. 'Lohengrin,' Sept. 16, 
1891 ; 'Walkyrie,' May 12, 1893 ; revival of 
• Tannhauser,' May 13, 1895; ' Meistersinger, ' 
Nov. 10, 1897 ; 'Siegfried,' Jan. 3, 1 902 ; Verdi's 
' Rigoletto ' and ' Otello ' ; Leoncavallo's ' Paillasse ' 
(Pagliacci), Mozart's ' Seraglio ' (1903). Of native 
composers, Gounod's ' Romeo ' at the Grand Opera, 
MehuTs 'Joseph' and Berlioz's 'Prise de Troie ' 
(Nov. 15, 1899). Of more modern composers : 
Reyer's 'Sigurd' (1885); and 'La Statue' 
(1903); Massenet's 'Le Cid ' (1885); ' Le 
Mage' (1891); 'Thais' (1894); Saint-Saens's 
1 Ascanio' (1890) ; and ' Les Barbares' (1901); 
Paladilhe's 'Patrie' (1886); Bourgault-Ducoud- 
ray's 'Thamara'(1891) ; Chabrier's 'Gwendoline' 
(1893); Marshal's ' Deidamie ' (1893); Le- 
febvre's 'Djelma' (1894); Augusta Holmes's 
'Montagne Noire' (1895) ; Duvernoy's 'Helle' 
(1896); Bruneau's 'Messidor' (1897); Rous- 
seau's ' Cloche du Rhin ' and Vidal's ' Bur- 
gonde' (189S); Chabrier's 'Briseis' (1899); 
Joncieres's 'Lancelot ' (1900) ; Xavier Leroux's 
'Astarte' (1901); Hillemacher's 'Orsola' 
(1902); D'Indy's 'L'Etranger' (1903), and 
Erlanger's ' Fils de l'Etoile ' (1904). Ballets: 
Messager's 'Deux Pigeons ' (1885) ; Wormser's 
'L'Etoile' (1897), and Duvernoy's 'Bacchus' 
(1902), etc. Besides the ballet mentioned 
above, M. Gailhard wrote the libretto with 
M. Gheussi, the libretto of Paul Vidal's 
' Guernica, ' produced at the Opera Comique 
in 1895, which met with no success, but ob- 
tained the Prix Monbinne in 1896. Among 
the artists who began their career at the Opera 
under M. Gailhard's management may be men- 
tioned Mmes. Rose Caron, Melba, Eames, Breval, 
Ackte, Heglon, MM. Alvarez, Saleza, Renaud, 
Delmas, the De Reszke brothers, and the Gresse 
father and son. On July 6, 1886, he was ap- 
pointed a chevalier of the Legion d'honneur. A. c. 

GALEAZZI, Francesco, a violin player, 
born at Turin in 1738 (Fetis says 1758) and 
for many years leader of the band at the Teatro 
Valle at Rome. He deserves special notice, not 
so much as a composer of numerous instrumental 
works, as the author of one of the earliest 
methodical instruction-books for the violin, 
which bears the title of Elementi teorico-prattici 
di musica, con un saggio sopra V arte di suonare 
il violino analizzata, Roma, 1791 e 1796. He 
died, according to Fetis, in 1819. P. D. 

GALILEI, Vincenzo. Among the little group 
of philosophic dilettanti who were accustomed 
to meet in the Palace of Giovanni Bardi at 



Florence, during the closing years of the 16th 
century, no figure stands forth with greater 
prominence than that of Vincenzo Galilei, 
the father of Galileo Galilei, the great astro- 
nomer. This enthusiastic apostle of artistic pro- 
gress — or retrogression ? — was born, at Florence, 
circa 1533 ; and, after studying music, at Venice, 
under Zarlino, attained, in later life, considerable 
reputation as a Lutenist. We shall, however, 
do him no injustice if we describe him as a literary 
savant of high general culture, but a very im- 
perfectly-educated musician. 

When the great question of the resuscitation 
of the Classical Drama, on the principles adopted 
by the Greek Tragedians, was debated at the 
Palazzo Bardi, Galilei took an active part in 
the discussion ; and, according to Giov. Batt. 
Doni, was the first who composed melodies for 
a single voice — i.e. after the manner of the then 
nascent Monodic School. His first attempt was 
a Cantata, entitled ' II Conte Ugolino,' which 
he himself sang, very sweetly, to the accompani- 
ment of a viol. This essay pleased very much, 
though some laughed at it — notwithstanding 
which, Galilei followed it up by setting a portion 
of the Lamentations of Jeremiah, in the same 
style. Quadrio also speaks of his Intermezzi ; 
but no trace of these, or of the Monodic Can- 
tata, can now be discovered. 

Vincenzo Galilei's writings on subjects con- 
nected with Art are, however, of great interest. 
One of these — a Dialogue, entitled II Fronimo 
(Venice, 1568) — is especially valuable, as throw- 
ing considerable light on the form of Tablature 
employed by the Italian Lutenists, and their 
method of tuning the instrument, in the latter 
half of the 16th century. Another important 
work, entitled Dialogo di V. G. . . . della 
musica antica e modema .... contra Gius. 
Zarlino (Florence, 1581), was produced by some 
remarks made by Zarlino, in his Jstitutioni 
armoniche (Venice, 1558), and Dimostrationi 
armoniche (Venice, 1571), concerning the Syn- 
tonous Diatonic Scale of Claudius Ptolomy, 
which he preferred to all other Sections of the 
Canon, and which Galilei rejected, in favour of 
the Pythagorean immutable system. It is im- 
possible to believe that Galilei ever really tuned 
his lute on the Pythagorean system, which was 
equally incompatible with the character of the 
instrument and the characteristics of the Monodic 
School. Moreover, Zarlino himself preferred 
that the lute should be tuned with twelve equal 
semitones to the octave. But Galilei, whose 
prejudices were strong enough to overthrow his 
reason, followed up this attack by another, 
entitled Discorso di V. G. . . . intorno al- 
V opere di messer Gioseffo Zarlino da Chioggia 
(Florence, 1589), and a second edition of the 
Dialogo (Florence, 1602). In these works, he 
argues the subject with great acrimony : but, 
the scale advocated by Zarlino represents the 
only form of Just Intonation now adopted by 



GALIMATHIAS 



GALITZIN 



136 



any European theorist ; and the scale he 
advocated for the lute is the only one now used 
for the pianoforte, the organ, and tempered 
instruments of every kind. The Dialogo con- 
tains, however, much interesting matter, but 
very slightly connected with the controversy 
with Zarlino ; for instance, the text and musical 
notation of the three apocryphal Greek Hymns, 
to Apollo, Calliope, and Nemesis, which have 
since given rise to so much speculation, and so 
many contradictory theories. 

Vincenzo Galilei died at Florence towards 
the close of the 16th century, or beginning of 
the 17th. W. s. r. 

GALIMATHIAS. A French term of very 
doubtful derivation (Littre), meaning a confused 
unintelligible affair. ' Galimathias musicum ' 
is a comic piece of music for orchestra with 
clavier and other instruments obbligato, com- 
posed by Mozart in 1766 at the Hague, for the 
festivities at the coming of age of William of 
Orange the Fifth (March 8). Mozart, then on 
his road from London, was just ten years old. 
The piece is in thirteen short numbers ending 
with a variation on the Dutch national air of 
1 Wilhelmus von Nassau.' (Kbchel, No. 32; 
0. Jahn, 2nd ed. i. 44.) In a letter of Feb. 5, 
1783, Mozart speaks of a galimathias opera 
— ' Gallus cantans, in arbore sedens, gigirigi 
faciens. ' G. 

GALIN. See Chev3, vol. i. p. 513. 

GALITZIN, Nicolas Borjssovich, a Rus- 
sian Prince who is immortalised by the dedication 
to him by Beethoven of an overture (op. 124) 
and three quartets (opp. 127, 130, 132). Of his 
birth nothing is known ; he died on his estates 
in the province of Kurski in 1866. In 1804-6 
he was in Vienna, and doubtless made the 
acquaintance of Beethoven and his music at 
the house of Count Rasoumowsky, the Russian 
ambassador, for whom at that very date Beet- 
hoven wrote the three quartets (op. 59) and at 
that of the Count von Browne, an officer in the 
Russian service, for whom Beethoven had written 
several works (opp. 9, 10, 22, etc.). In 1816 
Moscheles met him at Carlsbad, and speaks of 
him as a practical musician (Leben, i. 27). In 
1822 he was married and living in Petersburg 
in very musical society, his wife an accomplished 
pianoforte player and he himself a violoncellist 
and an enthusiastic amateur. At this time, Nov. 
9, 1822, he 1 writes to Beethoven a letter full of 
devotion, proposing that he shall compose three 
new quartets at his own price, to be dedicated 
to the Prince. Beethoven accepts the offer (by 
letter, Jan. 25, 1823), and fixes 50 ducats (say 
£23) per quartet as the price. Feb. 19, the 
Prince replies, that he has ' given an order ' for 
50 ducats to his banker, and will immediately 
remit 100 more for the two others. May 5, 
1823, he writes again, ' you ought to have re- 

1 [The letters here referred to have not yet (1905) been printed in 
Deiters's revised edition of Thayer's Biography of Beethoven.] 



ceived the 50 ducats fixed for the first quartet. 
As soon as it is complete you can sell it to any 
publisher you choose — all I ask is the dedication 
and a MS. copy. Pray begin the second, and 
when you inform me you have done so I will 
forward another 50 ducats.' 

From this time the correspondence continues 
till Beethoven's death. Galitzin's further letters 
— in French, fourteen in number — are full of 
enthusiasm for Beethoven, pressing money and 
services upon him, offering to subscribe for mass, 
symphony, and overture, and volunteering his 
willingness to wait for ' the moments of inspira- 
tion.' In fact he had to wait a long time. The 
first quartet (in Eb, op. 127) was first played 
at Vienna, March 6, 1825, and is acknowledged 
by the Prince on April 29. The second (in A 
minor, op. 132) was first played Nov. 6, 1825, 
and the third (in Bb, op. 130) on March 21, 
1826. These were received by the Prince to- 
gether, and were acknowleged by him Nov. 22, 
1826. He also received a MS. copy of the Mass 
in D and printed copies of the Ninth Sj^mphony 
and of the two overtures in C, the one (op. 124) 
dedicated to him, the other (op. 115) dedicated 
to Count Radzivill. Thus the whole claim 
against him was — Quartets, 150 ducats ; Over- 
ture (op. 115), 25 ducats ; Mass, 50 ducats ; loss 
on exchange, 4 ducats ; total, 229 ducats, not 
including various other pieces of music sent. On 
the other hand he appears, notwithstanding all 
his promises, to have paid, up to the time of 
Beethoven's death, only 104 ducats. It should 
be said that in 1826 war and insurrections had 
broken out in Russia, which occupied the Prince 
and obliged him to live away from Petersburg, 
and also put him to embarrassing expenses. 
After the peace of Adrianople (Sept. 14, 1829), 
when Beethoven had been dead some years, a 
correspondence was opened with him by Hotsch- 
evar, Carl van Beethoven's guardian, which 
resulted in 1832 in a further payment of 50 
ducats, making a total of 154. Carl still urges 
his claim for 75 more to make up the 150 
for the quartets, which Galitzin in 1835 promises 
to pay, but never does. In 1852, roused by 
Schlindler's statement of the affair (ed. i., pp. 
162,163), he writes to the Gazette Musicale of July 
21, 1852, a letter stating correctly the sum paid, 
but incorrectly laying it all to the account of 
the quartets. Other letters passed between him 
and Carl Beethoven, but they are not essential 
to the elucidation of the transactions. 

There can be no doubt that Galitzin's inten- 
tions were excellent, that the world owes to him 
the existence of the three quartets, and that he 
was lavish of admiration and promises to pay. 
No doubt, too, he had to wait a long while, and 
to undergo a great deal of disappointment, but 
this he ought to have known was inevitable in 
dealing with a man of Beethoven's temperament, 
whose mode of production has been elsewhere 
shown to have been so slow and uncertain. For 



136 



GALLENBERG 



GALL1 



the payments of 50 and 25 ducats he had more 
than ample compensation in the copies of the 
Mass and the Overture, the pleasure he derived 
from them, and the credit and importance they 
must have given him in the musical circles of 
Russia. For the copies of Sonatas, Overture 
(op. 115), Terzet, and other works sent him by 
Beethoven, he appears to have paid nothing, 
nor can he justly demur to Beethoven's having 
sold the quartets to publishers, or performed 
them in public, after the carte blanche which 
he gives him in his third letter, where all he 
stipulated for was the dedication and a MS. copy. 

The son of the preceding, Prince George 
Galitzin, was born at St. Petersburg in 1823, 
and died in Sept. 1872. He was not only a 
great lover of music, like his father, but was a 
composer of various works for orchestra, chamber, 
and voices, and an able conductor. In 1842 he 
founded in Moscow a choir of seventy boys, 
whom he fed, clothed, and educated. It was 
for long one of the sights of the city. He also 
maintained an orchestra, with which he gave 
public concerts, and visited England and France 
in 1860. A. w. t. 

GALLENBERG, Wenzel Robert, Graf 
von, of an old Carinthian family, born at Vienna, 
Dec. 28, 1783, died at Rome, March 13, 1839, 
has his place in musical history as a prolific 
composer and in virtue of his indirect connection 
with Beethoven. 

His passion for music, manifested at a very 
early age, led him to forego the advantages of 
an official career and to devote himself to the 
art. His master in the science was Albrechts- 
berger. On Nov. 3, 1803, being then not quite 
twenty, he married the Countess Julie Guicciardi, 
who had been the object of one of Beethoven's 
transient but violent passions. 

During the winter following, young Gallenberg 
made his appearance in Wiirth's Sunday Con- 
certs as author of several overtures, which made 
no impression. In 1805 we find the youthful 
couple in Naples, where at the great festival of 
May 31, 1805, in honour of Joseph Bonaparte, 
Gallenberg prepared the music, which was mostly 
of his own composition — three overtures, eight 
pieces for wind band, and dances for full or- 
chestra. It was greatly applauded, and was doubt- 
less one cause of his being appointed a year or 
two later to the charge of the music in the court 
theatre. The ballet troupe was one of the 
finest in Europe, and Gallenberg embraced the 
opportunity of improving the Neapolitan school 
of instrumental music by giving frequent adapta- 
tions of the best German productions — complete 
movements from Mozart, Haydn, Cherubini, and 
others, which opened new sources of delight, 
and afforded young composers new standards of 
excellence. Thus what the Neapolitan school 
had done for opera in Germany during the 18th 
century was in some degree repaid by Gallenberg 
in the 19th. 



When Barbaja undertook the management of 
the court theatre at Vienna (Dec. 21, 1821), he 
introduced Gallenberg to assist in the manage- 
ment — an arrangement which, however, existed 
but two years. In Jan. 1829 Gallenberg him- 
self became lessee of this theatre, on a contract 
for ten years, which, though at first successful, 
soon came to an end from want of capital. From 
the autumn of 1816 to the spring of 1838 we 
again find him in Naples employed by Barbaja 
as ballet composer and director ; and in March, 
1839, we read of his death at Rome at the age 
of fifty-six. 

Gallenberg wrote from forty to fifty ballets, 
but the local records alone retain even the names 
of most. We add the titles of a few which in 
their day were reported as of some interest to 
the general musical public. 

' Samson ' (Naples and Vienna, 1811); ' Arsinoe 
und Telemaco ' (Milan, 1813) ; 'I Riti Indiani ' 
(Do. 1814) ; ' Amleto' (Do. 1815) ; 'Alfred der 
Grosse' (Vienna, 1820); 'Joan d'Arc' (Do. 
1821); 'Margereta'(Do. 1822); < Ismaans Grab ' 
(Do. 1823) ; 'La Caravana del Cairo ' (Naples, 
1824) ; ' Ottavio Pinelli ' (Vienna, 1828) ; ' Das 
befreite Jerusalem' (Do. do.); 'Caesar in 
Egypten ' (Do. 1829) ; ' Theodosia ' (Do. 1831) ; 
' Orpheus und Eurydice ' (Do. do. ) ; ' Agnes 
undFitz Henri '(Do. 1833) ; 'BiancasWahl'(Do. 
1835); 'Latona's Rache' (Do. 1838). A. w. t. 

GALLI, Cornelio, a native of Lucca, one of 
the Gentlemen of the Chapel to Queen Catherine 
in the time of Charles II. Mr. Berenclow told 
Humfrey Wanley that he was a great master 
of the finest manner of singing, and was one of 
the first who introduced it into England. J. M. 

GALLI, Filippo, was born at Rome in 1783. 
Though destined for the clerical profession, 
young Galli's strong taste for music proved 
insurmountable. When only ten, he had de- 
veloped a musical talent beyond his age, and 
was remarked as a player and accompanist. His 
voice, when formed, was a fine tenor. At the 
age of eighteen he married. Compelled by 
circumstances to choose a career, he selected 
that of Opera, and made his debut, in the 
carnival of 1804, at Bologna. He met with a 
brilliant success, and became one of the first of 
Italian tenors ; but six years afterwards a serious 
illness changed his voice completely, and made 
it a bass. Paisiello persuaded him to cultivate 
his new voice, and profit by the change. This 
he did, and became one of the greatest bassi 
cantanti that his country has produced. His 
first appearance in his new quality was in the 
carnival of 1812 at S. Mose in Venice, in the 
' Inganno Felice ' of Rossini. He sang next at 
Milan, and then at Barcelona. Rossini wrote 
for him the parts of Fernando in ' La Gazza 
Ladra ' and of ' Maometto.' Galli appeared for 
the first time at Paris, Sept. 18, 1821, in the 
former, and, though singing out of tune in 
the first act, achieved a considerable success 



GALLI 



GALLIA 



137 



on the whole. He returned to Paris in 1825, 
and made a great sensation ; but his vocalisation 
had become rather slow and heavy. This defect 
was noticed when he came to London. Ebers 
engaged him with Zuchelli for the season of 
1827, and his salary was fixed at £870. He 
made his first appearance, as usual, in ' La Gazza 
Ladra.' His voice was less flexible than Zu- 
chelli's, but its tone was deep and full, and, accord- 
ing to Rossini, he was the only singer who ever 
filled the part of Assur satisfactorily. In 1828 
Galli went to Spain ; thence to Rome and Milan 
in 1830. In the following year he went to 
Mexico, and remained attached to the Opera 
in that city from 1832 to 1836. In 1839 and 
1840 he was singing at Barcelona and Milan, but 
was at length obliged to accept the place of 
chorus-master at Madrid and Lisbon. Amiable 
and cultivated, Galli had but one fault, that of 
boundless extravagance. At the end of 1842 he 
arrived at Paris in the greatest want, and, as 
a charity, obtained a professor's place at the 
Conservatoire. His chief income was derived 
from a yearly benefit concert, at which the 
Italian singers performed. Of this he was 
deprived in 1848. He then fell into great 
misery, and died June 3, 1853. J. M. 

GALLI, Signora, a mezzo-soprano, who made 
her debut in Galuppi's ' Enrico,' Jan. 1, 1743, in 
London. She and Frasi, ' after transplantation 
from Italy, took root in this country, and 
remained here in great public favour, for many 
years ' (Burney). Galli was frequently em- 
ployed in male parts on the stage. Though her 
manner was spirited and interesting, she was 
little noticed by the public till she sang in 
Handel's 'Judas,' 1746, when she gained such 
applause in the air ' 'Tis Liberty,' that she was 
encored in it every night, and became an 
important personage among singers. She had 
already sung in 'Joseph,' 1744, and she subse- 
quently performed principal parts in ' Joshua, ' 
1 Solomon, ' ' Susanna, ' ' Theodora, ' ' Jephtha, ' 
etc. She is said to have been a favourite pupil 
of Handel (Cradock). Twenty years later she 
sang in Sacchini's 'Perseo' (1774) and 'Monte- 
zuma' (1775). She became the companion of 
the celebrated Miss Ray, and was with her 
when she was assassinated by Hackman, April 7, 
1779. She afterwards fell into extreme poverty, 
and, about the age of seventy, was induced to 
sing again in oratorios. She appeared at Covent 
Garden as late as 1 7 9 7 . Lord Mount- Edgcumbe 
had the curiosity to go, and heard her sing 
' He was despised.' Her voice was cracked and 
trembling, but it was easy to perceive that her 
school was good. She died in 1804. J. M. 

GALLI-MARIE, Celestine, born Nov. 1840 
in Paris, was taught singingby her father, Mecene 
Marie de l'lsle, formerly a singer at the Paris 
Opera under the name Marie. In 1859 she 
made her debut at Strasburg, and next sang in 
Italian at Lisbon . About this time she married 



a sculptor named Galli, who died soon after in 
1861. In April 1862, on the production at 
Rouen in French of the ' Bohemian Girl,' she 
attracted the attention of the late Emile Perrin, 
and obtained from him an engagement at the 
Opera Comique, of which he was then director. 
Here she made her debut, August 12, in 'La 
Serva Padrona,' revived for the first time for 
over forty years. She made a great success in 
this, and in a revival of Grisar's ' Les Amours 
du Diable' (1863), since which time she re- 
mained at that theatre until the end of 1885, 
with the exception of engagements in the 
provinces, in Italy, Belgium, and elsewhere. 
Among the operas in which she has appeared 
may be named: — March 24, 1864, 'Lara' 
(Maillart); Dec. 29, 1864, 'Capitaine Henriot' 
(Gevaert) ; Feb. 5, Masse's ' Fior d'Aliza,' and 
Nov. 17, 1866, 'Mignon'; Nov. 23, 1867, 
'Robinson Crusoe,' and Jan. 18, 1872, 'Fan- 
tasio' (Offenbach) ; April 24, 1872, Paladilhe's 
'Passant,' at Chollet's farewell benefit; Nov. 
30, 1872, Massenet's 'Don Cesar'; March 3, 
1875, 'Carmen'; April 11, 1876, Guiraud's 
'Piccolino'; Oct. 31, 1877, Poise's 'Surprise 
de l'Amour'; Jan. 19, 1879, Pessard's 'Le 
Char,' etc., and in revivals of Herold's 'Marie,' 
Grisar's ' Les Porcherons, ' ' Mireille, ' singing 
the parts of Taven and Andreloun, and as the 
heroine Rose Friquet in Maillart's ' Dragons de 
Villars.' As Mignon and Carmen, the most 
important parts created by her, she has earned 
for herself world-wide celebrity. In 1886 she 
played with a French company for a few nights 
at Her Majesty's Theatre as Carmen, in which 
she made her debut, Nov. 8, and as the Gipsy in 
'Rigoletto.' She was well received, but would 
doubtless have appeared to greater advantage 
with the support of a better company. On Dec. 
11, 1890, she reappeared at the Opera Comique 
— then located in the building now called the 
Theatre Sarah -Bernhardt, — as Carmen, with 
Melba as Michaela, Jean de Reszke as Don Jose, 
and Lassalle as Escamillo, in a performance given 
to raise funds for a monument to Bizet. 

'Mme. Galli -Marie should take rank with 
those numerous artists who, although endowed 
with no great voice, have for a century past ren- 
dered to this theatre services made remarkable 
by their talent for acting and their incontestable 
worth from a dramatic point of view. . . . 
Equally capable of exciting laughter or of provok- 
ing tears, endowed with an artistic temperament 
of great originality . . . which has permitted of 
her making out of parts confided to her distinct 
types ... in which she has represented per- 
sonages whose nature and characteristics are 
essentially opposed ' (Pougin). She died at 
Vence, near Nice, Sept. 22, 1905. a. c. 

GALLIA, Maria, incorrectly called Maria 
Margherita by Burney, was a sister of Mar- 
gherita de l'Epine, and pupil of Nicolo Haym. 
She appeared for the first time at the Lincoln's 

h 



138 



GALLIARD 



GALLICULUS 



Inn Fields Theatre in 1703. She sang in 1706 
and 1708 in ■ Camilla,' in the libretti of which 
she is called Joanna Maria. In the former 
year she also performed the principal role in the 
'Temple of Love' by Saggione, 1 to whom she 
was then married. Documents (in the possession 
of the present writer), signed by this composer, 
and by his wife as Maria Gallia Saggione, show 
that they received respectively £150 and £700 
for a season of nine months, — large sums at that 
early date. Gallia appeared in Clayton's ' Rosa- 
mond ' at its production in 1707. She sang 
songs also at the Hay market Theatre ' in Italian 
and English, 'to strengthen the attraction (Daily 
Courant). At this time she must have been 
very young, for we find her singing in ' Alexander 
Balus,' 'Joshua,' etc. in 1748 ; unless indeed, her 
name is incorrectly put for that of Galli. J. M. 
GALLIARD (Ital. Gagliarda ; Fr. Gaillardc). 
An old dance, as its name implies, of a merry 
character. 'I did think,' says Shakespeare, 
4 by the excellent constitution of thy leg that 
it was formed under the star of a galliard.' It 
was generally in 3-2, but sometimes in common 
time. [It was apparently used as a bright 
contrast to the stately pavan, which it always 
followed. In the Fitzwilliam Virginal Boole, 
thereare twenty-four instances in which the pieces 
are thus coupled together, often with identity 
of theme, as in two pieces by Bull quoted below. 
The theme is as follows : — 

The Quadran Pavan. Vol. i. p. 99. 

tr. tr. tr. 

3 



Vol. i. p. 
tr. 



j=$^3=i 



3£E£ 



EJ^S 



Galliard to the Quadran Pavan. 

ttkJT 



Vol. i. p. 117. 



SE 



|35^g^gi 



3SZZZ 



--£=. 



It was described by Praetorius as ' an invention 
of the devil,' and ' full of shameful and obscene 
gestures, and immodest movements.' From the 
fact of its coming from Rome it was also called 

ROMANESCA. E. P. 

GALLIARD, John Ernest, son of a per- 
ruquier of Zell, in Hanover, where he was born 
about 1687. He studied composition under Fari- 
nelli — uncle of the singer, and director of the 
concerts at Hanover — and Steffani. He soon 
attained distinction as a performer on the oboe, 
which he had studied with Marschall, and coining 
to England about 1706 was appointed chamber 
musician to Prince George of Denmark. On the 
death of Draghi, the then sinecure appointment 
of organist at Somerset House was bestowed upon 
him. He speedily learned English, and composed 
a Te Deum and Jubilate and three anthems (' I 
will magnify Thee, O Lord, ' ' O Lord God of 
Hosts,' and ' I am well pleased'), which were per- 
formed at St. Paul's and the Chapel Royal on 
occasions of thanksgiving for victories. In 1 7 1 2 
he composed the music for Hughes's opera 

1 Erroneously attributed to Greber by Burney. 



' Calypso and Telemachus, ' which was performed 
at the Queen's Theatre in the Haymarket. In 1 7 1 3 
he was playing in the orchestra at the opera, 
having a solo part in the accompaniment of the 
last air in the first act of Handel's 'Teseo,' 
From about 1717 he was employed by Rich to 
furnish the music for the curious admixtures of 
masque and harlequinade which he exhibited 
under the name of pantomime, and produced 
several excellent compositions for pieces of that 
description. In 1728 he set for two voices, can- 
tata-wise, the Morning Hymn of Adam and Eve 
from Milton's ' Paradise Lost. ' This admirable 
composition was afterwards enlarged by Dr. 
Benjamin Cooke by the addition of orchestral 
accompaniments and the expansion of some of 
the movements into choruses. In 1742 Galliard 
published a translation of Pier Francesco Tosi's 
Opinioni di Gantori Antichi e Moderni, o sieno 
Osservazioni sopra il Canto Figurato, under the 
title of Observations on the Florid Song; or, 
Sentiments on the Ancient and Modern Singers. 
In 1745 he had a benefit concert at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields Theatre, at which were performed his 
music for the choruses in the tragedy of \ Julius 
Caesar,' by John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham- 
shire, and a piece for twenty- four bassoons and 
four double basses. Galliard died early in 1749, 
leaving a curious collection of music, most of 
which is nowin the Henry Watson Music Library, 
Manchester. Besides the pieces mentioned he 
composed music for ' Pan and Syrinx, ' opera, 
1717; ' Jupiter and Europa, ' pantomime, 1723; 
1 The Necromancer ; or, Harlequin Dr. Faustus, ' 
pantomime, 1723; 'Harlequin Sorcerer, with 
The Loves of Pluto and Proserpine ' (the second 
title afterwards changed to ' The Rape of Proser- 
pine'), pantomime, 1725 ; 'Apollo and Daphne ; 
or, The Burgomaster tricked, ' pantomime, 1726 ; 
' The Royal Chace ; or, Merlin's Cave,' a musical 
entertainment, 1736, in which occurred the 
famous hunting song 'With early horn,' which 
the singing of Beard rendered so extremely 
popular ; music for Lee's tragedy ' Oedipus ' ; 
several cantatas, songs, solos for violin, violon- 
cello, bassoon, etc. At the time of his death 
he had nearly completed the composition of an 
Italian opera, ' Oreste e Pilade, overo la Forza 
dell ' Amicizia. ' Sir John Hawkins conjectured, 
from internal evidence, that Galliard made the 
translation of the Abbe Raguenet's Parallels, 
published in 1709 under the title of A Com- 
parison between the French and Italian Musiclc 
and Operas, with Remarks, and was the author 
of A Critical Discourse upon Operas in England, 
and a Means proposed for their Improvement, 
printed at the end of that translation ; whilst 
Dr. Burney, judging from the same evidence, 
was of a contrary opinion. w. H. H. 

GALLICULUS (probably a Latinised form 
of the German Hahnel or Hahnlein), Joannes, 
theoretical writer and composer, lived in Leipzig 
about 1520. He is thought to have held some 



GALLUS 



GALUPPI 



139 



scholastic post. His theoretical work was first 
entitled ' Isagoge de Compositione Cantus ' 
(Leipzig, 1520), and was dedicated to Georg 
Rhau, who was then Cantor at St. Thomas's, 
Leipzig, and by whom it was afterwards fre- 
quently republished at Wittenberg from 1538 
onwards under the title ' Libellus de composi- 
tione Cantus.' It is Galliculus who tells us of 
Rhau's composition of a Mass a 12 on occasion 
of the Disputation between Luther and Eck at 
Leipzig in 1519. He also expresses the opinion 
which has been practically adopted in later 
times, that choral compositions for four voices 
are the best ; that bass, tenor, alto, and soprano, 
are sufficient for all purposes, and that every 
additional voice-part is so far superfluous, as 
wanting a definite compass. His compositions 
consist of (1) a Passion according to St. Mark 
(in Rhau's 'Harmoniae De Passione Domine,' 
1538) ; (2) some liturgical pieces for Easter and 
Christmas (in Rhau's ' Officia Paschalia,' 1539, 
and ' De Nativitate,' 1545) ; (3) two Magnificats 
(Rhau's 'Vesperarum Officia,' 1540-45); (4) 
Psalm II. Quare fremuerunt a 4 (Ott, 1537). 
For a further account of the Passion Music see 
Otto Kade, Die aeltere Passionscompositionen, 
1893. The part of the Evangelist is set in the 
simple Church Recitative ; the other parts are 
mostly a 4, some a 2. Kade praises highly 
the contrapuntal art and melodic expressiveness 
of Galliculus. J. R. M. 

GALLUS, Jacobus. See Handl. 

GALLUS, Joannes, called in France Jehan 
le Cocq and in the Netherlands Jan le Coick, 
a composer of the 16th century, who was maestro 
di cappella to the Duke of Ferrara in 1534 and 
1541. It is impossible in our present informa- 
tion to say whether his name was really Le 
Cocq or Gallus, for in the customs of the time 
the process of Latinising surnames and that of 
adopting sobriquets were equally common. 
Some compositions of his have been attributed 
to Jhan Gero, but he is not to be confused 
with that composer, or with the other (younger) 
composer called Gallus, whose real name was 
Handl. For works in the various collections, 
printed and in MS., see the Quellen-Lexikon ; 
the first book of madrigals by him and other 
authors was published at Venice in 1541, and 
the motets, called ' Symphonia quatuor modulata 
vocibus,' in 1543. M. 

GALOP. A very spirited quick round dance 
in 2-4 time. Galops have one and sometimes 
two Trios, and are often written with an Intro- 
duction and Coda. 

The dance is of German origin, and its old 
name was Hopser or Rutscher — describing the 
step. It appears to have received that of Galop 
on its introduction into France about the begin- 
ning of the 19th century, where it soon took 
root. g. 

GALOUBET. The French name for the 
tabor-pipe. The instrument is still in use in 



some of the French country districts. (See 
Fingering (Wind Instruments), Pipe and 
Tabor.) f. k. 

GALUPPI, Baldassare, was born on Oct. 
18, 1706, on the island ot Burano, near Venice, 
whence he received the surname of II Buranello, 
by which he was frequently known. His first 
teacher was his father, a barber, who played 
the violin at the local theatre. In 1722 he 
made his first appearance as a composer with 
the opera of ' La Fede nell' Incostanza, ossia 
Gli Amici Rivali. ' It was performed at Vicenza 
under the first title, and at Chioggia under 
the second, being hissed off the stage at one 
if not both places. This determined Galuppi 
to devote himself to the serious study of com- 
position, and he entered the Conservatorio degli 
Incurabili at Venice, where he became a pupil 
of Lotti. In collaboration with his fellow- pupil, 
G. B. Pescetti, he brought out an opera, ' Gli 
odi delusi dal sangue ' (libretto by A. M. Luc- 
chini), at the Teatro S. Angelo at Venice in 
1728, which was followed the next year by 
'Dorinda,' of which the libretto was by Bene- 
detto Pasqualigo (not Marcello, as erroneously 
stated by Allacci). We may conclude that these 
operas were successful, as Galuppi thenceforward 
continued to compose operas by himself, some- 
times as many as five in a year, for Venetian 
theatres. ' Issipile ' (1738) and ' Adriano in 
Siria ' (1740) were composed for Turin, and in 
1741 he went to London, where he arranged 
the pasticcio, 'Alexander in Persia,' for the 
Haymarket. He also composed an original 
opera, 'Penelope,' which was not very success- 
ful. ' The genius of Galuppi, ' says Burney 
(Hist, of Music, iv. 447), 'was not as yet 
matured ; he now copied the hasty, light, and 
flimsy style which reigned in Italy at this time, 
and which Handel's solidity and science had 
taught the English to despise.' The next year's 
opera, however, ' Scipione in Cartagine, ' as well 
as 'Enrico' (1743) and 'Sirbace,' was more 
favourably received, and, though Galuppi him- 
self returned to Venice after their production, 
his music enjoyed a long-continued popularity 
in England. Indeed Burney considered that 
he had more influence on English music than 
any other Italian composer. 

In 1748 Galuppi became vice -maestro di 
cappella at St. Mark's, and in 1762 he became 
principal maestro. The year 1749 appears to 
have seen the beginning of his very successful 
career as a composer of comic operas, with 
'L' Arcadia in Brenta' (libretto by Goldoni), 
produced at the Teatro S. Angelo. In 1750 
he and Goldoni produced ' Arcifanfano Re de' 
Matti,' and in 1754 'II Filosofo di Campagna,' 
the most popular of all his lighter works. It 
was performed in London (Haymarket) in 1761, 
and the following year in Dublin, under the 
title of 'The Guardian Trick'd.' 

In 1766 he was invited to St. Petersburg by 



140 



GAMBA 



GAMBA, VIOLA DA 



the Empress Catherine II., and made a very 
favourable impression with his ' Didone Abban- 
donata ' (Madrid, 1752 ; Venice, 1765). ' II Re 
Pastore ' (Parma, 1762) was given the next 
year, and in 1768 he composed ' Ifigenia in 
Tauride' for the Russian opera-house, after 
which he returned to Venice. He there re- 
sumed his position as director of the Conser- 
vatorio degli Incurabili, to which he had been 
appointed in 1762, and had made the institu- 
tion the most celebrated of its kind when 
Burney visited him in 1770 (Present State of 
Music, i. 175). He died on Jan. 3, 1785. [On 
the centenary of his death, in 1885, a monu- 
ment was erected to his memory at Burano. 
As inquiries are often made by members of 
Browning Societies and others as to the ' Toc- 
cata of Galuppi,' to which Browning referred in 
his poem of that name, it is perhaps well to 
state that no particular composition was taken 
as the basis of the poem.] 

Galuppi's principal claim to remembrance 
rests on his comic operas, in which he showed 
himself fully worthy of his more celebrated 
collaborator, Goldoni. His melody, though 
attractive, is not strikingly original ; but he 
had a firmer grasp of harmony, rhythm, and 
orchestration than most of his Italian contem- 
poraries. He is also important for his contri- 
bution to the development of the concerted 
finale, being apparently the first composer to 
extend the final ensemble of Leo and Logroscino 
into a chain of five or six clearly defined move- 
ments, in the course of which the dramatic 
action* can be said to progress. He did not, 
however, realise the value of gradually increasing 
the number of persons singing ; and compared 
with Mozart's his finales show little feeling for 
the imposing effect of a well -managed musical 
climax, although they certainly are a great 
advance on anything that had been attempted 
before. 

A list of Galuppi's extant works will be 
found in Eitner's Quellen - Lexikon ; for the 
operas the most complete bibliography is that 
of M. Alfred Wotquenne, Baldassare Galuppi, 
Uude bibliographique sur ses ozuvres dramatiques 
(Brussels, 1902). The library of the Brussels 
Conservatoire possesses several of his autograph 
scores. E. J. D. 

GAMBA. An open slotted organ-stop, gener- 
ally of eight-foot pitch, and of a stringy or reedy 
quality of tone. The bearded Gamba has a 
frein, bar, or roller placed in front of the mouth 
of the pipe to augment the amplitude of the 
vibrations. Recent developments of this class 
of stop under the name of Viol d'Orchestre have 
resulted in such pipes possessing a very small 
scale, keen tone, and quick speech. T. E. 

GAMBA, VIOLA DA {gamba, Ital. for 'leg') 
— a knee- viola, as distinguished from viola da 
braccio {braccio, Ital. for ' arm '), or the viola to 
by played on the arm — is an obsolete stringed 



instrument, played with a bow and held between 
the knees : a predecessor of the violoncello. It 
is of about the same size as the violoncello, but 
has a flat back, like a double-bass ; the openings 
in the belly have not the /-shape, but are 
variously cut, generally in a thin crescent. The 
finger-board was originally provided with frets, 




which were afterwards discontinued ; it was 
mounted with six catgut strings, which were 
ultimately increased to seven, the three lowest 
covered with wire. The two kinds were thus 
tuned : — 



£ 



=^^m 



s^£ 



z£ 



The Gamba was for a long period the most 
popular of all bowed instruments, and, especially 
in England (which by some is believed to be its 
original home), Holland, and Germany, appears 
to have been the favourite instrument of society. 
Shakespeare, in 'Twelfth Night,' mentions as a 
special accomplishment of Sir Andrew Aguecheek 
that 'he plays o' the viol -de -gam boys.' In 
the pictures of Gerard Dow, Terburg, and other 
great Dutch masters of the 17th century we see 
again and again richly dressed ladies and gentle- 
men playing the gamba. At one time few noble- 
men's or gentlemen's houses were without a 
' chest,' containing a set of four or more gambas 
of different size, often expensively got up, carved 
and inlaid with ivory or tortoise-shell. This 
popularity of the gamba lasted up to the 
middle of the 18th century, when the violoncello 
began gradually to supersede it. Burney, who 
heard it played by Abel, the last great performer 
upon it in London, describes its tone as ' radi- 
cally crude and nasal,' and adds that 'a human 
voice of the same quality would be considered 



GAMBA, VIOLA DA 



GAMUT 



141 



intolerable. ' This is certainly a somewhat strong 
statement. In tone and character the gamba 
does not materially differ from the tenor of our 
own days ; and its banishment from the modern 
orchestra is easily accounted for by the fact that 
its higher notes are equally well and more easily 
produced on the tenor, while the effect of the 
lower strings is much finer on the violoncello. 
The gamba was handled very much in the same 
way as the violoncello, except that some virtu- 
osi had additional strings attached at the back 
of the neck, on which they played a pizzicato 
accompaniment with the thumb of the left hand, 
[and that the bow was held, like those of all the 
viol family, in the way now associated with the 
double-bass only]. Sebastian Bach was the last 
great composer who wrote for the gamba, and 
he appears to have had a special predilection for 
it. We have from his pen three sonatas for 
clavier and gamba (B.-G. vol. ix.) and a 
number of obbligato accompaniments for airs in 
his cantatas and the Passion Music. He also 
employs it in a Concerto grosso for two viole da 
braccia, two viole da gamba, violoncello, violone, 
and harpsichord, and on other occasions uses it 
to attain special orchestral effects, its peculiar 
beauty being naturally the chords of six or seven 
notes that could be produced. A striking instance 
is the exquisitely beautiful introduction to the 
Cantata 'Gottes Zeit' (B.-G. vol. xxiii. p. 149) 
where we find two separate gamba-parts com- 
bined with flutes, which must have produced a 
very peculiar effect. [Fine compositions were 
written for the instrument in earlier times by 
the Englishmen Daniel Norcome and Christopher 
Sympson ; Marin Marais's suites are remarkably 
beautiful, and among the later composers who 
employed it were Telemann, Aug. Kiihnel, and 
Marcello.] By the end of the 18th century 
most gambas were converted into violoncellos, 
and for that reason are but rarely met with 
nowadays. 

Michael Praetorius in his ' Syntagma musi- 
cum ' (published 1619) distinguishes between the 
' viola di gamba ' and the ' gross viola di gamba, ' 
which he also calls ' violono ' or ' contrabasso di 
gamba.' This latter one we must suppose to 
have been the earlier form of the double-bass, 
which, as a fact, does belong to the viol tribe, 
and not to that of the violin, as is shown by its 
flat back. 

C. F. Abel (died 1787), a pupil of Bach, and 
Lidl, an Englishman (died 1789), were the last 
virtuosi on the gamba. Burney, and Mozart in 
his letters, both speak of the Elector Maximilian 
III. of Bavaria as an accomplished gambist. A 
Mrs. Ottey (1723) and a Miss Ford (1760) are 
recorded among English players of reputation. 
[The art of the viol da gamba as a practical 
instrument has been revived in recent years by 
Miss Helene Dolmetsch.] 

The Italian instrument- makers made gambas 
only down to the middle of the 17 th century, 



when after the general adoption of the violin, 
they seem at once to have supplanted it by the 
violoncello. In England, France, and Germany 
they were made up to the middle of the 18th cen- 
tury. Joachim Tielke of Hamburg (1660-1730) 
had a great reputation as a maker. p. d. 

GAMBLE, John, a violinist in the 17th cen- 
tury, was a pupil of Ambrose Beyland, one of 
the violins to Charles I. He afterwards per- 
formed at one of the theatres, and was a cornet 
player in the Chapel Royal. In 1656 he pub- 
lished ' Ayres and Dialogues to be sung to the 
Theorbo Lute or Bass Viol,' many of the words 
by Thomas Stanley, author of the History of 
Philosophy. In 1659 he published a second 
book entitled 'Ayres and Dialogues for One, 
Two, and Three Yoyces.' [At the Restoration 
he became 'musitian on the cornet' in the 
Chapel Royal ; he lost all his property in the 
fire of London ; and in 1674 his name appears 
as one of the musicians-in-ordinary. He died 
in 1687.— Did. of Nat. Biog.] w. h. h. 

GAMUT, the name of a complicated plan of 
the musical scale (from G to e"), which was in 
use as long as the system of the 
hexachords was recognised ; it is a 
contraction of 'gamma ut,' the 
Greek letter being used to denote 
the first note, or ' Ut ' of the lowest 
hexachord, the lowest note of the 
bass stave. This was the starting- 
point of the first hexachord, and 
the use of the Gamut seems to have 
been as a kind of memoria technica 
in changing from one hexachord to 
another, according to the principles 
of Mutation. It may be remarked 
that a useful part of the Tonic 
Sol-Fa system, by which, in modu- 
lating from the tonic to the domin- 
ant, for instance, the ' soh ' of one 
bar becomes the ' do ' of the next, 
is a survival of the principle for which the 
Gamut existed. The Gamut may, indeed, be 
regarded as the ancestor of the T.S.F. Modu- 
lator. See Hexachord and Tonic Sol-Fa. 
The word ' Gamut ' was sometimes loosely used 
for the whole range of a voice or instrument, 
in the modern sense of c compass.' ' Gamut G ' 
is the organ-builders' name for the note G of 
the bass clef ; and in the old English church 
writers, 'Gamut,' 'A re,' 'E la mi,' and 'F 
fa ut ' are used to denote the keys of the com- 
positions. Without some practical knowledge 
of the Gamut, the point of the scene in 'The 
Taming of the Shrew ' (ii. 1) between Bianca and 
Hortensio, must be in great measure lost. The 
words 'one cliff, two notes have I,' as will be 
seen at once in the annexed reproduction of the 
Gamut, refer to the fact that the note B was 
expressed by a natural and a flat, being in the 
former case the third or ' mi ' of the hexachord 
beginning on G, and in the latter the fourth, 



The Gamut. 


E la. 


D la sol. 


C sol fa. 


B fa. B mi. 


A la mi re. 


G sol re ut. 


F fa ut. 


E la mi. 


D la sol re. 


C sol fa ut. 
B fa. B mi. 
A la mi re. 
G sol re ut. 


P fa ut. 


E la mi. 


D sol re. 


C fa ut. 


B mi. 


A re. 


r ut. 



142 



GANDO 



GARAT 



or ' fa,' of the hexachord beginning on F. This 
small circumstance was the commencement of 
the system of accidentals, and thus opened the 
door for modern modulation. m. 

GANDO, Nicolas, type founder, born at 
Geneva early in the 18th century, resided first 
in Berne and then in Paris, where he established 
a foundry for a new musical type. His son, 
Pierre Francois, born at Geneva, 1733, was his 
assistant and successor. They published Ob- 
servations sur le traUS historique et critique de 
M. Foamier, etc. (Berne and Paris, 1766), with 
the view of showing that Ballard's process was 
an imitation of Breitkopf's. It contained, 
amongst others, specimens of six pieces of ancient 
music printed by Ballard, and a Psalm by 
Roussier in Gando's own characters, and printed 
by his process, the notes and the lines requiring 
a separate impression, and the effect resembling 
copper plate. Fournier replied (see his Manuel 
typographique, pp. 289-306), criticising the Gan- 
dos and their type, which was, however, superior 
to his own, though inferior to those of Breitkopf 
in their own day, and still more to those of 
Duverger and others since. The father died in 
1767, the son in 1800, both in Paris, m. c. c. 

GANZ. A musical family of Mayence. 

1. Adolf, born Oct. 14, 1796, a violinist, 
studied harmony under Hollbusch ; conductor 
at Mayence (1819), capellmeister to the Grand 
Duke of Hesse Darmstadt (1825) ; composed a 
melodrama, overtures, marches, lieder, and 
choruses for men's voices. He came to London 
in 1840, was conductor of the German Opera 
in 1840-42, and died there, Jan. 11, 1870. 

2. His brother, Moritz, a violoncellist of the 
old school, born at Mayence, Sept. 13, 1806, was 
first violoncello under Adolph at Mayence, and 
(1826) in the royal band at Berlin, where he 
succeeded Duport and Romberg. In 1833 he 
visited Paris and London, returning to the latter 
in 1837, when he and his brother Leopold played 
at the Philharmonic on May 1. In 1845 he 
led the violoncellos at the Beethoven Festival 
at Bonn. His tone was full and mellow, and 
his execution brilliant, though his style was of 
the old school. His compositions for his instru- 
ment are numerous, but few only have appeared 
in print. He died Jan. 22, 1868, in Berlin. 

3. The third brother, Leopold, violinist, was 
born at Mayence, Nov. 28, 1810, played much 
with Moritz in the style of the brothers Bohrer, 
whom they succeeded in the royal band at Berlin 
(1826). Leopold was well received at the Hague, 
Rotterdam, and Amsterdam, and in 1837 visited 
England with his brother. They published the 
duets in which their polished and brilliant 
execution had excited so much admiration. 
Leopold died in Berlin, June 15, 1869. m. c. c. 

4. Eduard, son of Adolf, born at Mayence, 
April 29, 1827, came to London with his father 
in 1840, and while in England studied the piano- 
forte with Moscheles and Thalberg ; he settled 



in Berlin, founded a music-school in 1862, and 
died there, Nov. 26, 1869. 

5. Wilhelm, born at Mayence, Nov. 6, 1833, 
paid his first visit to England in 1848, and 
occasionally assisted his father, who was chorus- 
master under Balfe at Her Majesty's Theatre ; 
he thus enjoyed opportunities of hearing the 
finest singers of the day, notably Jenny Lind. 
Ganz returned with his father to Mayence after 
the London season, but settled finally in London 
in 1850. He studied harmony, etc. with Carl 
Eckert, Carl Anschiitz, and others. From about 
1856, when he was engaged as accompanist 
for Jenny Lind's tour through England and 
Scotland, he has been almost constantly associ- 
ated with the great prime donne in succession. 
For some years he was organist at the German 
Lutheran church in the Strand ; and he played 
second violin in Dr. H. Wylde's New Phil- 
harmonic Society, at the establishment of that 
institution in 1852. In 1874 Ganz was con- 
ductor jointly with Wylde, and in 1879, on the 
latter's resignation, undertook the enterprise 
alone, carrying the concerts on at first under the 
old name, and subsequently, after 1880, as 'Mr. 
Ganz's Orchestral Concerts,' for three seasons, 
during which such large works as Berlioz's 
' Symphonie Fantastique,' and Liszt's 'Dante 
Symphony ' were heard for the first time in 
London in their entirety. Among the artists 
who first appeared at these concerts were Mme. 
Essipoff, Mme. Sophie Menter, Saint-Saens, 
Pachmann, and others. Ganz has been for 
many years a professor of singing at the Guild- 
hall School of Music, and a Jubilee concert was 
held in his honour in 1898. M. 

GARAT, Pierre Jean, born at Ustaritz, April 
25, 1764, died in Paris, March 1, 1823, the most 
extraordinary French singer of his time. He 
was the son of an avocat, and destined for the 
bar, but early manifested a passion for music, 
which he studied under Franz Beck, composer 
and conductor at Bordeaux. He seems, however, 
never to have gone deeply into the subject, for 
he was a poor reader, and owed his success to 
his natural gifts and the opportunity he enjoyed 
of hearing Gluck's works and of comparing the 
artists at the French and Italian operas in Paris. 
He possessed a fine-toned expressive voice of 
unusual compass, including both baritone and 
tenor registers, an astonishing memory, and a 
prodigious power of imitation, and may fairly 
be said to have excelled in all styles ; but his 
great predilection throughout his life was for 
Gluck's music. Having been the favourite 
singer of Marie Antoinette, who twice paid his 
debts, he fled from Paris during the Terror, and 
with Rode took refuge at Hamburg, where the 
two gave very successful concerts. After his 
return to France at the end of 1794 he appeared 
at the • Concert Feydeau '(17 9 5) and the ' Concert 
de la rue Clery ' with such brilliant success 
that he was appointed professor of singing at 



GARCIA 



GARCIA 



143 



the Conservatoire in 1799. Among his pupils 
were Roland, Nourrit, Desperamons, Ponchard, 
Levasseur, Mmes. Bar bier- Walbonne, Chevalier- 
Branchu, Duret, Boulanger, Rigaut, and Mile. 
Duchamp, whom he married when he was rifty- 
five. He retained his voice till he was fifty, 
and when that failed him tried to attract the 
public by eccentricities of dress and behaviour. 
He composed several romances, ' Belisaire, ' ' Le 
Menestrel,' 'Autrefois,' ' Je t'aime tant,' etc., 
extremely popular in their day, but now so 
monotonous and uninteresting as to make it 
evident that the style in which Garat sang them 
alone ensured their success. G. c. 

GARCIA, a Spanish family of musicians, who 
have been well characterised as ' representative 
artists, whose power, genius, and originality have 
impressed a permanent trace on the record of the 
methods of vocal execution and ornament' 
(Chorley). Various church musicians of the 
name were eminent at different times in Spain, 
notably Don Francisco Saverio (1731-1809) who 
was maestro de capilla at Saragossa, and wrote 
an oratorio 'Tobia' in 1752. He may have 
been related to the family of singers, the founder 
of which, Manuel del Popolo Vicente, was 
born at Seville, Jan. 22, 1775. Beginning as a 
chorister in the Cathedral at the age of six, at 
seventeen he was already well known as composer, 
singer, actor, and conductor. By 1805 he had 
established his reputation at home, and his pieces 
— chiefly short comic operas — were performed 
all over Spain. He made his debut in Paris, 
Feb. 11, 1808, in Paer's 'Griselda,' singing in 
Italian for the first time. Within a month he 
had become the chief singer at that theatre. In 
1809 he produced his ' Poeta calculista,' origin- 
ally brought out at Madrid in 1805. In 1811 
he set out for Italy. At Naples Murat appointed 
him (1812) first tenor in his chapel. There he 
met Anzani, one of the best tenors of the old 
Italian school, by whose hints he profited largely. 
There also, still combining the roles of singer 
and composer, he produced his ' Califfo di Bagdad, ' 
which obtained an immense success. In 1815 
Rossini wrote for him one of the principal roles 
in ' Elisabetta, ' and in 1816 that of Almaviva. 
About the end of 1 8 1 6 he returned from Naples 
to England, and thence to Paris, where he revived 
his ' Califfo, ' produced ' Le Prince d'occasion,' 
and sang in Catalani's troupe, where he made a 
great hit as Paolino in the ' Matrimonio Segreto. ' 
Annoyed by Catalani's management, he left 
Paris for London about the end of 1817. In 
the ensuing season he sang in the ' Barbiere ' 
with Mme. Fodor, and in other operas, with 
much eclat. In 1819 he returned to Paris, and 
sang in the ' Barbiere,' not till then heard there. 
There he remained till 1823, performing in 
'Otello,' 'Don Giovanni,' etc., and composing 

* La mort du Tasse ' and ' Florestan ' for the 
Grand Opera, besides ' Fazzoletto ' at the Italiens, 

* La Meuniere ' at the Gymnase, and three others 



which never reached the stage. In the spring 
of 1823 he reappeared in London, where he was 
still a most effective singer (Ebers). Here he 
founded his famous school of singing. He sang 
in London again in 1824 in ' Zelmira ' and ' Ric- 
ciardo e Zoraide.' In the same year his 'Deux 
contrats' was given at the Opera Comique. 
In 1825 he was in London again, his salary 
having risen from £260 (1823) to £1250. He 
continued to gain still greater fame by teaching 
than by singing, and his fertility as a composer 
was shown by at least two Italian operas 
'Astuzia e prudenza ' and ' Un Avertimento.' 
The education of his illustrious daughter Marie, 
subsequently Mme. Malibran, was now completed, 
and under his care she made her debut. [See 
Malibran.] He then realised the project he 
had long entertained of founding an opera at 
New York, and set out with that object from 
Liverpool, taking with him an Italian company, 
which included the young Crivelli as tenor, his 
own son Manuel and Angrisani, De Rosich, Mme. 
Barbieri, Mme. Garcia, and his daughter. At 
New York he produced no less than eleven new 
Italian operas in a single year. In 1827 he 
went to Mexico, where he brought out eight 
operas, all apparently new. After eighteen 
months' stay, he set out to return with the 
produce of this hard toil ; but the party was 
stopped by brigands, and he was denuded of 
everything, including nearly £6000 in gold. 

Garcia now returned to Paris, where he re- 
appeared at the Italiens. He then devoted 
himself to teaching; and died June 2, 1832. 
Garcia was a truly extraordinary person. His 
energy, resource, and accomplishments may be 
gathered from the foregoing brief narrative. 
His singing and acting were remarkable for verve 
and intelligence. He was a good musician, and 
wrote with facility and effect, as the list of his 
works sufficiently shows. Fetis enumerates no 
less than seventeen Spanish, nineteen Italian, 
and seven French operas. Words and music 
seem to have been alike easy to Mm. His most 
celebrated pupils were his daughters Marie — 
Mme. Malibran, and Pauline — Mme. Viardot, 
Mmes. Rimbault, Ruiz-Garcia, Meric-Lalande, 
Favelli, Comtesse Merlin ; Adolphe Nourrit, 
Geraldy, and his son Manuel Garcia. 

Manuel Garcia was born at Madrid, March 
17, 1805. His education began early, and at 
fifteen he received instruction in harmony from 
Fetis, and in singing from his father. In 1825 
he accompanied his father to America. Once 
more in Paris (1829) he quitted the stage, and 
devoted himself to teaching. A little later he 
undertook a serious scientific inquiry into the 
conformation of the vocal organs, the limits of 
registers, and the mechanism of singing ; of 
which the results were two — (1) his invention 
of the Laryngoscope, the value of which is now 
universally recognised by physicians and artists, 
and (2) his Memoire sur la voix humaine, 



144 



GARCIN 



GARDINER 



presented to the French Institut in 1840, which 
may be said to be the foundation of all subse- 
quent investigations into the voice. Appointed 
professor of singing at the Conservatoire, he 
published in 1847 his Traite complet de Vart du 
chant, which has been translated into Italian, 
German, and English, and has gained a world- 
wide reputation. Among his pupils were Mmes. 
Jenny Lind, Catherine Hayes, Henriette Nissen, 
M. Bataille, and his son Gustave. In 1848 
Garcia resigned his position at the Conservatoire, 
and came to London, where he was appointed a 
Professor at the Royal Academy of Music, a post 
which he retained until 1895. On March 17, 
1905, his hundredth birthday was celebrated by 
a banquet, at which many eminent persons were 
present. His portrait, by J. S. Sargent, R.A., 
was presented to him earlier in the day. Among 
other distinctions, special orders were conferred 
upon him by the sovereigns of England, Ger- 
many, and Spain. [See also Malibran, and 

VlARDOT.] J. M. 

GARCIN, Jules Auguste (real name Salo- 
mon), violinist and conductor, born at Bourges, 
July 11, 1830. He came of a family of artists, his 
maternal grandfather, Joseph Garcin, being di- 
rector of a travelling company which performed 
opera - comique in the central and southern 
provinces of France for nearly twenty years with 
great success. At the age of thirteen Garcin 
entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied 
the violin under Clavel and Alard ; he gained 
the first prize in 1853, and in 1856 became a 
member of the opera orchestra, and after a 
competitive examination was appointed (1871) 
first solo violin and third conductor. In 1878 
he was appointed second conductor at the con- 
certs of the Universal Exhibition. From 1860 he 
was a member of the orchestra of the Concerts 
du Conservatoire, first as solo violin, and then as 
second conductor in place of Altes, who had be- 
come first conductor at the opera at the end of 
1879. At that time the first conductor of the 
Societe des Concerts was Deldevez, who had re- 
placed Hainl in 1872. In 1885, Deldevez having 
retired on account of health, Garcin was elected 
conductor of the Societe des Concerts with a 
majority of twenty-six votes over Guiraud. 

Garcin, who was a pupil of Bazin for harmony, 
and of Adam and Ambroise Thomas for com- 
position, wrote a number of works for violin 
and orchestra or piano, the most prominent of 
which is a concerto played by himself at the Con- 
servatoire, at the Concerts Populaires in 1868. 
He was an experienced and conscientious artist, 
without the exaggerated gestures and manner 
which too often deceive the public. He retired in 
1892, and died in Paris, Oct. 10, 1896. A. J. 

GARDANE, Antonio, a composer, printer, 
and publisher of music in Venice from 1538 to 
1569. From and after 1557 his name is given 
as Gardano. After 1570 his sons Cipriano and 
Annibale published a few works, and an Angelo 



Gardano, whose relationship does not appear, 
many more. [There was an Alessandro in a 
small way at Rome who published between 1583 
and 1623 {Quellcn-Lexikon).~\ The Venice house 
lasted till 1619. Their publications consist of 
the Masses, Psalms, Motets, Madrigals, Canzoni, 
and other compositions, of Arcadelt, Jachet, 
Lasso, Rore, Nanini, and other great Flemish 
and Italian writers, and fill many volumes. 
[See Eitner, Bibliog. der Sammelwerke, Quellen- 
Lexikon, and Vogel, Bibl. d. ged. Welti. Vocal- 
musik Italiens.~\ g. 

GARDINER, William, the son of a stocking 
manufacturer at Leicester, was born in that town 
March 15, 1770. He became an assistant to his 
father in his business, to which he afterwards 
succeeded, and which he carried on during the 
rest of his life. But the taste for music never 
forsook him. His business occasionally required 
him to visit the continent, and he availed himself 
of such opportunities to become acquainted with 
the works of the best foreign composers, par- 
ticularly of the great German masters, so that 
for a long period he knew more about their 
productions, especially those of Beethoven, than 
the majority of English professors. [See Thayer, 
Beethoven, i. 441.] Both at home and abroad 
he sought and obtained the acquaintance of the 
best musicians of all ranks, both professors and 
amateurs. In his youth he composed some songs 
and duets, which were published as the produc- 
tions of ' W. G. Leicester. ' He next produced, 
under the title of ' Sacred Melodies,' a selection 
of pieces by the best masters, chiefly foreign, 
adapted to English words, which he hoped 
might be adopted in our churches to the exclusion 
of the clumsy verses of Sternhold and Hopkins, 
and Tate and Brady. Six volumes of this work 
appeared at distant intervals, and it included a 
volume of selections from the works of English 
cathedral composers. It must be confessed 
that the Procrustean plan was followed with 
the music in order to fit it to the words ; yet, 
notwithstanding, the work had the merit of 
introducing to the notice of the English public 
many fine compositions. In 1817 Gardiner 
edited and added notes to the Rev. C. Berry's 
translation of Beyle's Life of Haydn and R. 
Brewin's translation of Schlichtergroll's Life of 
Mozart, and other pieces. He next compiled an 
oratorio, entitled 'Judah' (1821), by adapting 
English words to music selected principally from 
the masses of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, 
and connected by compositions of his own. He 
wrote to Beethoven offering him 100 guineas for 
an overture to this work, but received no reply, 
owing, as he supposed, to the miscarriage of his 
letter. In 1832 he published a work, entitled 
The Music of Nature ; or, an attempt to prove 
that what is passionate and pleasing in the art of 
singing, speaking, and performing upon musical 
instruments, is derived from the sounds of the 
animated world. The musical examples were 



GARDONI 

published separately. In 1 8 3 8 he published two 
volumes called Music and Friends ; or, Pleasant 
Recollections of a Dilettante — the utility of 
which is much impaired by its frequent inac- 
curacy, — with a third volume in 1853. In 1840 
he adapted Pope's Universal Prayer to music 
by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Sights in 
Italy, with some Account of the present State 
of Music and the Sister Arts in that Country, 
appeared in 1847. Besides these works Gardiner 
composed a few anthems. He died at Leicester, 
Nov. 16, 1853, in the eighty- fourth year of his 
age. w. h. h. 

GARDONI, Italo, born at Parma late in 
1821, studied singing under De' Cesari. He 
made his debut at Viadana in 1840 in ' Roberto 
Devereux.' In the same year he was engaged 
by Ronzani, with whom he went to Turin and 
Berlin, where he sang the role of Rodrigo, with 
Rubini as Otello. Rubini took a great fancy 
for the young artist, and predicted for him a 
brilliant career. Gardoni sang during two 
seasons at Milan, and afterwards at Brescia. 
Thence he went to Vienna, and sang, in company 
with Viardot, Alboni, and Tadolini, in the 'Bar- 
biere,' 'Linda,' etc. In 1844-45 he appeared 
at the Academie Royale, creating the tenor parts 
in 'Marie Stuart,' ' L'Ame en peine,' etc. In 
Paris Gardoni remained for three years, singing 
the principal roles in the ' Favorite,' ' Robert le 
Diable,' 'Charles Six,' etc. In 1847 he went to 
the Theatre des Italiens, and in the same spring 
made his first appearance at Her Majesty's 
Theatre, and ' by his charm of person and of 
voice (somewhat slight though the latter has 
proved) did more to reconcile the public to the 
loss of Signor Mario than could have been expected. 
A word is his due — as the due of a real artist, 
who has finished every phrase that he has sung, 
and has pointed every word that he has said. 
There has always been the real Italian elegance 
— and that more universal elegance which belongs 
to no country — in Signor Gardoni ' (Chorley). 
Here he created the tenor role in Verdi's ' Mas- 
nadieri.' Since then, with the exception of a 
few seasons spent at St. Petersburg, Madrid, 
Amsterdam, and Rome, Gardoni came every 
spring to London, and returned to Paris (Italiens) 
for the winter. 

Gardoni belonged to the mezzo carattere class 
of tenors. His repertoire was rather exception- 
ally large ; for he sang in the 'Barbiere,' ' L'lta- 
liana in Algieri,' and 'Le Comte Ory,' as well 
as in the 'Puritani,' 'Sonnambula,' 'Robert le 
Diable,' 'Masaniello,' and Gounod's 'Faust.' 
He was a member of the 'Societe de Bienfaisance 
Italienne ' of Paris, and a chevalier of the Co- 
rona d' Italia. He married a daughter of Tam- 
burini, August 14, 1847 ; and in 1874 retired 
from the stage, dying on March 30, 1 882. j. m. 

GARLANDIA, Johannes de. The works 
on music which appeared under this name were 
formerly ascribed to a Gerlandus who, owing to 

VOL. II 



GARLANDIA 



145 



some confusion of dates, was said to have flour- 
ished in 1041, but who was afterwards identified 
with the mathematician Gerlandus, canon of the 
abbey of St. Paul at Besancon in the middle of 
the 12th century. It appears, however, more 
probable that the writer ou music, Johannes de 
Garlandia, was identical with the grammarian 
and poet of that name who flourished nearly a 
century later. Of the life of this latter we 
gather several particulars from his great work 
De triumphis Ecclesiae (finished in 1252), of 
which the British Museum possesses an almost 
contemporary copy (Claudius A. X.), which has 
been printed by Mr. Thomas Wright. Born in 
England [or in Co. Louth, Ireland, w. h. g. f.] 
late in the 12th century, Johannes de Garlandia 
studied first at Oxford, about 1206 and afterwards, 
about 1212 at Paris. Here he opened a school 
in the Clos de Garlande, since known as the 
Rue Gallande, from which he is supposed to have 
derived his name de Garlandia, or, as one early 
writer spells it, de Gallandia. It was probably 
about this time that he wrote his treatise on 
music. In 1218 we find him present at the siege 
of Toulouse, apparently himself taking part in 
the crusade against the Albigenses. It was to 
this place also that he was invited in 1229 to 
assist in the formation of the newly founded 
University; and here he remained till 1232, 
when he and his colleagues were forced to leave 
owing to the persecution to which they were 
subjected at the hands of the Dominicans and 
others. They escaped after many dangers to 
Paris, where John de Garlandia was still residing 
in 1245. Here no doubt were written most of 
his poems on historical and theological subjects, 
and his grammatical treatises. The titles of 
his musical works which have come down to us 
are two fragments, De fstulis and De nolis, 
printed by Gerbert from a MS. at Vienna ; — 
De musica mensurabili positio, of which there 
are MSS. at Paris and Rome ; in this work the 
author figures as a composer, giving, among 
many other examples of his own, one in double 
counterpoint ; — a treatise, De cantu piano, to 
which he himself refers in the last-mentioned 
work ; this may be the Introductio musice 
plane et etiam mensurabilis in the St. Die" MS. 
— Philip de Vitry refers to other works by de 
Garlandia, of whom he writes as ' quondam in 
studio Parisino expertissimum atque probatis- 
simum.' The Optima introductio in contra- 
punctum pro rudibus, contained in MSS. at Pisa 
and Einsiedeln, should perhaps be assigned to a 
Johannes de Garlandia of a later date ; or, if the 
work of the same man, must have been written 
by him when at an advanced age. The same 
may be said of the extracts quoted by Handlo 
and Hanboys. Most of the above works are 
printed by de Coussemaker. 

A John de Garlandia is mentioned by Roger 
Bacon as eminent at Paris apparently shortly 
before 1267. a. h.-h. 



146 



GARRETT 



GASSIER 



GARRETT, Dr. George Mursell, was born 
at Winchester, June 8, 1834. In 184 4 he entered 
the choir of New College, Oxford, where he 
studied under Dr. S. Elvey until 1848. He then 
returned to Winchester and studied for six years 
with Dr. S. S. Wesley, to whom he acted as 
assistant from 1851 to 1854, when he accepted 
the post of organist at the cathedral of Madras, 
but returned to England in 1857 on his appoint- 
ment as organist at St. John's College, Cambridge. 
Dr. Garrett took the degree of Mus.B. in 1857, 
and that of Mus.D. in 1867. In May 1873 
he succeeded J. L. Hopkins as organist to the 
University. In Nov. 1878, by grace of the 
senate, he received the degree of M.A. propter 
merita, a distinction which had never been pre- 
viously conferred on a musician who did not fill 
a professorial chair. Dr. Garrett was also an 
examiner for the University, the Local Examin- 
ation, and the Irish Intermediate Education 
Board ; University Lecturer on Harmony ; an 
Honorary Fellow of Trinity College, London ; 
and a member of the Philharmonic Society. 
His compositions include a sacred cantata, ' The 
Shunammite ' (performed by the Cambridge 
University Musical Society in 1882 and at the 
Hereford Festival in the same year), church 
music, songs, part-songs, and a few pieces for 
the organ ; but it is chiefly as a composer of 
services that he won his wide reputation. He 
died at Cambridge, April 8, 1897. w. b. s. 

GASCHET (or GACHET), John. Originally 
a stationer in Hereford, who settled at York in 
or before the year 1516, living within the Minster 
Close. It may be claimed that he was the first 
English provincial music publisher, for he issued 
at least six musical service books according to the 
usage of the York Cathedral, — a Missal, 1516, 
a Breviary, 1526, a Processional, 1530, and 
other works. These will be found fully described 
in Davies's Memoirs of the York Press, 1868. 
It has been suggested that Gaschet was also a 
printer, but this is rather doubtful. The Missal 
of 1516 was printed by one Peter Oliver, and 
it was afterwards reprinted on the Continent. 
After Gaschet's time there is no evidence that 
any one of the York presses printed music until 
the beginning of the 18th century. Psalm 
books from movable music type are found with 
York imprints bearing dates 1715-20, etc. ; 
general music came forty years after this latter 
date f K 

GASPAR DI SAL6. See SaiA 

GASPARINI, Francesco, born at Camajore 
near Lucca, March 5, 1668, was a pupil, first of 
Corelli and afterwards of Bernardo Pasquini, 
was Maestro di Coro at the Ospedale di Pieta 
in Venice, and a member of the Accademia 
Filarmonica. In 1725 he was elected maestro 
by the Chapter of St. John Lateran, but he was 
already in broken health at the time of his 
appointment, and retired upon half-pay in August 
of the following year. He retained his post 



nominally, with Girolamo Chiti for a coadjutor, 
[until his death, which took place on March 22, 
1727]. The celebrated Benedetto Marcello was 
his pupil for many years both at Venice and at 
Rome, and a correspondence between them, 
continued up to a few weeks before the death of 
Gasparini, testifies to the esteem in which the 
great scholar held his master. A professional 
conflict between Gasparini and A. Scarlatti, the 
origin of which was unknown to Baini, took the 
form of an exchange of cantatas, by no means a 
regrettable method of retort between rival and 
disputative artists. 

Gasparini wrote equally well for the church 
and for the stage, and Clement gives a list 
of thirty-two operas. Several of them were 
favourites in London in the early part of the 
century. [His oratorios were ' Mose liberato 
dal Nilo' (Vienna, 1703), 'Nascita di Cristo' 
and 'Nozze di Tobia' (1724), 'Santa Maria 
egittiaca,' and 'L'Atalia.' Qucllen-Lexikon.] 
He also composed several cantatas. But the 
work by which he is now best remembered 
is his treatise upon accompaniment entitled 
IJ Armonico prattico al cembalo, ovvero regole, 
osservazioni ed avertimenti per ben suonare il 
basso e accompagnare sopra il cembalo, spinetta 
ed organo, 1708. This work was republished 
as lately as 1802 at Venice, and has maintained 
its position in Italy even since the appearance 
of the clearer and better arranged treatise of 
Fenaroli. [Ceru's mistake of ten years in the 
dates of appointment to the Lateran, and 
death (Cenni Storici dell' insegnamento della 
musica in Lucca) was followed in various diction- 
aries, and in the appendix to the first edition 
of the present work. It has been fully dis- 
proved in an interesting article by Enrico Celani 
in the Rivista Musicale Italiana, vol. xi. 
p. 228, entitled ' II primo amore di Pietro 
Metastasio.'] e. h. p. 

GASSIER, Edouard, born 1822 (Pougin), 
was taught singing at the Conservatoire, Paris, 
and in 1844 gained the first prize for opera and 
opera-comique, and the second prize for singing. 
On April 22, 1845, he made a successful debut 
at the Opera Comique in Paris as Fiesque on 
the production of Auber's ' Barcarolle.' He 
soon left that theatre for Italian opera, and 
played on the stages of Palermo, Milan, Vienna, 
and Venice. In 1848 he married Josefa Fer- 
nandez (see below). From 1849 to 1852 the 
Gassiers were engaged in Spain, and in 1854 
at the Italiens, Paris, where Gassier made his 
debut as Assur in ' Semiramide. ' Chorley heard 
him in the part, and described him ' as more 
competent than interesting ... a voice not 
of first-rate quality, wanting strength ' ; but he 
admitted that he sang the difficult and florid 
music very well. On Dec. 23 of this year he 
sang as Ferrando on the production in Paris of 
'Trovatore.' In 1855 the Gassiers were en- 
gaged at Drury Lane in Italian opera under 



GASSMANN 



GATES 



147 



E. T. Smith, where Gassier made his debut, 
April 16, as the Count in • Sonnambula,' and 
later played Figaro in ■ II Barbiere, ' and Mala- 
testa in ' Don Pasquale, ' his wife being the 
heroine on each occasion. In 1860 he was 
engaged alone by Smith at Her Majesty's ; 
in 1861 with Mme. Gassier at the Lyceum under 
Mapleson, where they sang together as Samuel 
and Oscar in the production in England of 
Verdi's ' Ballo in Maschera,' and as Don Juan 
and Zerlina. From 1862 to 1867 Gassier was 
engaged at Her Majesty's, and in 1868 at Drury 
Lane under Mapleson, and sang the usual 
baritone repertory ; and in the operas new to 
England — in 18b3 as Troilo in Schira's 'Nicolo 
de' Lapi,' and Mephistopheles in ' Faust' ; in 
1864 as Page in Nicolai's 'Merry Wives,' and 
Ambrose in Gounod's 'Mireille' ; in 1866 Thoas 
in Gluck's ' Iphigenie en Tauride ' ; in 1867 
Pirro in a revival of Verdi's 'Lombardi,' Fra 
Melitone in ' La Forza del Destino,' Figaro in 
the ' Nozze,' etc. In 1870 he sang under Wood 
at Drury Lane in two operas new to England — 
May 12 as Don Beltrano in Mozart's 'L'Oca 
del Cairo,' and, July 5, Laertes in 'Mignon.' 
He was a very useful singer and actor, and 
withal, according to Santley, ' a very good 
comrade.' He died in Havana, Dec. 18, 1871. 

His wife, Josefa, ne'e Fernandez, was born 
in 1821 at Bilbao. She was originally a chorus- 
singer, but later was taught singing by Pasini, 
a favourite tenor of the period. On April 8, 
1846, she made her debut at Her Majesty's as 
Elvira in ' Ernani, ' according to Chorley ; but 
she was admittedly a failure. Later >she sang 
in Spain, Milan, and Genoa. In 1855 at Drury 
Lane she made a great temporary success as 
Amina, Lucia, Norma, and Rosina in ' II Bar- 
biere. ' In this opera she introduced with great 
success 'Ah che assorta,' called the Gassier 
vocal waltz, composed for her by the Genoese 
composer Venzano. At the end of the season, 
according to the Musical World, she was pre- 
sented with the managerial testimonial of a 
magnificent piece of plate. In the autumn she 
sang at Jullien's Concerts, Co vent Garden. In 
1858 she sang again under Smith at the same 
theatre, and in 1861 with Mapleson at the 
Lyceum, with diminished favour. Chorley 's 
description of her in the Athenceum was that 
she was 'one of the sour and acute soprani, — 
still the effect she produced in certain parts by 
the dash and audacity of her execution ' was 
such that Meyerbeer wanted her to sing at 
Covent Garden as Catherine in * L'Etoile,' ' a 
notion of which he was only dispossessed by 
the lady's utter physical unfitness for . . . 
male attire ' {Athenceum). She died at Madrid, 
Nov. 8, 1866. a. c. 

GASSMANN, Florian Leopold, born May 
4, 1729, at Briix in Bohemia : in 1736 ran 
away from his father, who wished to educate him 
as a merchant. By playing the harp he worked 



his way to Bologna, where he studied for two 
years under Padre Martini. He then entered 
the service of Count Leonardi Veneri at Venice, 
and his compositions were soon in general request. 
In 1762 he was invited to Vienna as a ballet- 
composer. In 1771 he had entered on his new 
office and suggested the formation of the ' Ton- 
kiinstler Societat,' a Fund for the Widows and 
Orphans of Vienna musicians, a society which in 
1862 was reorganised under the name of the 
' Haydn.' See Pohl's Denkschrift, etc. (Vienna, 
1871). On the death of Reutter, the Emperor 
Joseph II. appointed him in March 1772 Court 
capellmeister with a salary of 800 ducats. 
Gassmann died at Vienna, Jan. 22, 1774, owing 
to a fall from his carriage. He composed twenty- 
three Italian operas, of which two were translated 
into German, ' L' Amor artigiana ' by Neefe and 
'La Contessina' by Hiller. [See list in the 
Quellen-Lexikon.~\ He also composed an oratorio, 
' La Betulia liberata ' (Vienna, 1771), and much 
church music, which Mozart thought more of 
than of his operas (Letter, Feb. 5, 1783). When 
at Leipzig, he said to Doles, who could not quite 
join in his praises, ' Papa, if you only knew all 
we have of his in Vienna ! As soon as I get 
back I shall study him in earnest, and hope to 
learn a great deal.' Gassmann cannot be said 
to have exercised any special influence on the 
development of musical form effected during 
his time by Emanuel Bach, Haydn, and Mozart. 
His best pupil was Salieri, who educated Gass- 
mann's daughters as opera - singers after their 
father's death. f. g. 

GASTOLDI, Giovanni Giacomo, born at 
Caravaggio about the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury ; maestro di cappella at Santa Barbara in 
Mantua [from about 1581 until his death, which 
seems to have taken place in the first decade of 
the 17th century.] He was the author of ' Bal- 
letti a 5 per cantare, suonare, e ballare ' (Venice, 
1591-95 ; Antwerp, 1596), which are said to 
have served Morley as models for his ' Ballets or 
Fa-las.' His later collections are ' Balletti a 3 
voci,' etc. 1594, and ' Canzonette a 3 voci.' Two 
of them are well known to English amateurs 
under the names of ' Maidens fair of Mantua's 
city,' and ' Soldiers brave and gallant be.' Two 
others, ' Viver lieto voglio, ' and ' A lieta vita, ' 
are given by Burney in his History of Music. 
These were adopted as Hymn tunes by Linde- 
mann in 1597 to the words 'Jesu, wollst uns 
weisen, ' and ' In dir ist Freude ' respectively 
(Dbring, ' Choralkunde, ' 45). [A magnificat 
and two madrigals are in vol. ii. of V Arte 
Musicale in Italia, and ' Al mormorar ' in 
Ausgewahlte Madrigale.~\ f. g. 

GATES, Bernard. Second son of Bernard 
Gates of Westminster, Gent. Born probably in 
1685, is mentioned in 1702 as one of the Chil- 
dren of the Chapel Royal ; was made a Gentle- 
man of the same in 1708 in place of John Howell, 
who died July 1 5, and Master of the Choristers, 



148 



GAUL 



GAULTIER 



vice J. Church [at some time before 1732] ; 
resided in James Street, Westminster. He was 
a member of the choir of Westminster Abbey, 
and held the sinecure office, now abolished, of 
Tuner of the Regals in the King's household — 
see the memorial tablet at Aston. 

His chief claim to mention is his connection 
with Handel, whose ' Esther ' was acted under 
Gates's care by the Children of the Chapel Royal 
at his house, Feb. 23, 1732, and afterwards at 
the King's Theatre, Haymarket. He also sang 
one of the airs in the Dettingen Te Deum on its 
first performance in 1743. [In 1737 his wife 
died and he retired to North Aston near Oxford, 
where he died, Nov. 15, 1773, at the age of 
eighty-eight (according to the epitaph at West- 
minster). He was buried in the north cloister 
of the Abbey on Nov. 23 ; he bequeathed his 
property to Dr. T. S. Dupuis with a further 
remainder to Dr. Arnold. He composed a 
service in F, and some single songs. His portrait 
is in the Music School Collection at Oxford. 
(Corrections from Diet, of Nat. Biog. etc.).] G. 

GAUL, Alfred Robert, born at Norwich, 
April 30, 1837, was a chorister in Norwich 
Cathedral from 1846, and was afterwards articled 
pupil and assistant to Dr. Buck. He held the 
post of organist in succession at Fakenham, 
St. John's, Lady Wood, Birmingham, and St. 
Augustine's, Edgbaston. He took the degree 
of Mus.B. at Cambridge in 1863. He was 
appointed conductor of the Walsall Philharmonic 
Society in 1887, and has been teacher of harmony 
and counterpoint at the Birmingham and Mid- 
land Institute, and other places. His works, 
the superficial fluency of which has won them a 
wide popularity, include ' Hezekiah, ' oratorio, 
Amateur Harmonic Association, Birmingham, 
1861 ; Psalm i. 1863 ; 'Ruth,' sacred cantata, 
1881; 'The Holy City' (Gaul's best-known 
work), Birmingham Festival, 1882 ; Passion 
Music, 1883 ; Psalm cl. London Church Choir 
Association, 1886 ; ' Joan of Arc,' Birmingham 
Festival Choral Society, 1887 ; 'The Ten Virgins,' 
1890 ; 'Israel in the Wilderness,' Crystal Palace, 
1892; and 'Una,' Norwich Festival, 1893. 
Many psalms, hymn- tunes, chants, part-songs, 
etc. and some pianoforte pieces, are also in- 
cluded among his compositions. Brit. Mus. 
Biog. 

GAULTIER, Denys, and Gaultier 'le 
vieux,' the last two members of a celebrated 
family of lute players, or ' lutheriens ' as they 
were then called, lived in Paris during Louis 
XIII. 's reign. Titon du Tillet {Le parnasse 
francois, 1732) states that they both came 
from Marseilles, but in a lute codex in the 
Bibliotheque nationale, Paris (Vm. 2659, No. 
5), is an ' Allemande giguee de Gautier de 
Lion ' which occurs again in four other lute- 
books and is in each case called ' Gigue du 
vieux Gaultier,' so it seems probable that 
Gaultier ' le vieux,' born about 1597, lived 



originally in Lyons. (0. Fleischer, Denis 

Gaultier, Vierteljahrs. fur Musikwiss. 1886.) 
It is just possible that this Gaultier was ' Mr. 
Gootiere, the famous lutenist in his time ' (Thos. 
Mace, Musick's Monument, 1676, p. 48), the 
Jacques Gaultier or James Gouter, court-lutenist 
in England from 1617 to 1647, whom Con- 
stantin Huygens met in London in 1622. 
In October 1647 Gaultier sent him 'quelques 
petites choses de nostre luth et quelques airs a 
chanter,' presumably of his own composition. 
Two years later they were corresponding on the 
subject of a ' luth de Bologne ' that Huygens 
was anxious to acquire ; in a letter preserved 
in the British Museum (Add. MS. 15,944, 
f. 46, dated in pencil ' 28 Aug. 49 '), Gaultier 
writes : ' Je vous prie, Monseigneur, de ne 
trouver rude que je traite avec vous de pris 
pour quoy que ce soit, qui soit a moy. Je vous 
priray de regarder l'etat de ma fortune. Apres 
trent annee de service a un si grand roy et 
royne, que je n'ay rien a montrer que ce luth ; 
et de plus je suis marie,' etc. (See also MM. 
Jonckbloet et Land, Correspondance de Con- 
stantin Huygens. Leyde, 1882, pp. 207, 210.) 
This was rather ungrateful, for he was receiving 
an annuity of £100 for his services by royal 
warrant (see Diet. Nat. Biog. s.v. Gouter). 
M. de la Barre also writing to Huygens (p. 148) 
on Oct. 15, 1648, alludes to 'Mrs. les Gautiers 
et autres excellents joueurs de luth.' There is 
a portrait of Jacques Gaultier with the inscrip- 
tion : — ' Jacobo Goutero, inter regios magnae 
BritanniaeOrpheoset Amphiones Lydiae, Doriae, 
Phrygiae. testudinis fidicini et modulatorum,' 
etc. ' Joannes Livius fecit et excudit' (Claussin, 
Suppl. au cat. de Rembrandt, 1828, p. 75, No. 
58). It is thought that he returned to France 
about the time of the Commonwealth and 
settled in Paris with his cousin Denys (Fleischer, 
Viertelj. 1886, p. 81). There his great reputa- 
tion brought him numbers of pupils, ' meme des 
personnes de la premiere condition,' says Titon 
du Tillet, who mentions amongst others, Gallot, 
du Fau, du But, Mouton, etc. He adds that 
M. de Troys, the famous painter who died 1730 
at the age of eighty-six, was in his youth a friend 
of Gaultier, and painted a fine portrait of him 
which he believes was engraved. This does not 
give us any very definite date, but would be 
about 1664 if de Troys painted it when he was 
twenty. 

Mattheson (Grundlage einer Ehrenpforte, 
1740, p. 88), mentioning Froberger's stay in 
Rome between 1650 and 1655, says he then 
went to France 'und nahm die frantzbsische 
Lautenmanier von Galot und Gautier auf dem 
Clavier an, die damahls hochgehalten wurde.' 
Gaultier 'le vieux' died about 1672 in Paris. 
The title only is known of a volume that included 
compositions of both Gaultiers : — ' Livre de 
tablature des pieces de luth de M. Gaultier, Sr. 
de Neiie et de M. Gaultier, son cousin, sur 



GAULTIER 



GAUNTLETT 



149 



plusieurs differentes modes, avec quelques regies 
qu'il faut observer pour le bien toucher,' grave 
par Richer, a Paris chez la veuve de M. Gaultier, 
dans La Monnoye. (Becker, Die Tonwerke des 
16. und 17. Jahrhunderts, 1855, p. 280, gives 
1 Livre de tablature de pieces de luth sur 
differens modes,' Paris, 1664, folio.) Titon du 
Tillet also mentions ' L' Immortelle,' 'La Non- 
pareille, ' and ' Le Tombeau de Mesangeau ' as 
the principal pieces composed by Gaultier ' le 
vieux. ' The last named is in a MS. in the Bibl. 
nationale, Paris. De La Borde (Essai sur la 
musique, 1780, iii. p. 522) says that Gaultier, 
a friend and pupil of Mesangeau, composed it 
in memory of him ; 'on ne se lassait pas de 
l'entendre.' Fleischer gives the names of three 
other pieces, ' Le Loup, ' ' La conquerante, ' and 
' Les Larmes de Boset ou la volte. ' See also 
the list of works of Denys Gaultier. 

Denys Gaultier, of Marseilles, migrated 
to Paris and was certainly living there some 
time before the death of Sieur l'Enclos, the 
lute player, in 1630. He composed three pieces 
in his memory, Nos. 60, 61, and 62 in the 
Hamilton Codex, entitled ' Tombeau de Monsr. 
de Lenclos,' 'La consolation aux amis du Sr. 
Lenclos' and 'La resolution des amis du Sr. 
Lenclos sur sa mort.' Denys was a renowned 
lute player ; Mersenne (Harmonie universelle, 
1636, livre 2, p. 92), writing of the lute, men- 
tions ' la difficulte qu'il y a de le toucher aussi 
parfaitement que les sieurs l'Enclos, Gautier,' 
etc. Gaultier's compositions for the lute are 
always effectively written, generally consisting 
of short dance tunes grouped together in sets or 
suites. The characteristic fashion of labelling 
each piece with a descriptive title such as ' Phae- 
ton foudroye,' 'Artemis ou l'oraison funebre,' 
' La coquette virtuosa, ' ' La caressante, ' is shown 
in the Hamilton Codex, an important collection 
of sixty-two of Denys Gaultier's compositions, 
entitled ' La Rhetorique des Dieux ' compiled 
between 1650 and 1655, and now in the Berlin 
konigl. Museum (No. 142, obi. 4to). Fleischer 
published all the music in the Vierteljahrs- 
schrift for 1886. He mentions that Dr. Suchier 
of Halle drew his attention to the fact that in 
the list of ' Lieutenans-generaux au bailliage 
et Comte en Beauvoisis,' 1414-1680, is a 'M. 
Denis Gaultier, lieutenant-general en 1656.' 
Gaultier died before 1664. Among his com- 
positions Titon du Tillet mentions ' L' Homicide ' 
and ' Le Tombeau de Lenclos ' (both in the 
Hamilton Codex) and ' Le Canon ' (in Perrine's 
Livre de musique). Fleischer adds 'Le Tom- 
beau de Raquette,' 'La champre,' 'La belle 
tenebreuse ' and ' Allemande grave ou son tom- 
beau. ' List of compositions : — 

The Hamilton Codex : ' La Rhetorique des Dieux ' de D. G. (see for 
contents O. Fleischer. Viertelj. 1886). 

Livre de musique pour le lut. Contenant une m^tode nouvelle et 
facile, etc. par le Sr. Perrine. (Priv. du. roy dated Dec. 9, 1679.) 
Has ' Le canon ou courante de Mr. Gaultier,' lute tablature with 
transcription. 

Pieces de luth en musique par le Sr. Perrine. Paris. 1680. A 
collection of lute pieces by both Gaultiers in tablature with tran- 



scription. Fleischer reprints two : ' Pa vane du Jeune Gaultier,' and 
' Allemande ou Tombeau de l'Enclos du Jeune Gaultier.' 

Pieces de luth de Denys Gaultier sur differens modes nouveaux. 
Grave par Richer avec privilege du roy. A Paris chez l'autbeur, 
rue baillete, proche la Monnoye. obi. 8vo, no date. Is in the Paris 
Bibl. nationale (Vm. f. 2687 de la reserve) ; also the following MSS : 
— Vm. 2658. obi. 4to. Pieces de luth recueillies et ecrites a Caen et 
autres lieux es annes 1672-73, par S. de Brossard. Contains pieces 
by Gaultier. 

Vm. 2659, obi. 4to. Lute pieces by ' Gautier le vieux,' ' Gautier de 
Paris," 'Gautier de Lion,' 'Gautier.' 

Vm. 2660, obi. 4to. Pieces by Gaultier. 

Vm, 2600, (3) obi. 8vo. Pieces by Denys Gaultier, the larger number 
initialled G. only. (Fleischer.) 

In the Paris Conservatoire Bibl. No. 22,342. The Codex Milleran, 
a collection of lute pieces. 

In the Berlin konigl. Bibl. No. 20,052. The lute-book of Virginia 
Renata von Gehema, includes two pieces by 'Gottier,' a 'Gigue' 
and ' Cuoranta Gravelin.' 

In Vienna Hofbibl. No. 17,706. A collection of pieces in lute 
tablature by various composers. Includes 'L'Homicide,' anony- 
mous, and 'Courante (d.g.) Le Canon ' ; ' Allemande Courente ' ; 
' Gigue, Courente ; L'Imntortelle ' j ' Courente, suit la superbe de 
Duf eaux, ' ' Derniere Courente ' ; all by Denys Gaultier. (Mantuani's 

In the Mecklenburg-Schwerin Bibl. A MS. in lute tablature, dated 
Oct. 10, 1651. Among the seventy-two compositions Nos. 52, 54, 
and 69 are ' Courantes de gauttier ' ; No. 56, ' Jacconne de gauttier ' ; 
57, ' Courante de l'immortelle de gauttier ' ; 59, ' Capr. de gautier ' ; 
and 63, ' Allemande de gauttier.' (Kade's Cat. p. 267.) 

In No. 97 of the Gripsholm Bibl. ' La Paysuant," L'immortelle,' 
' Courante de D.Gautier,' ' Le canon courante du Gautier,' ' Courante 
du Gautier,' etc. (Tobias Norlind, Die Musikgeschichte Schviedens). 

In the Basle Universitatsbibl. is a ' Courante de Gauthier ' and 
' Gigue de Gautier ' (J Richter's Cat.). 

In the Bodleian (MS. Mus. Sch. G. 616-618) there is a very fine 
collection of MS. lute music, in three small obi. volumes, by Dubut 
le vieux, Mouton, Pinel, Gallot, Blanrocher, Emon, etc., but the 
larger number of preludes, pavans, saiabandes, courantes, alle- 
mandes, gigues, and one canarie, are all by Gautier, ' le vieux 
Gautier,' 'Gautier de P.,' and 'Gautier de Lyon.' These include 
the allemande ' Les dernidres paroles ou Testament de Mezangeau,' 
the courantes ' Les larmes de Boisset,' ' L'immortelle,' with the ' Con- 
trepartie de l'immortelle,' and 'L'adieu' by le vieux Gautier ; the 
sarabande ' La Bergere ' by Gautier ; the allemand ' Le tombeau de 
Blanrocher,' the pavan ' La dedicace,' the courantes ' La belle 
homicide,' 'La champre',' and 'La conndente,' and the canarie by 
Gautier de P(aris). 

A similar MS. (Mus. Sch. F. 576) contains the three courantes 
'Le Canon,' 'L'immortelle,' ' L 'homicide,' and a sarabande by 
Gautier. „ „ 

GAUNTLETT, Henry John, eldest son of 
the Rev. Henry Gauntlett, was born July 9, 
1805, at Wellington, Salop. He was educated 
by his father, and at an early age evinced an 
aptitude for music, especially for playing on the 
organ. His father was presented to the vicarage 
of Olney, Bucks, and there, at the age of nine, 
young Gauntlett entered on the duties of his 
first organist appointment. [His father took 
him to London about 1821, and Attwood wished 
to take the boy as a pupil, but his father refused, 
and, after a short stay in Ireland as a private 
tutor,] he was articled to a solicitor in 1826. 
During his clerkship he pursued the study of 
law and music with equal assiduity, and in 1827 
obtained the post of organist of St. Olave's, 
South wark, which he held for upwards of twenty 
years. In 1831 he was admitted a solicitor, and 
commenced practice in the City of London in 
partnership with a brother. About 1836, having 
attained a high reputation as an organist, he 
commenced his advocacy of a reform in organ- 
building by the adoption of the C organ in the 
place of the old F and G instruments. He met 
with the strongest opposition, but finding a 
valuable auxiliary in William Hill, the organ- 
builder (who, under his superintendence con- 
structed the organs in St. Luke's, Cheetham, 
Manchester ; St. Peter's, Cornhill ; Ash ton - 
under-Lyne Church ; Dr. Raffles' Chapel, Liver- 
pool; and St. John's, Calcutta ; and reconstructed 
the large organs in Birmingham Town Hall, and 
Christ Church, Newgate Street), he attained his 



150 



GAVEAUX 



GAVINIES 



aim, and through his exertions the C organ was 
firmly settled in England. In 1836 he became 
evening organist of Christ Church, Newgate 
Street, [at a salary of two guineas a year. The 
organ at this church was transformed in time 
for the visit of Mendelssohn in 1837, and he 
played upon it (see an account in the Musical 
World of Sept. 15, 1837). He lectured at the 
London Institution in 1837-42.] In 1842 Dr. 
Howley, Archbishop of Canterbury, conferred 
on him the degree of Doctor of Music. About 
the same time he gave up the law and devoted 
himself wholly to music. In the year 1844Gaunt- 
lett, in conjunction with Charles Child Spencer, 
drew attention to the subject of Gregorian music 
(of which he was a devoted adherent) by the 
publication of the Hymnal for Matins and 
Evensong (Bell & Daldy). It is as a composer 
and editor of psalm and hymn tunes that he will 
be best remembered. For upwards of forty years 
he worked in that field with unwearied enthusi- 
asm, and there was scarcely a publication of any 
note issued during that period in which he was 
not engaged as editor, assistant, or contributor. 
Able articles from his pen, abounding in learning 
and spirit (the opinions confidently expressed), 
will be found in the first six volumes of The 
Musical World, in The Morning Post, The 
Orchestra, and The Church Musician. After 
quitting St. Olave's and Christ Church in 1846, 
Gauntlett was successively organist of Union 
Chapel, Islington (for eight years), of All Saints, 
Notting Hill, and of St. Bartholomew the Less, 
Smithfield. He was chosen by Mendelssohn to 
play the organ part in 'Elijah,' on its production 
at Birmingham, August 26, 1846. He died 
suddenly, from heart disease, Feb. 21, 1876, 
and was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery. 

Gauntlett's principal publications, besides 
those mentioned, were : — 

The Psalmist, 1839-41 ; Gregorian Canticles, 1844 ; The Church 
Eymn and Tune Book (with Rev. W. J. Blew), 1844-51 ; Cantus 
Melodici, 1845 [originally intended as the title of a separate work, 
and subsequently as the preface to The Church Hymn and Tune Book] ; 
The Comprehensive Tune Book (with Kearns), 1846-47 ; The Gregorian 
Psalter, 1846 ; Harmonies to Gregorian Tones, 1847 ; Comprehensive 
Choir Book, 1848 ; Quire and Cathedral Psalter, 1848 ; Christinas 
Carols, 1848 ; The Bible Psalms, 1848; Chants, Ancient and Modern, 
1848; The Hallelujah (with Rev. J. J. Waite), 1848-55; The Stabat 
Mater, set to eight melodies, 1849 ; Order of Morning Prayer, 1850 ; 
Church Anthem Book (incomplete), 1852-54; Hymns for Little 
Children, 1853 ; The Congregational Psalmist (with Rev. Dr. Henry 
Allen), i856 ; Carlyle's Manual of Psalmody, 1860 ; Christmas 
Minstrelsy, 1864 ; Tunes, New and Old, 1866 ; Harland's Church 
Psalter and Hymnal, 1869 ; Service of Song, 1870 ; Parish Church 
Tune Book, 1871 ; National Psalmody, 1876. In 1856 he worked at 
an Encyclopaedia of the Chant, for the Rev. J. J. Waite (published 
in 1885.) [List from Diet, of Nat. Biog.] W H H 

GAVEAUX, Pierre, born at Beziers, August 
1761 ; died insane at Charenton, Feb. 5, 1825 ; 
studied composition under Beck, conductor of the 
theatre at Bordeaux. There he made his debut 
as tenor with a success which decided his future 
career. His voice was warm and flexible, he 
sang with great expression, and during an en- 
gagement at the Opera Comique in Paris in 1789 
created many important parts. As a composer 
he produced between 1792 and 1818 no less 
than thirty-five operas, written in an easy and 
essentially dramatic style, natural and simple in 



melody, but not characterised by depth or 
originality, Among these may be specified 'Les 
deux Suisses' (1792) ; 'Le petit Matelot' (1796) ; 
- Leonore ou l'aniour conjugal ' (1798), the same 
subject which Beethoven afterwards set as 
' Fidelio ' ; « Le Bouffe et le Tailleur ' (1804), sung 
by Ponchard and Cinti-Damoreau as late as 1835, 
and played in London in 1849 ; and 'Monsieur 
Des Chalumeaux' (1806), afterwards played as 
a pantomime. He also published a book of 
Italian ' Canzonette ' dedicated to Garat, and 
another of French ' Romances. ' These are for- 
gotten, but some of his opera airs have maintained 
their popularity, and occupy an honourable 
place in ' La Cle du Ca veau. ' [The titles of 
twenty -six operas are given in the Quellen- 
Lexikon.~\ t g. c. 

GAVINIES, Pierre, an eminent French 
violin player, born at Bordeaux, May 26, 1726. 
[But see the Quellen- Lexikon on the question of 
the date.] His instructors are unknown, but it 
is assumed that he was self-taught, forming his 
style chiefly after the great Italian violinists, 
who were then much in the habit of travelling 
in France. He was still a boy when he made 
his first successful appearance at the Concert 
Spirituel in 1741, and after this to the end of 
his life he but rarely left Paris, where he soon 
came to be considered as the best living violinist, 
and was a great favourite in fashionable circles. 
Contemporary writers attribute to him all the 
qualities of a really great performer — wonderful 
execution, a great tone, spirit, and feeling. His 
fiery temperament at one time got him into 
considerable trouble : he became involved in a 
liaison with a lady of the court, and on being 
detected had to fly from Paris, but was captured 
and imprisoned for a year. This experience 
effectually sobered him, and we are assured that 
later in life he was as much esteemed for his 
social virtues as for his artistic gifts. During 
his imprisonment he composed a piece which, 
under the name of 'Romance de Gavinies,' for a 
long time enjoyed considerable popularity in 
France, and, according to Fetis, used to move 
the hearers to tears, when performed by the 
composer. He directed the Concert Spirituel in 
1773-77, and on the foundation of the Conserva- 
toire in 1794, was appointed to a professorship 
of the violin. He died at Paris, Sept. 9, 1800. 

In France Gavinies is generally considered 
the founder of the great French school of violin- 
ists. This is true in one sense, as he was the 
first professor of the violin at the Conservatoire, 
but with such a predecessor as Leclair, the title 
appears at least disputable. Viotti is said to 
have spoken of him as the French Tartini. But, 
although there can be no doubt that Gavinies 
did more than any one before him towards trans- 
planting into France the true and earnest style 
of the great Italian school of violin playing, it 
is impossible to rank him in any way with 
Tartini as a composer for the violin or even as 



GAVOTTE 



GAYARRE 



151 



a performer. His works, while not devoid of 
a certain pathetic dignity, do not show an in- 
dividual original style, and are in every respect 
inferior to Tartini's masterpieces. They are on 
the whole rather dry and laboured. On the 
other hand it must be granted that they indicate 
considerable advance in technical execution. 
His most celebrated work, ' Les vingt-quatres 
Matinees,' surpasses in difficulty anything ever 
written by Tartini, and as we are assured that 
Gavinies used to play them even in his old 
age with the greatest perfection, we must 
assume him to have possessed an eminent execu- 
tion. But it cannot be denied that his manner 
of writing for the violin, and the peculiar class 
of difficulties which his studies contain, show 
a tendency to go beyond the natural resources 
of the instrument — in fact, a tendency to exag- 
geration, such as invariably makes its appear- 
ance after a classical period in any art, and 
such as, in the art of violin playing in particu- 
lar, is represented towards the end of the 18th 
century by the masters who lived after Tartini 
and before Viotti. It is for this reason that 
Gavinies's 'Matinees' cannot be ranked with 
the classical studies of Rode, Kreutzer, and 
Fiorillo. This, however, does not preclude their 
being both of interest and use to advanced 
students. 

Capron, Robineau, and Le Due ainS, are the 
best known of Gavinies's numerous pupils. Be- 
sides the ' Matinees ' he published six Concertos 
for the Violin, two sets of Sonatas for Violin 
and Bass (some of which have been recently 
republished by Alard and David), six Sonatas 
for two violins, three Sonatas for Violin Solo 
(one of them entitled 'Le Tombeau de Gavinies'). 
He also composed an opera, ' Le Pretendu, ' 
which was played at the Comedie-Italienne in 
1760. p. d. 

GAVOTTE. A French dance, the name of 
which is said to be derived from the Gavots, or 
people of the pays de Gap in Dauphine\ Its 
original peculiarity as a danse grave was that 
the dancers lifted their feet from the ground, 
while in former danses graves they walked or 
shuffled — (Littre). It is in common time, of 
moderately quick movement, and in two parts, 
each of which is, as usual with the older dances, 
repeated. In the original form of the dance 
the first part consisted of four and the second 
of eight bars ; when introduced as one of the 
movements of a suite, it has no fixed number 
of bars. The gavotte should always begin on 
the third beat of the bar, each part finishing, 
therefore, with a half-bar, which must contain 
a minim, and not two crotchets. Occasional 
exceptions may be found to the rule that the 
gavotte is to begin on the third crotchet, as, for 
instance, in that of No. 3 of Bach's 'Suites Fran- 
caises,' which commences on the first crotchet, 
but of which, it should be noticed that in the most 
authoritative editions it is termed an 'Anglaise.' 



In any case it is not strictly a gavotte. The 
same may be said of the ' gavotte ' in Gluck's 
' Orphee, ' which begins on the fourth beat of 
the bar, and should therefore rather have been 
marked ' Tempo di Gavotta. ' A second gavotte 
frequently succeeds the first as a ' trio, ' in the 
modern sense of that term. This second gavotte 
is either similar in construction to the first, as 
in Bach's orchestral Suite in D (' Franzosische 
Ouvertiire '), or is a Musette, i.e. founded on 
a 'drone-bass,' as in the third and sixth of 
Bach's 'Suites An glaises.' The position of the 
gavotte in the suite is not invariable, but it 
usually follows the sarabande, though occasion- 
ally it precedes it. e. p. 

GAWLER, William, an organist and com- 
poser, said to have been born at Lambeth in 
1750 ; he died there March 15, 1809. In 1785 
he was organist to the ' Asylum of Refuge for 
female orphans, Lambeth,' and in the following 
year published a book of ' Hymns and Psalms ' 
in use there, followed by a ' Supplement.' Other 
sacred compilations and compositions followed 
and preceded this work, including ' Harmonia 
Sacra, ' Dr. Watts's ' Divine Songs, ' ' Voluntaries 
for the Organ, ' etc. ' Lessons for the Harpsi- 
chord ' and similar works also came from his 
pen. Before 1798 he had turned music pub- 
lisher, living at 19 Paradise Row, Lambeth, 
and from here he issued much sheet and other 
music. f. K. 

GAWTHORN, Nathaniel, clerk at the 
Friday Lecture in East Cheap, published in 1730 
a collection of psalm tunes in four parts under 
the title of 'Harmonia Perfecta,' containing 
also some hymns and anthems, and an Intro- 
duction to Psalmody. w. H. H. 

GAYARRE, Julian, born Jan. 9, 1844, 
either at Roncal 1 or near Pampeluna, 2 was the 
son of a poor blacksmith. Through the kind- 
ness of Seiior Eslava, a Spanish musician, he 
studied singing at the Conservatorio of Madrid. 
He began his career at Varese as a second tenor, 
but soon after made a great success as Nemorino 
in ' L'Elisir. ' He sang at Parma and Rome 
1873, where on April 6 he played Amadeus II. 
in Libani's ' Conte Verde,' and on April 8, 1876, 
Enzo in Ponchielli's ' Gioconda ' at the Scala, 
Milan ; he sang at Vienna, St. Petersburg, 
South America, and elsewhere. From 1877 to 
1881 he was engaged at Co vent Garden, where 
he made his debut, April 7, 1877, as Fernando 
in ' La Favorita, ' and proved himself a very 
serviceable tenor, though he did not fulfil the 
hopes entertained of him as Mario's successor. 
He played with success in the 'Huguenots,' 
'Prophete,' ' Tannhauser, ' 'Lohengrin,' ' Der 
Freischlitz,' 'Puritani,' 'Lucia,' 'Lucrezia,' 
'Rigoletto,' etc. He reappeared there in 1886 
and 1887, and sang, on July 12, 1887, the 
tenor part in the production of Glinka's ' Vie 

1 Grande Encyclopidie. 
3 Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic Newt. 



152 



GAZZA LADRA, LA 



GEBEL 



pour le Czar.' In the meantime he played in 
Madrid, in 1884 at Paris in Italian, in 1886 
for a few nights as Vasco da Gama in French 
at the Opera, in 1888 at Milan, and in 1889 
in Spain. On Jan. 2, 1890, he died at Madrid, 
universally regretted on account of his many 
charitable actions — e.g. the foundation of a 
school of singing for indigent youths of his native 
country. (Gazzetta Musicale di Milano.) a. c. 

GAZZA LADRA, LA (The Thieving Magpie). 
A comic opera in two acts ; libretto by Gherar- 
dini ; music by Rossini ; produced at La Scala, 
Milan, May 31, 1817, in London at the King's 
Theatre, March 10, 1821, and in Paris, Sept. 18. 
In English (adapted by Bishop) as ' Ninetta, 
or the Maid of Palaiseau,' at Covent Garden, 
Feb. 4, 1830. G. 

GAZZANIGA, Giuseppe, one of the most 
celebrated opera composers of his time, born at 
Verona, Oct. 1743 ; pupil of Porpora, both in 
Venice and at San Onofrio in Naples. He also 
studied under Piccinni. Through Sacchini's 
influence his first opera, ' II finto cieco, ' was 
performed in Vienna (1770). [But Riemann 
gives the date of this work as 1786, and says 
that Gazzaniga's first opera was entitled ' II 
barone di Trocchia.'] Among his many operas 
may be mentioned ' II con vie ta to di pietro,' the 
forerunner of ' Don Giovanni,' which had an 
extraordinary success in Venice (1787), Ferrara, 
Rome, Bergamo, and London, where it was 
performed repeatedly. [See the Monatshefte f. 
Musikgeschichte, 1870, No. 3, and the Viertelj. 
f. Musikwiss. vol. iv. p. 251.] Gazzaniga was 
afterwards maestro di cappella at Crema, where 
he devoted himself entirely to church music, 
[He died there early in 1819. Three oratorios 
are mentioned in the Quellen-Lexikon, where 
eight of his numerous operas are noted as 
extant.] f. g. 

GE BAUER, Franz Xaver, born in 1784 at 
Eckersdorf, Glatz, Prussian Silesia, received his 
early musical education from his father, the vil- 
lage schoolmaster. In 1804 he became organist 
at Frankenstein ; and in 1810 went to Vienna, 
where he soon became known for his extraor- 
dinary execution on the Jew's-harp, and lived by 
giving excellent pianoforte lessons, and playing 
the violoncello. In 1816 he was appointed 
Chordirector of the church of St. Augustin, 
and there, thanks to his indefatigable efforts, 
the larger works of the great masters were satis- 
factorily performed. He was also one of the 
earliest and most active members of the Ge- 
sellschaft der Musikfreunde, founded in 1813. 
In 1819, through his endeavours, were started 
the Spirituel - Concerte, which continued in 
existence until 1848, and into the programmes 
of which none but sterling works were admitted. 
Gebauer was the first conductor, but did not long 
enjoy the fruit of his labours. In Oct. 1822 he 
returned from a journey to Switzerland seriously 
ill, and died in Vienna on Dec. 13, sincerely 



regretted as a sterling musician and an upright 
man. He published a few lieder, and left a 
small number of choral compositions in MS. 
He was intimate with Beethoven, who in a note 
preserved by Seyfried (Beethovens Studien, 
Anh. 36, and Nohl's Briefe, No. 234), puns 
upon his name in his favourite style, calling 
him ' Geh' Bauer ' and ' der Bauer. ' c. F. p. 

GEBEL, Johann Georg, who gives a detailed 
account of his own life in Mattheson's Grundlage 
einer Ehrenpforte, 1740, was born at Breslau in 
1685. He was apprenticed to a tailor when 
fourteen, but threw this up for music when 
eighteen, and became a pupil of Fr. Tiburtius 
Winckler, the cathedral organist. At the Hof- 
capelle concerts he often accompanied soloists, 
either from the figured bass, or when they were 
extemporising, by ear only. He acted as deputy 
organist for Winckler, Krause, and others, and 
also gave lessons in music. In 1709 he was 
appointed organist at the Pfarrkirche at Brieg, 
and continued his studies with the capellmeister 
G. H. Stoltzel. In 1 7 1 3 he returned to Breslau 
and was appointed organist, and in 1714 Musik- 
director at the Church of S. Christopher. Gebel 
failed to obtain the principal organistship of S. 
Elisabeth in 1739, a post which his second son 
occupied ten years later. Of an ingenious turn 
of mind, he invented a Clavichord with quarter- 
tones, and a large Clavicembalo with six complete 
octaves, etc. In 1749, although old and feeble, 
he took the place of his second son as organist 
of the Dreifaltigkeitskirche at Breslau, but died 
in 1750. His two elder sons were both profes- 
sional musicians, and it is not always easy to 
distinguish between the respective compositions 
of father and son, but to the father may probably 
be attributed : — In the Berlin kbnigl. Bibl. 
MS. 7210, Passion-music with instrumental 
accompaniment. MS. 7212, four sonatas for 
string instruments. MS. 7213, two sonatas for 
two flutes or strings. (Eitner, Quellen-Lexikon.) 
In the Bibl. of the Joachimsthalsche Gymna- 
sium, Berlin, three cantatas in score. (Eitner.) 
In Liibeck Stadtbibl. in a MS. collection of 
motets for four voices in score : No. 20, G. Gebel. 
Motetta : ' Der Herr ist mein Licht. ' (Stiehl'a 
Cat. p. 19.) 

Gebel himself (Mattheson, p. 407, etc.) says 
he composed many Clavier pieces ; a Canon in 
thirty parts, which had to be played through 
twelve times if it were to end in the key in 
which it began ; Psalms for double choir ; a 
Mass for double choir with instrumental accom- 
paniment ; forty-eight Chorales for the organ ; 
Partite, Chaconnes, etc. 

Georg Gebel, his elder son, born Oct. 25, 
1709, at Brieg, began to play the harpsichord 
when four years old. He was carefully taught 
by his father, and when twelve years old was 
taken to exhibit his powers as an organist before 
the Duke and Duchess of Oels. He acted as 
deputy organist to his father, studied composition, 



GEBEL 



GEISLER 



153 



and in 1729 became sub-organist at S. Maria 
Magdalena, Breslau. In 1730 he was playing 
the second harpsichord at the Italian opera in 
Breslau. Among his friends were Fedele, the 
organist Hoffmann, and the lutenist Kropfgans. 
In 1733 he became capellmeister to the Duke 
of Oels. In 1735 he was appointed Clavicem- 
balist in the Dresden Hofcapelle, then at Warsaw 
under the direction of Count von Briihl, but 
soon after returned to Dresden, where he learned 
to play the Pantaleon, a difficult stringed instru- 
ment invented by Hebenstreit. He married 
Susanna Gebel, a clever painter, and devoted a 
great deal of his time to painting. In 1747 
Johann Friedrich von Schwarzburg appointed 
him concertmeister and later capellmeister at 
Rudolstadt. He died Sept. 24, 1753, atRudol- 
stadt at the early age of forty-four, worn out 
by the strain of constant overwork. The mass 
of his music probably suffered from the haste 
with which it was produced ; for he rivalled his 
father in the quantity that he composed. In 
the Mecklenburg-Schwerin grossherzogl. Bibl. is 
a ' Partita per il cembalo composta da Georg 
Gebel, maestro dei concerti di sua Altezza 
sereniss. Monsignore il Principe regnante di 
Schwartzburgo,' etc. Dedicated to Joh. Fried, 
of Schwarzburg. Printed at the expense of C. F. 
Eschrich at Rudolstadt. And in MS. part-books : 
— Oratorium auf den heiligen Christ -Abend, 
'Jauchzet ihr Himmel, erfreue dich Erde,' for 
Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass, Clarino I. and II. , 
Fagotto, Flauto, Viol. I. and II. , Viola e Fonda- 
mento. The text-book is dated 1748. Sinfonia 
in G, and Sinfonia in Dfl {i.e. D major), for 
Corno I. and II., Oboe I. and II., Viol. I. and II., 
Viola e Fondamento. Sinfonia in D major, for 
same instruments, with the addition of Clarino 
I. and II. (Kade's Cat. p. 295). 

In the Gotha herzogl. Bibl. is a MS. cantata 
1 Ich will meinen Engel senden.' (Eitner.) 

In the Darmstadt Hofbibl. is a MS. score 
of a sinfonia for Viol. I. and II., Viola and Basso. 
(Eitner.) Three MS. Partite a 4 (2 vln., 
viola, and bass) and one overture a 7 (Fl. douce, 
Fl. trav., ob. 2, vln., viola, and bass) are in 
Breitkopfs Catalogue for 1765. 

Gebel is also said to have composed music for 
two years of Church high-days and festivals ; 
more than a hundred Sinfonie and Partite ; 
Passion -music ; Christmas oratorios ; twelve 
operas, of which one ' Serpillius und Melissa ' 
was performed at Dresden, and five more at 
Rudolstadt, 'Oedipus,' 1751 ; 'Medea,' 1752 ; 
'Tarquinius Superbus,' 1752; ' Sophonisbe,' 
1753 ; and 'Marcus Antonius,' 1753. 

Georg Sigismund, the second son of Johann 
Georg Gebel, was born in Breslau, 1715. He 
was a clever composer and clavier player. In 
1736 he was appointed sub-organist at S. Elisa- 
beth, Breslau. He married, June 17, 1744, the 
daughter of the organist J. G. Hoffmann. In 
1748 he became organist at the Dreifaltigkeits- 



kirche, Breslau, and in 1749 principal organist 
at S. Elisabeth, which post he held till his death 
in 1 7 7 5 . (Marpurg, Hist. -krit. Bey tr age ,1754, 
i. 364.) He published various compositions for 
the organ. c. s. 

GEDACKT-WORK {i.e. gedeckt). All the 
Flue-stops of an organ composed of pipes that 
are entirely covered or closed in at the top are 
members of the ' Gedackt ' or Covered-work. To 
this class, therefore, belong the Sub-Bourdon, 32 ; 
Bourdon, 1 6 ; Stopped Diapason, 8 ; and Stopped 
Flute, 4 foot- tone. When made to a ' small 
scale,' and voiced so as to produce a sweet tone, 
the adjective ' Lieblich ' is prefixed, as Lieblich 
Bourdon, 16 ft., Lieblich Gedackt, 8 ft., Lieb- 
lich Flote, 4 ft. Large stopped pipes are 
generally made of wood ; the smaller ones 
either of wood or metal. Covered Stops were 
first made in Germany, in the early part of the 
16th century. E. J. H. 

GEIGE (Germ.), the exact equivalent of our 
word ' fiddle, ' as a familiar, if not slightly 
contemptuous, term for instruments of the 
violin family. It seems more than likely that 
it is derived from the same source as the word 
'jig,' for the old French word 'gigue' or 'gique' 
originally meant a fiddle, whether or not it 
were derived from the English. See the Ox- 
ford Dictionary, s.v. 'Jig.' 

GEIGEN-PRINCIPAL, i.e. Violin Diapason. 
An organ -stop of 8 ft. or unison pitch ; crisp in 
tone, and held to resemble the violin in quality. 
A ' violl and violin ' stop originally formed one 
of the features in the choir organ of the instru- 
ment in the Temple Church, built by Father 
Smith in 1688 ; but seems to have been removed 
shortly afterwards to make room for an ad- 
ditional reed stop. The Geigen-principal was 
first brought under notice in England in recent 
times by Schulze, who introduced two, one 
of 8 ft. and another of 4, into the admirable 
little organ he sent to the Great Exhibition of 
1851. The stop was subsequently adopted by 
the English organ - builder Lewis, who made 
several excellent specimens of it. E. J. h. 

GEISLER, Paul, born August 10, 1856, at 
Stolp in Pomerania, received his first musical in- 
struction from his grandfather, who was conductor 
at Marienburg in Prussia, and was afterwards a 
pupil of Constantine Decker, a pianist and com- 
poser of considerable distinction. In 1881 he 
conducted at the Leipzig Musical Theatre. The 
following year he was associated with A. Neu- 
mann's travelling Wagner company, after which 
he occupied for two years a post as conductor in 
Brem en. He resided for many years first in Leipzig 
and then in Berlin before taking up his present 
post, that of director of the Conservatoire at 
Posen. He has produced three operas : ' Inge- 
borg' (Bremen, 1884), 'Hertha' (Hamburg, 
1891), and ' Palm ' (Lubeck, 1893). Hisremain- 
ing works include two cyclic cantatas : ' Sansara ' 
and ' Golgotha ' ; several symphonic poems, of 

I 



154 



GELINEK 



GEMINIANI 



which two deserve special mention : • The Pied 
Piper of Hamelyn ' and ' Till Eulenspiegel ' ; 
the music to five dramas, a number of smaller 
vocal compositions, and a few piano works. 
His style is thoroughly modern, but without ex- 
travagance. He has a consummate mastery of 
the resources of technique, and his compositions 
exhibit qualities both in the intellectual and 
emotional sense which make it hard to under- 
stand that he should not have achieved a more 
prominent position amongst the contemporary 
German composers than that he now occupies. 
The bulk of his compositions remain in MS., 
but a few of his more interesting works are 
available, amongst them the full score of the 
'Pied Piper,' which was performed in 1880 
under the auspices of the Allgemeiner deutscher 
Musikverein at Magdeburg, where it had con- 
siderable success. E. E. 

GELINEK, Joseph, secular priest, composer 
of variations for pianoforte, born Dec. 3, 1758, 
at Selcz in Bohemia, where his father was school- 
master. He was well grounded in music at 
home, and on going to Prague to complete his 
philosophical studies took lessons from Segert in 
composition and organ playing. In 1783 he be- 
came a divinity student at the General- Seminar, 
the orchestra of which at that time executed 
standard works so well as to elicit praise from 
Mozart himself when in Prague. Mozart also 
applauded Gelinek's pianoforte playing, and 
encouraged him to persevere. In 1786 he 
was ordained priest, and became domestic chap- 
lain and pianoforte teacher to Prince Joseph 
Kinsky, who settled an income upon him for 
life, and took him to Vienna, where he studied 
with Albrechtsberger. He then accompanied 
Prince Poniatowsky to Rome, with the view to 
obtain further instruction, but illness obliged 
him to return to Vienna. There he became the 
favourite pianoforte teacher of the nobility, and 
was liberally paid. In 1795 he entered Prince 
Esterhazy's household as chaplain and music 
master, and remained there till his death, which 
took place in Vienna, April 13, 1825. For 
Gelinek's relations with Beethoven, see vol. i. 
p. 223a, and Ozerny in Pohl's Jahresbericht 
des Conservatoriums in Wien, 1869-70. 

Gelinek composed with ease and rapidity ; 
both he and his publishers made large profits 
from his works, the variations in the fashionable 
style of the day especially having a ready sale ; 
many of these were no doubt made by other 
hacks under Gelinek's name. Of these there is 
a thematic catalogue (Offenbach, Andre) contain- 
ing ninety-eight, with spaces for more. [The 
catalogue of Gelinek's extant works is summar- 
ised in the Quellen-Lexikon.~] The monotony 
which was one of their weak points is well hit 
in Weber's epigram : — 

An den beriihmten Variationen -Schmidt Gelinek. 

Kein Thema in der Welt verschonte dein Genie, 
Das simpelste allein— Dich selbst — variirst Du nie. 



Although at that time the rage, they are shallow 
and superficial ; and like his fantasias, rondos, 
marches, dance-music and arrangements, his few 
sonatas, songs, etc. are all now forgotten. Not- 
withstanding considerable losses, Gelinek left 
42,000 gulden (about £4000) among his poor 
relations. c. F. P. 

GEMINIANI, Francesco, an eminent violin 
player and composer, was born at Lucca in 1680. 
His first teacher on the violin was Carlo Ambro- 
gio Lunati, surnamed ' il Gobbo, ' at Milan. He 
afterwards studied under Corelli at Rome, and 
is said to have had instruction in composition 
from Alessandro Scarlatti. [He was violinist 
in the band of the Signoria at Lucca from 1707 
to 1710.] Geminiani must be considered one 
of the foremost representatives of the school of 
Corelli, however different, owing to the peculi- 
arity of his character and talent, he proved 
himself to be as a performer and composer from 
his great master. While classical beauty and 
imperturbable dignity were the main character- 
istics of Corelli's style, Geminiani's unbounded 
vivacity of temperament showed itself in his 
performances, which contemporary critics in- 
variably describe as eccentric. Tartini is said 
to have spoken of him as ' il furibondo Gemi- 
niani.' This easily accounts for the fact that, 
however great his success as a solo player, he 
failed as a leader and conductor, from want 
of the necessary calmness and control. Burney 
relates, on the authority of Barbella, that he lost 
the post of leader of the opera-band at Naples 
because ' none of the performers were able to 
follow him in his tempo rubato and other 
unexpected accelerations and relaxations of 
measure,' and that 'after this discovery he 
was never trusted with a better part than tenor 
during his residence in that city. ' 

In 1714 he came to England, and quickly 
gained a great reputation as a virtuoso, although 
he appears to have but rarely played in public, 
and to have supported himself by teaching and 
playing in the houses of the nobility. When 
invited to play at a court-concert, he only con- 
sented under the condition that Handel should 
accompany him. If nevertheless he failed to 
gain an established and secure position in life, 
this again is attributable to the peculiarity and 
eccentricity of his character, which did not allow 
him to make the best of his opportunities or to 
pursue any definite plan of life. While he made 
but rare use of his really great talent as a per- 
former, he spent much time in writing theo- 
retical works of but doubtful value. He also in- 
dulged in a foolish passion for dealing in pictures, 
without, we are assured, having much knowledge 
of the subject. This at one time involved him 
in difficulties and brought him even into prison, 
from which he was only extricated by Lord 
Essex, his friend and pupil. This same noble- 
man procured for him in 1728 the post of master 
and composer of the State Music in Ireland, on 



GEMINIANI 



GENEE 



155 



Cousser's death in 1727. It is supposed that 
Horace Walpole objected to this appointment 
on account of Geminiani being a Roman Catholic. 
At all events it was not Geminiani, but Dubourg, 
his pupil, who went to Dublin in this official 
capacity. [Geminiani paid long visits to Dublin, 
and in 1736 settled down in a splendid house 
with concert-room attached, in Spring Gardens, 
a court at the lower end of Dame Street. Here, 
from 1737 to 1741, he received pupils, and gave 
private concerts. On his return to London, 
his ' Concerns and Great Music Room ' were 
taken over by one Charles, a horn player {Dublin 
Journal, Nov. 1742). In 1741 Geminiani gave 
a benefit concert in the ' little theatre in the 
Haymarket,' and his third set of concertos, 
op. 6, was published in London. He seems to 
have lived in London until 1749, when he con- 
ducted Lenten Concerts at Drury Lane Theatre ;] 
he then went to Paris and remained there until 
1755. Nothing, however, is known about his 
doings there, except that he brought out a new 
edition of his Solo-Sonatas. From Paris he 
returned to London. [At the close of 1761, he 
went to visit Dubourg. Grief for the loss of a 
MS. treatise on music, stolen from his lodging 
in College Green, is said to have hastened his 
death, which took place on Sept. 17, 1762. 
In Pue's Occurrences, Sept. 18-21, 1762, the 
fact is noted, and the composer is stated to have 
been in the ninety-sixth year of his age, which 
would make the date of his birth 1667. The 
Gentleman s Magazine for 1762, gives Sept. 24 
as the date of death.] 

Geminiani and Veracini (see that name), com- 
ing at about the same time to England, found 
the art of violin playing in every respect in its 
infancy. Corelli's Solos were considered to 
afford almost insurmountable difficulties of execu- 
tion. Now Geminiani not only played these, 
but in his own compositions shows considerable 
progress in the technique of the violin, by freely 
employing the shift, and by frequent use of 
double-stops. Burney naively enough assures 
his readers that some of Geminiani's Sonatas 
were too difficult to be played by any one. His 
published compositions — Sonatas and Concertos 
for the violin — show him to have been a clever 
musician, but, with all his impetuosity, wanting 
in originality and individuality. His slow move- 
ments are more modern in feeling than most of 
Corelli's, bearing a certain likeness to Tartini's 
style, though without ever equalling the best 
works of that great master. His Allegros have 
a more developed and freer form than those of 
Corelli, but it is gross exaggeration of Burney 
to describe them as eccentric and rhapsodic. 

The most valuable contribution , however, which 
he has made to the literature of the instrument 
is his Art of Playing the Violin, op. 9, London. 1 

1 [This seems to have been practically Identical with an anony- 
mous work, The Art of Playing on the Violin with a New Scale, etc. 
included in Pralleur's Modern Mustek-Master, 1731. See E. Heron- 
A]leu'iJ)e Fidiculit Bibliographia, pt. v. sect. 2, where the date 1720 



This book, written in English, was the very first 
of its kind ever published in any country ; six 
years earlier than Leopold Mozart's Violinschule. 
It has the great merit of handing down to 
posterity the principles of the art of playing 
the violin, as they were finally established by 
Corelli. The rules which Geminiani gives for 
holding the violin and bow, the management of 
the left hand and the right arm, are the same 
as are recognised in our days. In one particular 
point he even appears to have been in advance 
of his time, since he recommends the holding 
of the violin on the left hand side of the tail- 
piece — a practice now universally accepted and 
indispensable for a higher development of the 
technique — but, strange as it seems, not adopted 
either by Leopold Mozart or by the masters of 
the German school until the beginning of the 
19 th century. 

His other theoretical works, including Rules 
for Playing in a true Taste on the Violin, German 
Flute, Violoncello and Harpsichord, op. 8 (qu. 
1739) ; Guida Armonica, op. 10 (1742) ; The 
Art of Accompaniment, op. 11 (1755) ; Treatise 
of Good Taste (1749) ; The Art of Playing the 
Guitar, 1760 ; are of little value, although many 
of them appeared not only in English, but in 
Italian, French, German, and Dutch. 

Of original compositions he published the 
following: — XII Solos, op. 1, London, 1716; 
Six Concertos in seven parts, op. 2, London, 1732, 
and Paris, 1755, in score ; Six Concertos, op. 3, 
London and Paris, 1775 ; Six Concertos, op. 4, 
1743 ; XII Solos, op. 4, London, 1739 ; Six 
Solos for Violoncello, op. 5 (these are arrange- 
ments from the violin-solos) ; Six Concertos, op. 
6, London, 1741 ; Six Concertos in eight parts, 
op. 7, 1746 ; XII Sonatas for Violin, op. 11, 
London, 1758 ; XII Trios and VI Trios, the 
latter arrangements of op. 1 ; Pieces de Clavecin, 
Harpsichord, London, 1743. He also made and 
published in London an arrangement of Corelli's 
Solos, op. 5, as 'Concerti grossi.' See list of 
works in the Quellen-Lexikon. P. D. ; additions 
and corrections by w. h. g. f. et al. 

GEMSHORN (i.e. Chamois horn), an organ- 
stop eight, four, or two feet in length, the pipes 
of which, generally of metal, are taper-shaped, 
being at the top only about one-third the size of 
what they are at the mouth, with a tone some- 
what lighter than that of a cylindrical stop of 
the same scale at the mouth ; and very musical. 
It was first introduced here by Father Smith, 
who placed one in the choir organ at the Temple. 
It passed out of sight for many years ; but was 
reintroduced by William Hill, and has remained 
in great favour ever since. E. J. h. 

GENEE, Franz Friedrich Richard, the 
son of a music-director in a theatre at Danzig, 

is conjectured for that of the publications of this treatise in book 
form, but reference to F. Kidson's British Music Publishers shows 
that it cannot have appeared before 1734 The whole question is 
discussed in The Oxford History ■of Music, vol. iv. The Age of Bach 
and Handel, p. 175, note.] 



156 



GENERALI 



GENET 



born there, Feb. 7, 1823 ; was at first intended 
for the medical profession, but took up music 
and studied with A. Stahlknecht at Berlin. 
Between 1848 and 1867, he was successively 
capellmeister at theatres at Reval, Riga, Cologne, 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Diisseldorf, Danzig, Mayence, 
Schwerin, Amsterdam, and Prague, from 1868 
to 1878 he was conductor at the Theatre ' an der 
Wien ' in Vienna, retiring in the latter year to 
his villa at Pressbaum in the neighbourhood of 
Vienna. He was a clever writer of librettos, 
and often collaborated with F. Zell, writing some 
of his own books as well as others for Strauss, 
Suppe, and Millocker. The list of his own 
operettas, very few of which have attained more 
than an ephemeral success, is as follows : ' Der 
Geiger aus Tirol' (1857), 'Der Musikfeind' 
(1862), 'Die Generalprobe ' (1862), 'Rosita' 
(1864), 'Der schwarze Prinz' (1866), 'Am 
Kunenstein' (with Flotow, 1868), 'Der Seeka- 
dett' (1876), ' Nanon ' (1877), ' Im Wunderlande 
der Pyramiden ' (1877), ' DieletztenMohikaner ' 
(1878), ' Nisida ' (1880), ' Rosina ' (1881), ' Die 
Zwillinge' (with Roth, 1885), 'Die Piraten,' 
'Die Dreizehn ' (1887). He also wrote many 
part-songs, among which one for male-voices, 
' Italienische Salat,' is most amusing in its 
travesty of the older style of Italian operas sung 
to nonsense words. [Riemann's Lexikon and 
Opern-Handbuch ; Baker, Diet, of Mus. Biog.~\ 
GENERALI, Pietro, born Oct. 4, 1783, at 
Masserano, near Vercelli. His real name was 
Mercandetti, but his father, becoming bankrupt, 
changed his name and removed to Rome. Pietro 
studied music under Giovanni Massi, a pupil of 
Durante, and soon wrote masses and church 
music. In 1800 he produced his first opera, ' Gli 
Amanti ridicoli,' after which he travelled to 
Southern Italy, and coming back to Rome in 
1801 composed a cantata, ' Roma Libera ta,' and 
two operas, ' II Duca Nottolone ' and ' La Villana 
al cimento. ' These were followed by ' Le Gelosie 
di Giorgio ' (Bologna, 1802) ; ' Pamela nubile ' and 
' La Calzolaja ' (Venice, 1803) ; ' Misantropia e 
pentimento,' after a play of Kotzebue's ; 'Gli 
Effetti della somiglianza' {ibid. 1805) ; and ' Don 
Chisciotto ' (Milan, 1805). These are for the 
most part opere buffe ; and an attempt at opera 
semi-seria, ' Orgoglio e Umiliazione ' (Venice), 
was a failure. In 1 8 7 he wrote ' L' Idolo Cinese ' 
for the San Carlo, and ' Lo Sposo in Bersaglio ' for 
Florence. Many other comic operas were well 
received in Venice, especially ' Adelina, ' a farce, 
' La Moglie di tre mariti, ' and his chef-d'eeuvre 
'I Baccanalidi Roma' (Venice, 1815). In the 
meantime Rossini had come to the front, and 
Generali's popularity suffered. [In 1817 he 
accepted a situation as conductor of the theatre 
at Barcelona, but returned to Italy in 1821.] 
Ultimately he withdrew to Novara, and accepted 
the post of maestro di cappella to the cathedral. 
In his retirement he studied Rossini's style, 
appropriating as much of it as he could ; and 



in 1827 reappeared, first at Trieste and then at 
Venice, where his ' Francesca di Rimini ' (Dec. 
26, 1829) was a total failure. He returned to 
Novara, and died there Nov. 3, 1832. His 
operas number in all more than forty-five. [He 
also wrote much church music, an oratorio, 
masses, etc.] Generali's reputation, says Fetis, 
rests on his having been the first to employ 
certain harmonies and modulations of which 
Rossini took advantage. In fact he was the true 
precursor of Rossini, but the latter possessed 
genius, while Generali had only talent. An 
' Elogio ' of him by C. Piccoli was published at 
Novara in 1833. F. G. ; additions from Rie- 
mann's Lexikon. 

GENET, Eleazar, also called Carpentras, 
after the French town in which he was born, 
was priest, singer, and composer, attached to the 
papal court from 1508 to 1518, when he is said 
to have been made a bishop ; he was soon after- 
wards sent by the Pope on a mission to Avignon, 
where he seems to have spent the rest of his life. 
He once revisited Rome, and during his stay 
there his ' Lamentations ' for Holy Week were 
performed by his former colleagues. Struck by 
many defects, he made considerable alterations 
in his work, had a magnificent copy made, which 
is still preserved in the Pontifical Chapel, and 
wrote a dedication to Clement VII., who was 
Pope at the time. Of detached pieces by Genet 
in the various collections of the time, we know 
very few. [See Eitner's Bibl. d. Mus. Sammel- 
werke, the Quellen- Lexikon, etc.] Two motets 
from the first and third books of the ' Motetti 
della Corona' (Petrucci, Fossombrone, 1514), 
two psalms from the ' Psalmorum Selectorum 
Tom. II.' (Petreius, Nuremberg, 1539), and a 
few two-part motets printed by Gardane in 1543, 
a slender legacy, if in truth these had been all 
the works — and they were very nearly being all 
— that were to come to us ; for Genet's position 
and the powerful patronage he enjoyed made him 
independent of the usual collections and pub- 
lishers, and enabled him to bring out his works 
in an exceptional way, which almost resulted in 
their being lost to posterity. It was only in 
modern times that a copy, the only complete 
one known at present, of four splendid volumes, 
printed by De Channay for Genet at Avignon, 
was found in the Imperial Library at Vienna. 
These books are remarkable for being the first 
to introduce Briard's new types, in which the 
notes are round instead of square and diamond 
shaped, and, what is much more important, 
ligatures are abandoned, and the complicated 
system in which the same notes have different 
meanings at different times gives place to a simple 
method, such as we use at present, in which 
the notes bear at all times a fixed ratio to each 
other. This improvement, first introduced in 
the publication of Genet's works, may, we think, 
be fairly attributed to his suggestion. Of the 
four volumes the first contains five masses — ' Se 



GENOVEVA 



GERBER 



157 



mieulx ne vient,' 'A lombre dung buissonet,' 
' Le cueur fut mien,' Tors seulement,' and 
'Encore iray je jouer.' The second volume 
contains Hymns for the principal church festivals 
of the year, the third, Lamentations, and the 
fourth a collection of Magnificats. The composer, 
who cared so little for a wide popularity in his 
lifetime, and wrote with the learned musicians 
of the Papal Chapel in his mind's eye rather than 
the general public, who scorned the popular 
editions and published his works for a chosen 
few, does not belie his character in the works 
themselves. We have in them music that 
appeals to serious and learned musicians alone. 
Solemn and dignified, the bishop-musician writes 
as if from his episcopal throne, unbending and 
severe in style, but appealing not in vain to the 
sympathy of his Roman colleagues, who indeed 
valued so highly and cherished so long the works 
he gave them, that fifty years after his death 
nothing less than the special command of Pope 
Sixtus TV. could shake their firm adherence to 
the ' Lamentations ' of Genet or cause them to 
recognise in place of them those of the popular 
Palestrina. Much of Genet's music was written 
in the short intervals of comparative health 
allowed him by an agonising complaint which 
attacked him in the ears and brain, was beyond 
the experience of his physicians, and embittered 
the last years of his life. j. r. s. b. 

GENO VEVA. Opera in four acts, the words, 
after Tieck and Hebbel, arranged by Robert 
Reinick, and the composer ; music by Schumann 
(op. 81). Produced at Leipzig, June 25, 1850. 
Performed in English, by the pupils of the Royal 
College of Music, at Drury Lane Theatre, Dec. 
6, 1893. 

GEORGES, Alexandre, born at Arras, Feb. 
25, 1850, studied at the ^cole de Musique 
Religieuse (Niedermeyer), where he carried off 
the first prizes for organ, piano, and composition, 
as well as diplomas as maitre de chapelle, and 
organist, awarded by the State. Georges has 
written music for two plays by Villiers de 
1' Isle- Adam, ' Le Nouveau Monde ' in 1883, and 
'Axel,' 1894 ; for ' Alceste' at the Odeon, 1891 ; 
an ope>a-comique in one act, 'Le Printemps,' 
was performed at the Ministry for Public Works, 
in 1888, and later at the Theatre Lyrique ; a 
three -act 'opera lyrique,' 'Poemes d' Amour,' 
(Bodiniere, 1892); 'Charlotte Corday,' lyric 
drama in three acts (OpeVa Populaire, March 
1 901 ). Among his concert works, his ' Chansons 
de Miarka' for voice and orchestra, words by 
J. Richepin), are some of the most beautiful of 
modern French songs, and his symphonic poems, 
'Leila,' 'La Naissance de Venus,' ' Le Paradis 
Perdu,' etc., have added greatly to his reputation 
as a master of orchestration ; he is distinguished 
by his interesting harmonisation, and his essen- 
tially French musical temperament. g. f. 

GERARD Y, Jean, Belgian violoncellist, was 
born at Spa, on Dec. 7, 1877, commencing his 



studies when seven years of age under Bellmann, 
a pupil of Griitzmacher and member of the 
famous Heckmann Quartet. In 1885 he entered 
the Verviers Conservatoire, made phenomenally 
rapid progress, and was already a graduate in 
1888. Prior to this he had made occasional 
appearances as a soloist near home (at Liege 
where his father was professor at the Conserva- 
toire, at Aix la Chapelle, Lille, and elsewhere), 
but it was in the year 1888 that he definitely 
adopted the career of travelling virtuoso which 
he has continued since, fulfilling his first engage- 
ment at a concert at Nottingham in which Ysaye 
and Paderewski also took part. His next ap- 
pearance was in London, where he gave several 
successful recitals, followed up by tours in 
France, Germany, and Russia. He has visited 
the United States three times and Australia 
twice, being heard chiefly in solos, though in 
America he has occasionally taken part in con- 
certed music, playing quartets under Ysaye and 
Marteau and trios with Kreisler and Hofmann. 
In London, which he visited in 1903 after an 
absence of five years, he has been heard so far 
mainly in concertos, solos, and sonatas, but may 
be credited with the intention to give more 
attention later on to chamber music. He is 
still of course a very young man, and upon the 
threshold of his career. As a boy his style was 
a marvel of purity, and he was marked out by 
the critics as the legitimate successor of Piatti 
as a classical player. In his present day playing 
he displays more feeling for the romantic than 
the Italian master, as well as a greater penchant 
for modern works (especially those of the French 
and Belgian school) ; but there is the same 
absence of exaggeration, the same mastery over 
the bow in the production of long - sustained 
notes, and the same perfect taste in the manage- 
ment of the portamento. Some living violon- 
cellists play with greater power, none with 
greater charm than Gerardy. w. w. c. 

GERBER, Heinrich Nicolaus, born Sept. 6, 
1702, at Weingen-Ehrich in the principality of 
Schwarzburg ; son of a peasant, studied at the 
University of Leipzig, where his love of music 
found encouragement in the teaching and con- 
versation of Sebastian Bach ; in 1728 be was 
organist at Heringen, and in 1731 court organist 
at Sondershausen. Here for the first time he 
felt himself safe, as, on account of his extra- 
ordinary height, he had been constantly pursued 
by the recruiting officers of Frederick William I. 
He composed much for clavier, organ, and harp ; 
a complete Choralbuch, with figured basses ; 
and variations on chorales, long and widely 
used. He also made musical instruments, and 
planned many improvements and new inven- 
tions. Among others a kind of Strohfiedel or 
Xylophone, harpsichord-shape, with a compass 
of four octaves ; the keys liberated wooden 
balls which struck on bars of wood, and thus 
produced the notes. From 1749 Gerber was 



158 



GERBER 



GERBERT 



also court- secretary. He died at Sondershausen, 
August 6, 1775. 

His son Ernst Ludwig, was born at Sonders* 
hausen, Sept. 29, 1746 ; learned singing and 
clavier from his father, and studied music from 
an early age. In 1765 he went to the Univer- 
sity of Leipzig, but returned home in order to 
assist his father in his offices, and succeeded 
him on his death. He then entered on those 
labours which finally conducted him to an end 
he himself scarcely contemplated, and by which 
he has earned the gratitude of all lovers of music. 
His love of musical literature suggested to him 
the idea of making a collection of portraits of 
musicians, for which he wrote biographies, 
mainly on the authority of Walther's Lexicon 
(1732). As Walther was at that time out of 
date, he procured the necessary additions, ob- 
tained biographical sketches of living musicians, 
took journeys, and tried to fill up the gaps by 
consulting all the books then in existence on 
the subject. Thus the idea suggested itself of 
adapting Walther's work to the wants of the 
time, and of writing a completely new work of 
his own, which eventually became the Historisch- 
biographische Lexikon der Tonkiinstler (two vols. 
Leipzig, Breitkopf, 1790 and 17 92) translated into 
French by Choron (1810,1811). While writing 
musical articles and reviews for various period- 
icals (Erfurter Gelehrten Zcitung ; Leipziger 
Allg. Musik. Zcitung from 1798, etc. ; Becker's 
Literalur der Musik and the Qucllen- Lexikon 
contain a list of his scattered articles) he received 
from all quarters corrections and information 
of all kinds, which enabled him, or rather 
made it his duty, to prepare an enlarged edition. 
Accordingly his Neues hist, biogr. Lexikon der 
Tonkunstler appeared in four vols, with five 
appendices (Leipzig, Kiihnel, 1812,1814). This 
new edition did not supersede the former one, 
to which it often refers the reader ; but rather 
completed it. Gerber took pains to keep up 
with the times, recorded events for after use, 
was continually making additions to his collec- 
tion of books and music, and composed industri- 
ously pianoforte sonatas and organ preludes. 
Hoping to keep together the collection he had 
made at the cost of so much labour and pains, 
he offered it for sale to the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde in Vienna, with the solitary 
stipulation that he should retain it during his 
own life. The price was fixed, and the negotia- 
tion completed in January 1815, but he still 
continued his additions, encouraged doubtless 
by the knowledge that his treasures would be in 
safe keeping, in a city so famed for its musical 
tastes. He was still court secretary at Sonders- 
hausen when he died, June 30, 1819, in uni- 
versal respect ; leaving behind him the reputation 
of one who, with singular disinterestedness and 
out of a true love for music, had devoted the 
energies of his whole life to a single end. His 
Lexicon forms the foundation of all future 



undertakings of the same kind ; and if new 
Dictionaries are to satisfy the wants of the age 
to the same extent that his did, their authors 
must possess industry as persevering, knowledge 
as eclectic, and a love of music as devoted, as 
those which inspired Gerber. c. P. p. 

GERBERT von Hornait, Martin, an emi- 
nent writer on the history of music, born 
August 12, 1720, at Horb on the Neckar. He 
received a thorough literary education, including 
music, at Ludwigsburg. In 1 737 he entered 
the Benedictine monastery of St. Blaise in the 
Black Forest, was ordained priest in 1744, and 
appointed Prince-Abbot, Oct. 15, 1764. His- 
torical research, especially in music, was his 
favourite pursuit, and a taste for this he 
endeavoured to infuse into the convent. The 
library afforded him ample materials, and much 
valuable matter hitherto unused. But this was 
not enough. Between the years 1759 and 1765 he 
travelled through Germany, France, and Italy, 
making important discoveries, and establishing 
relations with various learned societies. His 
acquaintance with Padre Martini at Bologna 
was of special service to him. Their objects 
were closely connected — Gerbert's work being 
a history of Church music, Martini's one of 
music in general. In 1762 Gerbert published 
his prospectus in Marpurg's Critische Briefe, 
vol. ii. p. 313, and invited contributions, which 
were furnished him in abundance. The first 
volume was nearly complete when a fire at the 
monastery in 1768 destroyed all the materials 
which had been collected ; in 1774, however, 
the complete work appeared at St. Blaise, in 
two vols. 4 to, with 40 engravings, under the 
title De cantu et musica sacra a prima ecclesiae 
aetate usque ad praescns tempus ; a book which 
has ever since formed the foundation of all 
musical scholarship, although naturally requir- 
ing much correction at the present day. A 
description of it appears in Forkel's Geschichte 
der Musik, which without Gerbert's work would 
possibly never have been written, or would at 
any rate have been published later and in a far 
less complete form. Ten years after, in 1784, 
appeared Gerbert's second great work Scriptores 
ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum, three 
vols, also printed at St. Blaise ; a collection of 
treatises by the most important writers on 
music, afterwards continued by Coussemaker. 
Three more works, also printed at St. Blaise, 
deserve special mention, Iter alemannicum, 
accedit italicum et gallicum (1765 ; 2nd ed. 
1773 ; German ed. by Kochler, Ulm, 1767), 
which contains the account of his travels, and 
abounds in interesting particulars ; Vetus litur- 
gia alemannica (two vols. 1776) ; and Monu- 
menta veteris liturgiae alemannica (two vols. 
1777). He also made the Latin translation of 
Opusculum theodiseum de Musica, a treatise 
in four chapters written in old German by 
Notker (Labes) a monk of St. Gall in the 10th 



GERICKE 

century (see Becker's Literatur der Musik, 
p. 68). His other writings are mainly theo- 
logical. Some offertories of his composition were 
published at Augsburg. [A 'Missa in Coena 
Domini ' by him is printed at the end of De 
cantu et musica sacra. In 1787 the abbot 
obtained the consent of the chapter to banish 
all instruments but the organ from the church, 
and thenceforth nothing was heard but the 
Gregorian chant, or simple four-part masses 
with organ accompaniment.] 

Gerbert died at St. Blaise, May 13, 1793. 
He realised the ideal of virtue and industry in 
his illustrious order ; his gentle character and 
engaging manners secured the friendship of all 
who came in contact with him. Bonndorf 
(four leagues from St. Blaise, and the chief 
town of the principality) is indebted to him for 
a hospital and house of correction, over the 
entrance of which is the inscription ' Dedicated 
by Martin II. to the poor, and to the improve- 
ment of mankind.' He also built the fine 
church of the Convent (after the model of the 
Pantheon at Rome), and founded and endowed 
an orphanage for the five surrounding districts. 
The peasants of the neighbourhood, of their own 
accord, erected his statue in the market-place 
of Bonndorf, a most unusual tribute of respect. 
His memory still lives in the district. Carl 
Ferdinand Schmalholz, the able musical director 
of the Cathedral at Constance, possessed an 
excellent half-length oil picture of Gerbert. 
[See the Musical Times for Nov. and Dec. 1882, 
which contains an admirable essay on Gerbert 
by Professor F. Niecks, based on such sources 
as Schlichtegroll's Nekrolog auf das Jahr 1793 
and Sander's Iieise zu St. Blasien, 1781.] c. f. p. 
GERICKE, Wilhelm, orchestral, choral, and 
operatic conductor, born April 18, 1845, in 
Graz, Styria ; studied at the Vienna Conserva- 
torium, 1862-65, chiefly under Dessoff. On 
leaving the Conservatorium he went to Linz 
as conductor, remaining there till offered the 
second conductorship of the Hofoper in Vienna 
in 1874. At the opera he was associated with 
Hans Richter. In 1880 he became conductor 
of the Gesellschaftsconcerte, and also took the 
leadership of the Singverein in the Austrian 
capital. He remained thus employed until 
1884, when he went to America, and for five 
years conducted the Boston Symphony Or- 
chestra, declining a re-engagement on account 
of his health. Returned to Vienna, he again 
became conductor of the Gesellschaftsconcerte, 
and continued in the office until 1895. After 
three years of rest he accepted a reappointment 
as conductor of the Boston orchestra, whose 
great efficiency is largely due to his indefatig- 
ableness and skill as a drill -master, his con- 
scientious devotion to high ideals, and his 
remarkable sense of euphony and tonal balance. 
He is the composer of an operetta, ' Schon 
Hannchen ' (Linz, 1865), a requiem, a concert 



GERMAN 



159 



overture, many solo songs and choruses, and 
considerable chamber music. h. e. k. 

GERLE, Hans, lutenist and lute-maker of 
Nuremberg, published in 1532 a book of in- 
structions for the viol and the lute entitled 
Musica Teusch auf die Instrument der grossen 
und kleynen Geygen auch Lautten. A second 
part appeared in the following year. It is 
quoted by John Dowland in the short treatise 
on lute-playing appended to Robert Dowland's 
Varietie of Lute-lessons (1610). A second edi- 
tion, with additional examples, was printed in 
1546, under a slightly different title. In 1552 
Gerle published Ein newes sehr kunstliches 
Lautenbuch, containing compositions by dis- 
tinguished lutenists in tablature. There are 
copies of these three books, all of which are 
now of extreme rarity, in the Royal Library at 
Berli *- J. F. r. s. 

GERMAN, J. Edward, one of the most dis- 
tinguished of the younger English composers, 
was born at Whitchurch, Shropshire, Feb. 17, 
1862, and was educated at Bridge House School, 
Chester, until 1878, when he returned to Whit- 
church. Here he spent much time in organising 
a local band, which used to perform at village 
concerts. While arranging and composing the 
music for this band, he taught himself the 
violin, enough to play solos. At the beginning 
of 1880, he went to Shrewsbury to study with 
Walter Hay ; in September of that year he 
entered the Royal Academy of Music, with the 
organ (under Dr. Steggall) as principal study. 
In the following year he took the violin as 
principal study, under Weist-Hill and Alfred 
Burnett. In 1885 he won the Charles Lucas 
medal with a Te Deum for chorus and organ, 
and became a sub-professor of the violin. His 
principal composition, while at the Academy, was 
an operetta, 'The Rival Poets,' performed at 
St. George's Hall, Dec. 21, 1886. This work 
showed very remarkable power of writing grace- 
ful and really comic music, and on its revival 
by the pupils of the Academy at the same hall 
on March 7, 1901, its success was emphatic. 
He left the Academy in 1887, and was made 
an Associate. For a little more than a year 
German led the life of an orchestral violinist, 
playing in theatres and elsewhere, and occasion- 
ally appearing as a soloist, cultivating his talent 
for composition at the same time. At the close 
of 1888 he was engaged as musical director of 
the Globe Theatre, under the management of 
Richard Mansfield, and his first great opportunity 
came in the production of the incidental music 
to ' Richard III. ' This, the first of a long series 
of compositions for plays, was at once hailed as 
something a good deal better than what theatre- 
goers were as a rule accustomed to hear, and in 
the form of orchestral suites, arrangements, and 
extracts, many of the compositions for plays 
have obtained universal and lasting popularity, 
From the second theatrical composition, th« 



160 



GERMAN 



GERO 



music for ' Henry VIII.' at the Lyceum (1892) 
the • Shepherds' Dance ' and other numbers at 
once caught the ear of musical people and the 
general public, and have maintained their popu- 
larity ever since. Although so much in request 
as a purveyor of music for Shakespearean revivals 
and original plays, German has never lost sight 
of the higher walks of art ; since the production 
of his first symphony in E minor, at the Crystal 
Palace in 1890, many orchestral suites, sym- 
phonic poems, etc. have been brought forward, 
mostly at the provincial festivals of the autumn, 
and always with great success . I n non- orchestral 
music, it is curious to see how, although himself 
a violinist, he has favoured the wind instru- 
ments, as in his charming ' Suite ' for flute and 
piano, a serenade for wind instruments, another 
serenade for tenor voice with accompaniment 
of piano and wind, and many other composi- 
tions. When Sir Arthur Sullivan's last opera 
' The Emerald Isle ' was left unfinished at his 
death (1901), German was commissioned to 
finish it, and his part of the work was done 
with such remarkable skill that with the pro- 
duction of his charming ' Merrie England, ' it 
seemed as if the success which the Savoy Theatre 
had enjoyed for so long under Sullivan was to 
be continued under German ; this might indeed 
have been so if the younger man had been strong 
enough to resist the various influences which 
allowed all kinds of interpolations into the score 
of this and of his next work, 'A Princess of 
Kensington' (1903). The cultivated section 
of the public which had hailed the new composer 
as the legitimate successor of Sullivan (and it 
must be admitted that German had contrived to 
give them something quite as good as Sullivan, 
while preserving his own individuality), natur- 
ally resented the liberties taken with the pieces, 
and the career of the theatre as the home of 
national light opera of a high class ceased with 
this work. German's music leans to what is 
light and graceful rather than to what is strongly 
emotional or tragic ; but his ideas are original, 
their expression is always exquisitely refined, 
and his skill of orchestration is remarkable. 
He writes admirably for the voice, and it is no 
wonder that his songs are as popular with singers 
and musicians as they are with the public. He 
was made a Fellow of the Royal Academy of 
Music in 1895, and a member of the Philhar- 
monic Society in 1901. The following is a list 
of his compositions : — 

Operetta, 'The Rival Poets' (with accompaniment of two pianos), 

1886. 
Overture, 'On German airs,' 1889. 
Music to Richard III. (Olobe Theatre), 1889. 
Symphony No. 1, ill £ minor (Crystal Palace), 1890. 
Funeral March (Henschel's Symphony Concerts), 1891. 
Music to Henry VIII (Lyceum Theatre), 1892. 
Gypsy Suite (Crystal Palace), 1892. 
Serenade for wind instruments, 1892. 
Suite, flute and piano, 1892. 

Music to The Tempter (Haymarket Theatre), 1893. 
Symphony No. 2, in A minor (Norwich Festival), 1893. 
Serenade, tenor voice, piano, and wind instruments, 1894. 
Music to Romeo and Juliet (Lyceum Theatre), 1895. 
Symphonic Suite in D minor (Leeds Festival), 1895. 
Church music in Michael and his Lott Angel (Lyceum Theatre), 1896. 
Music to As You Like It (St. James's Theatre), 1896. 



Fantasia, 'In Commemoration' (Philharmonic, Jubilee concert), 

1897. 
Symphonic Poem, 'Hamlet' (Birmingham Festival), 1897. 
Music to Much Ado about Nothing (St. James's Theatre), 1898. 
Symphonic Suite, ' The Seasons ' (Norwich Festival), 1899. 
Music to Nell Gwyn (Prince of Wales's Theatre), 1900. 
Opera, ' The Emerald Isle' (with Sir Arthur Sullivan), 1901. 
Opera, 'A Princess of Kensington' (Savoy Theatre), 1903. 
Welsh Rhapsody (Cardiff Festival, 1904). 
Music to Antigone (published but not performed). 
Music for pianoforte solo, and duet, violin and piano, clarinet, flute, 

violoncello, etc. part-songs, songs, etc. , , 

M. 

GERMAN SIXTH. See Sixth. 

GERN, August, was foreman to Cavaille-Col 
of Paris, and came over to London to erect the 
organ built by the latter for the Carmelite 
Church at Kensington. Having set up on his 
own account in London in 1866, he built an 
organ for the French Church near Leicester 
Square, besides many excellent instruments for 
churches and private houses. v. DE p. 

GERNSHEIM, Friedrich, eminent player, 
composer, and conductor, born of Hebrew parents 
at Worms, July 17, 1839. He received his first 
instruction in music from his mother, an able 
pianist, and was then put successively into the 
hands of Liebe, Pauer, and Rozenheim. He 
also learned the violin, and under Hauff the 
theory of music. His ability might have 
tempted him to become a virtuoso, but he 
fortunately preferred a different path, and at 
the Conservatorium of Leipzig under Moscheles, 
Hauptmann, Rietz, and Richter, during the 
years 1852-55 underwent a thorough musical 
education. He followed this up by a residence 
in Paris, where he was much esteemed as a 
teacher and player. Since then he has been suc- 
cessively at Saarbruck (1861) ; Cologne, as Pro- 
fessor of Pianoforte, Counterpoint, and Fugue 
(1865) ; Rotterdam, as conductor of the 'Eru- 
ditio Musica,' and of the Theatre (1874). [In 
1890-97 he was a teacher at the Stern Con- 
servatorium and director of the Sternscher 
Gesangverein till 1904 ; he was made a member 
of the senate of the Royal Academy of Arts in 
Berlin. His works include four symphonies, 
of which those in G minor and Bb are remark- 
able, an overture, ' Waldmeisters Brautfahrt,' 
concertos for violin and pianoforte, and many 
choral works, such as 'Salamis,' 'Hafis,' 'Wach- 
terlied an der Neujahrsnacht 1200,' 'Preislied,' 
' Nornenlied, ' 'Phobus Apollo,' ' Agrippina,' etc. 
His chamber music consists of three quartets 
and two quintets, for piano and strings ; two 
trios, one of which, in F (op. 28) was often 
given at the Popular Concerts ; three violin 
sonatas, two string quartets, and a string 
quintet. ] G. 

GERO, Jhan (? 1518-1553). For sometime 
it was thought that Jhan Gero and Maistre Jhan 
were one and the same person, and under this 
impression Fetis records that Gero was maestro 
di cappella first at Orvieto Cathedral, and after- 
wards to the Duke of Ferrara. The latter part 
of the statement certainly applies to Maistre 
Jhan and not to Gero. That there were two 
composers is shown by their compositions being 




ETELKA GERSTER 



GEKO 



GESE 



161 



always kept quite distinct, a primo libro de 
madrigali by Jhan Gero and one by Maistre 
Jhan were published at Venice (Ant. Gardane) 
in 1541. Collections of various compositions 
contain works by both, as in Selectissimae 
cantiones, Augsburg, 1540 ; Eleetiones diversorum 
motetorum, Venice, 1549 ; and the Sextus tomus 
evangeliorum, Nuremberg, 1556. 
List of works : — 

Jhan Gero. II primo libro de madrigali italiani et canzoni 
francese, a due voci. Novamente composti, etc. Aggiuntovi alcuni 
canti di M. Adriano, e di Const. Festa. 1541. Excudebat Venetiis, 
apud Antonium Gardane. Duo primi, di Jhan Gero. Obi. 4to, pp. 
56. The Cantus part-book in the Vienna Hofbibl. Eighteen editions 
of this book appeared down to 1687. 

Di Jehan Gero musico eccellent. Libro primo delli madrigali a 
quatro voci, a notte negre, da lui novamente composti, etc. Et da 
gli suoi proprii exemplari estratti. Opera nova, artificiosa et 
dilettevole, come a Cantanti sara manifesto. Venetiis, apud Hie- 
ronymum Scotum. 1549. Obi. 4to, pp. 34. The Tenor part-book 
in the Bologna Liceo Musicale. 

The same. Libro secondo. 1549. Obi. 4to, pp. 22. Tenor part- 
book in Bologna Liceo Musicale. 

Jhan Gero primo a tre. Quaranta madrigali a tre voci de 1' eccel- 
lente Musico Jhan Gero. Novamente con somma diligentia ri- 
stampati e corretti. A tre voci. In Venetia appresso di Antonio 
Gardane. 1553. Obi. 4to, pp. 34. Libro secondo, 1556. Three 
part-books in the Munich Hofbibl. 

In Collections : — 

1. Selectissimae necnon familiarissimae cantiones. Augsburg, M. 
Kriesstein. 1540. Jhan Gero : — ' Io v' amo anci ' for three voices. 

2. Trium vocum cantiones centum a praestantiss. divers, na- 
tionum. Tomi primi. Norimbergae, J. Petreium. 1541. Contains 
thirty-two Italian songs by Jhan Gero (see Eitner, Bibliog. for 
text). 

3. Di Constantio Festa. II primo libro de madrigali a tre voci, 
con la gionta de quaranta Madrigali di Jhan Gero, etc. 1541, 
Venetiis. Ant. Gardane. The title-page appears to be incorrect, 
possibly thirty-nine madrigals were composed by Jhan Gero, of 
these, thirty-two were certainly his. Four of the madrigals in this 
volume were reprinted in the 1543-51-56-64-68 editions. 

4. II secondo libro de li madrigali de diversi eccellentiss. autori a 
misura di breve. A quatro voci. Venetiis. Ant. Gardane. 1543. 
Contains fourteen madrigals by Jan Gero. Another edition was 
published 'Venetia. G. Scotto. 1552.' 

5. Eleetiones diversorum motetorum distincte quatuor vocibus. 
Venetia. Ant. Gardane. 1649. Jhan Gero: — ' Deus qui sedes ' and 
'Tibi derel ictus.' 

6. Musica quatuor vocum, quae materna lingua Moteta vocantur. 
Venetiis. H. Scotum. 15i9. Six motets by Jehan Gero. 

7. II vero terzo libro di Madrigali de diversi autori a note negre 
. . . a quatro voci. Venetia. 1549. Jhan Gero: — 'Felice 1' alma* ; 
' Una ragazz' una.' 

8. Madrigali a tre voci de diversi eccellentiss. autori. Libro primo. 
Venetia. Ant. Gardane. 1551. And in 1555-59-61-69-97 editions. 
Nine madrigals by Jhan Gero. 

9. Evangelia dominicorum et festorum dierom musicis numeris. 
Tomi primi. Noribergae. 1554. Joan, de Gero : — 'Hodie Christus 
natus est ' for five voices. 

10. Sextus tomus evangeliorum. Noribergae. 1556. Joh. Gero: — 
' Peccantem me quotidie ' and ' Deus in homine tuo ' for four voices. 

11. Selectissimorum triciniorum (Bassus). Noribergae. 1559. 
Thirteen Italian madrigals by Joan. Gero. 

12. Musica libro primo a tre voci di Adrian Wigliar, Cipriano de 
Rore, Archadelt, Jhan Gero. etc. Vinegia. Scotto. 1566. Five 
madrigals by Gero, from the 1551 Madrigali a 3 voci, q.v. 

13. Delia scelta di madrigali de piu eccellenti autori de' nostri 
tempi a tre voci. Libro primo. Firenze. G. Marescotti. 1582. 
Jhan Gero : 'Alia dolce ombra,' ' Rare grazie celesti.' 

14. Bicinia, sive cantiones suaviss. duarum vocum. Antverpiae. 
P. Phalesius. 1590. Giovan. Gero : ' Au joly son du chansonet,' 
'Non si vedra giamai,' ' Quand je boy du vin.' 

MSS. 

In the Berlin Konigl. Bibl : some madrigals in MS. T. 141. 
In the Bologna Liceo Musicale : motets by Joan Gero, ' magnum 
i mysteriuin {a 4), 'Vox de coelis' (a 4), 'O sacrum convivium ' (a 5) 
I in a codex inscribed ' 1518 a di 10 di giugno,' which if correct is an 
earlier date for Gero than is to be found elsewhere. It is a year 
, before the first appearance of a motet by 'Maistre Jhan' (see Pari- 
i sini's Cat. iii. 3). 

In the British Museum : A madrigal for two voices, ' Non si vedra 
giamai ' in Add. MS. 5054, p. 218. Three for two voices : ' Refuses 
d'amours,' 'Quant j'estoie & marier,' 'Taut que vivrai en cage,' in 
Add. MS. 31,406. copied 'from a MS. written in ye year 1551, and 
! wch. belonged to Walterus Erie one of the Gentlemen of ye Bed- 
chamber to K. Henry ye 8th.' Two of the madrigals for two voices 
; from the 1545 edition, 'Phillida mia,' and 'Au joly son du chan- 
; sonnet' in Add. MS. 34,071, ff. 146, 15. 

In the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge : Nine madrigals for two 
voices in MS. 112. 

Gero's compositions have been reprinted in Stafford Smith's 
Musica Antiqua, p. 134, ' Phillida mi piu chei' (a 2) from the 1545 
edition. 

In Peter Wagner's 'Das Madrigal und Palestrina' (Viertelj. viii. 
478), three from the Madrigali de diversi autori a quatro voci. 
1543. 

In Luigi Torchi's V arte musicale, 1897, vol. i. four compositions 
for four voices. Two from the Madrigali de diversi autori, 1552 ; 
one from II vero terzo libro, 1549, and ' O beatum pontificem ' from 



Musica quator vocum, 1549. 

VOL. II 



c. s. 



GERSTER, Etelka, born June 17, 1855, at 
Kaschau, Hungary, received instruction in sing- 
ing from Mme. Marchesi at Vienna, and made 
her debut, in Jan. 1876 (Illustr. Zeitung), at 
Venice as Gilda, and Ophelia, with great success. 
She played next at Genoa and Marseilles, and in 
February and March 1877 at KrolPs Theatre, 
Berlin, with her sister Mme. Bertha Kauser 
Gerster at an Italian season there under the direc- 
tion of Signor Pietro Gardini. She made a great 
success there, and subsequently at Pesth, where 
she married Gardini ; she also appeared at the 
Silesian Festival at Breslau. On June 23 of 
the same year she made her debut at Her 
Majesty's as Amina, and became an immediate 
favourite, remaining there for four seasons until 
1880 inclusive. Her parts there included the 
Queen of Night, Elvira (' Puritani'), Linda, 
Pinorah, Lucia, Edith ('Talismano'), Margaret, 
Violetta, and Gilda. Apropos of the last, the 
Saturday Review of June 29, 1878, wrote 
that she has ' given a fresh proof of her extra- 
ordinary vocal and dramatic genius. The ex- 
quisite beauty of her singing has never been 
shown to greater advantage, and her acting at 
every moment reveals true art and feeling. 
Among fine touches in Mme. Gerster's dramatic 
performance, we may specially note her wrapping 
her head in a cloak before she rushes in at the 
fatal door in the last scene, that she may at 
least not see the descending knife. ' 

In 1878, 1883, and 1887, she sang in opera 
and concert, in America. " She also sang with 
great success at the Birmingham Festival of 1 8 7 9. 
On May 29, 1890, she reappeared in London, 
at Covent Garden, as Amina, but her vocal 
powers were impaired. Soon after this she 
retired from public life to her villa at Bologna. 
In 1896 she opened a school of singing at Berlin ; 
among her pupils was Frau v. Dulong. a. c. 

GES. The German term for G flat. 

GESE or GESIUS, Bartholomatts (or more 
familiarly Barthel Goss), was born about 1555 
at Miincheberg near Frankfurt-on-the-Oder in 
Brandenburg. Like many of the older Lutheran 
cantors he was first a student of theology. He 
was cantor at Frankfurt from at least 1595 to 
his death in 1613 (according to some authorities), 
or 1621 (according to Eitner). His works, like 
those of Michael Praetorius, are important as 
covering the whole field of the liturgical music 
of the older Lutheran Church, and showing the 
thoroughly liturgical character of the older 
Lutheran service with its mixture of Latin and 
German and its combination of plain-song and 
vocal polyphony, before first the Church Cantata 
and then the Organ- accompanied Chorale had 
swallowed up everything, and before Pietism and 
Rationalism between them had destroyed all 
further interest in the artistic development of a 
proper Church Music in Lutheran or Protestant 
Germany. His more important works are as 
follows : — 



162 



GESELLSCHAFT DER MUSIKFREUNDE 



1. ' Historia Tom Leiden und Sterben unsers Herrn Jesu Christ!,' 
etc. (Passion according to St. John for two to five voices), Wit- 
tenberg, 1588. This work was reprinted by Commer in his edition 
of Lassus, and appears also in Schoberlein's ' Schati des liturgischen 

3. Hymni Scholastic! ... 4 v. (adjectae quaedam precationes 3 voc. 
una cum cantionibus Gregorianis), 1597. Two editions appeared, 
with 37 and 41 numbers respectively. 

3. Psalinodia choralis coutinens Antiphonas, Psalmos, Kespon- 
soria, Hymnos, Introitus, etc. additis Lamentationibusquae Vesperi 
in hebdomada Palmarum . . . 1600. 631 plain-song melodies to Latin 
and German texts. 

4. Geistliche Lieder . . . mit 4 und 5 Stimmen nach gewohnlichen 
Choral-melodien gesetzet . . . Various collections, 1601, 1603, 1605, 
1607. The collection of 1607 contains 252 German texts and 45 Latin. 

5. Cantiones sacrae Chorales . . . Introitus, Kyrie, Sequentiae, etc. 
4-6 voc. 1610. 

6. Missae ad imitationem Orlandi et aliorum ... 5 voc. 1611, 
contains ten masses with Nicene Creed, Sanctus, and Agnus, based 
on themes from Motets of Lass us and others. 

7. Opus novum continens Missas, Introitus, etc. 4-9 voc. 1613, con- 
tains fourteen masses and other music, including a St. Matthew 
Passion for six voices. 

8. Magnificat 5 and 6 ton . . . insertis cantionibus aliquot natali- 
tiis . . . Resonet in laudibus, In dulci jubilo, etc. (It was a favourite 
custom at Christmas in Lutheran churches to sing the Latin 
Magnificat with Christmas carols inserted between the verses. It 
was in a similar fashion that Bach's Magnificat was originally pro- 
duced at Leipzig. See Spitta, J. S. Bach (Bng. tr. vol. ii. pp. 369-374). 

9. Eitner enumerates a large number of occasional compositions, 
chiefly for weddings and funerals, after the custom of the time. 

Gese also published in 1615 a theoretical work entitled ' Synopsis 
musicae practicae ' with numerous examples of Hymns for four voices. 

Besides the 'St. John Passion,' Schoberlein's 
' Schatz ' contains a large number of Gese's four and 
five- part settings of German Chorales. J. R. M. 

GESELLSCHAFT DER MUSIKFREUNDE 
at Vienna. This institution, now of world-wide 
celebrity, was suggested in 1812, and founded in 
1813, mainly through Dr. Joseph von Sonnleith- 
ner, after two great performances of Handel's 
'Alexander's Feast,' by all the first artists of 
Vienna, in the Imperial Riding-school, on Nov. 
29 and Dec. 3, 1812. In 1814 the statutes re- 
ceived the Imperial sanction, a president (Count 
Apponyi) and board of directors were appointed, 
the formation of a musical library and museum 
decided upon, and four annual subscription-con- 
certs announced. These took place in the Re- 
doutensaal — the first (Dec. 3, 1815) in the Small 
Hall, the others in the large one. The ' Musik- 
feste' (oratorios only, with 1000 performers) 
were repeated in the Riding-school every year 
until 1847, when Mendelssohn was to have con- 
ducted his 'Elijah,' but his death occurred a 
few days before the date fixed for the perform- 
ance. Since 1859 two extra concerts have been 
given every year, besides the original four. For 
many years the number of performers has 
been about 80 in the orchestra, and from 300 to 
350 in the chorus ; the latter form the ' Sing- 
verein,' founded in 1858. The ' Orchesterverein,' 
established in 1860, gives a few soirees annually. 
Soirees, with miscellaneous programmes, were 
held regularly from 1818 to 1840. At the 
four general concerts all masters worthy of 
note have been and are still represented. Beet- 
hoven himself was invited to write an oratorio 
for the Society, but was unfortunately at the 
time too busy with other works (the Mass in 
D, etc. ) to comply with the request. The Society 
has twice had a well-known patron of music at 
its head —the Archduke and Cardinal Archbishop 
Rudolf from 1814 to 1831, and the Archduke 
Anton from 1831 to 1835. Down to 1848 the 
concerts were conducted by the best musicians 



amongthemembersin turn ; butinl851 Hellmes- 
berger was appointed as professional conductor. 
His successors were — Herbeck in 1859, Rubin- 
stein in 1871, Brahms in 1872, and Herbeck 
again in 1875. Herbeck died Oct. 28, 1877, 
and Hellmesberger resumed the duties of the 
office in the following season. In 1878 Ed- 
uard Kremser was conductor till 1880, when 
W. Gericke held the post ; between his de- 
parture for America in 1884 and his return, 
the concerts were conducted by Hans Richter 
(1884-90), and Gericke had a second tenure of 
the office in 1890-95, since which date it has been 
in the hands of Richard von Perger (1895-1900), 
Ferdinand Lowe (1900-4), and Franz Schalk 
(1904). -The formation of the 'Singverein' 
under Herbeck added greatly to the interest of 
the concerts. Besides such works as Beethoven's 
Mass in D, and Bach's Passion-music (both St. 
Matthew and St. John) several of Schubert's 
works — 'Der hausliche Krieg,' ' Lazarus,' the 
B minor Symphony, etc. — have been produced. 

The possessions of the Society in works of art 
have gradually increased, and are now of enor- 
mous extent. The library, the foundation of 
which was formed by Gerber's valuable collec- 
tion, acquired in 1819, now contains nearly 
4000 printed vols, and about 40,000 numbers of 
music, printed or manuscript. [Gerber.] Among 
the latter are many valuable autographs and 
literary curiosities, including Mozart's PF. con- 
certo in D minor, a quintet (1768), his last 
cantata (Nov. 1791) ; Schubert's 9th Symphony, 
Masses in A flat and G, the opera * Alfons und 
Estrella, ' the Singspiele ' die Zwillingsbruder, ' 
and * der vierjahrige Posten,' four stringed 
quatuors, and many songs ; Haydn's ' Ten 
Commandments,' Mass in B flat, a great cantata 
(1768), six stringed quatuors (1771) ; Beet- 
hoven's first violin concerto (a fragment), many 
songs, the sonata op. 81 (first part), a quantity 
of sketches, the Eroica (a copy, revised by 
Beethoven) ; choruses by Gluck and Handel, 
and other treasures. The museum includes a 
large collection of pictures and engravings 
of celebrated musicians, and a collection of 
ancient musical instruments, medals, busts, etc. 
[Herr C. F. Pohl, the writer of this article, was 
archivist and librarian from 1866 until his 
death, in 1887, when he was succeeded by Dr. 
Eusebius Mandyczewski. ] In 1830 the Society 
built a house of its own (Tuchlauben), but 
having far outgrown the accommodation there, 
removed in 1870 to the present large building 
* an der Wien,' where the concerts are now held. 

The ' Conservatorium, ' founded by the Society 
in 1817, and still in connection with it, has 
grown to great importance from -very small 
beginnings. It includes instruction in every 
branch which a pupil can possibly require. In 
1870 an opera school was opened, which gives 
operatic performances. To this was added in 
1874 a dramatic school, which gives theatrical 



GEVAERT 



GEWANDHAUS CONCERTS 163 



representations. At present (1905) the Insti- 
tution is attended by 950 pupils, who receive 
instruction from sixty -seven professors. The 
successive directors of the old institution were 
Kiesewetter (1817-25), Hauschka (1825-32), 
Lannoy (1833-34), Chhnani (1835-36), Klemm 
(1837-42), and Preyer (1843-47). For four 
years the school was shut up, and on its re- 
organisation Hellmesberger was appointed pro- 
fessional director in 1851, and continued at 
the post until his retirement in 1893. He was 
succeeded in that year by J. N. Fuchs, who was 
followed in 1899 by the present director, Ritter 
von Perger. Amongst the innumerable artists 
who have been educated there we may mention 
Ernst, Goldmark, Staudigl, and Hans Richter, 
as representatives of a number too large for our 
space. c. f. p. 

GEVAERT, Francois Auguste, Director of 
the Brussels Conservatoire, born July 31, 1828, 
at Huysse, a village near Oudenarde. His father, 
a baker, wished to bring him up to his own 
trade, but his great musical ability becoming 
apparent, he was sent in 1841 to the Conservatoire 
at Ghent, where he studied under Sommere and 
Mengal. He was then appointed organist of the 
Jesuits' Church, and in 1846 a Christmas cantata 
of his composition was performed in Ghent. In 
June 1847 his Psalm 'Super flumina' was per- 
formed at the festival of the ' Zangverband ' ; 
and Spohr, who was present, congratulated the 
young composer. In the previous May he had 
won the first prize for composition at the national 
competition in Brussels, but was allowed to 
postpone his foreign tour for two years, during 
which he produced in Ghent his first opera, 
'Hugues de Somerghen' (March 23, 1848), 
followed by ' La Comedie a la ville,' at Brussels, 
a decided step in advance. In 1849 he started 
on his tour, and after a short stay in Paris 
proceeded to Spain, where he composed an 
orchestral fantasia ' Sobre motivos espaholes. ' His 
reports on Spanish music, regularly forwarded to 
the Ministre de l'lnterieur, were printed in the 
bulletin of the Academie of Brussels for 1851. 
From Spain he went to Italy, and returning 
through Germany reached Ghent in the spring 
of 1852. On Nov. 27 of that year he produced 
'Georgette' (one act) at the Theatre Lyrique in 
Paris; and in Oct. 1854 ' Le Billet de Mar- 
guerite,' in three acts, libretto by Leuven and 
Brunswick — both with extraordinary success. 
'Les Lavandieres de Santarem' (Oct. 28, 1855), 
however, was a fiasco. Gevaert received the 
order of Leopold for his cantata • De nationale 
verjaerdag,' composed in honour of the fifth 
anniversary of King Leopold's reign. 'Quentin 
Durward' (March 25, 1858), 'Le Diable au 
Moulin'(1859), ' Chateau Trompette' (18 60), 'La 
poularde de Caux ' (1861, with other composers) 
and 'Le Capitaine Henriot' (Dec. 29, 1864), 
were all successes at the Opera Comique in Paris. 
So also was ' Les Deux Amours, ' opera-comique, 



at the theatre of Baden-Baden, 1861. A 
cantata 'Le Retour de l'armee' was performed 
at the Grand Opera in 1859. Other important 
compositions are a Requiem for male voices and 
orchestra; 'Jacques van Artevelde,' ballads, 
choruses, etc. In 1867 he was appointed 'Chef 
de chant' at the Academie de Musique, Paris, a 
post resigned by Halevy in 1845. This post 
Gevaert retained till the Opera in the Rue Le 
Peletier was closed (Sept. 1870) on account of 
the war. From that time he devoted his atten- 
tion to the history of music, and in 1875 brought 
out the first part of his Histoire et Theorie de la 
musique dans VAntiquit4 (Henzel, Paris, one vol. 
8vo), a work remarkable for much new matter, 
the result of careful and original research. This 
had been preceded by his Leerboek van den 
Gregoriaenschen zang (Ghent, 1856), his Traitd 
d'instrumentation(1863), and Les Gloires d'ltalie 
(Paris, 1868), a collection of secular vocal music 
by Italian composers of the 17th and 18th 
centuries, with introduction and biographies, 
etc. [Among his later works are Recueil de 
chansons du XV e Steele (1875), and other edi- 
tions of old compositions ; Les origines du chant 
liturgique (1890) ; La me'lopee antique (1895) ; 
La Musique, I'art du XIX* Steele (1896)]. In 
1871 he succeeded Fe"tis as director of the 
Conservatoire at Brussels ; a post which gave 
scope for his remarkable powers of organisation. 
One of his reforms consisted in placing the 
singing-classes under the annual inspection of 
some celebrated singer. Faure was the first 
engaged. In 1873 Gevaert was elected a mem- 
ber of the Academie des Beaux- Arts in place of 
Mercadante ; an appointment hailed with satis- 
faction in France. Gevaert is incontestably a 
musician of a very high order ; and his fame 
rests on the solid foundation of a thoroughly 
good early education. [See also Brussels Con- 
servatoire.] g. c. 

GEWANDHAUS CONCERTS. So called 
from their being held in the Hall of the Gewand- 
haus, the ancient armoury of the city of Leipzig. 
They date from the time when Bach was Cantor 
of the Thomasschule (1723-50), and the original 
title was 'das grosse Concert.' The first per- 
formances were held in a private house in 1743 ; 
the conductor was Doles, afterwards Cantor of 
the Thomasschule (1756-89), and the orchestra 
consisted of sixteen performers. They were 
interrupted by the Seven Years' War, but resumed 
on its termination in 1763, under the direction of 
J. A. Hiller, who conducted them at his own risk, 
and gave them the title of ' Liebhaber-concerte.' 
The orchestra was increased to thirty, and 
regular performances were held down to Easter 
1778. After a pause of three years the concerts 
were resumed, and located in the Gewandhaus, 
to which a hall for balls and concerts had lately 
been added. The credit of this change is due 
to Biirgermeister Karl Wilhelm Miiller, who has 
a right to be considered as the founder of the 



164 



GHAZEL 



GHRO 



institution in its present form. He and eleven 
of his friends constituted themselves a board of 
directors, appointed J. A. Hiller as conductor, 
and opened a subscription list for twenty-four 
concerts. The first concert in the new rooms 
took place on Sept. 29, 1781 ; the first regular 
subscription concert on Nov. 25. At present 
there are twenty winter-concerts and two benefit 
concerts, one for the orchestra pension - fund, 
the other for the poor. The programmes are 
miscellaneous — orchestral pieces, instrumental 
and vocal solos, and choruses. Since 1809 eight 
soirees, devoted to chamber-music, have also been 
given. The most brilliant period of the Gewand- 
haus Concerts was during Mendelssohn's con- 
ductorship. 

The names of the conductors are as follows : — 
Johann Friedrich Doles (1743-44); Johann 
Adam Hiller (1763-85); Johann Gottfried 
Schicht (1785-1810) ; Johann Philipp Christian 
Schulz (1810-27); Christian August Pohlenz 
(1827-35) ; Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1835- 
1843) ; Ferdinand Hiller (1843-44) ; Niels W. 
Gade (1844-48) ; Julius Rietz (1848-60) ; Karl 
Reinecke (1860-95); Arthur Nikisch (1895). 
[For the centenary celebration of the concerts 
in 1881, a history of the institution was writ- 
ten by A. Dorffel. A new building, much 
more convenient than the old, was opened in 
1884. See also Dr. Emil Kneschke's Zur Ge- 
schichte des Theaters und der Musik in Leipzig 
(1864).] c. f. p. 

GHAZEL. A short form of Persian poetry, 
in which the rhyme of the two first lines is 
repeated in every alternate line throughout the 
piece. The name has been adopted by F. Hiller 
for a pianoforte piece (opp. 54, 130) in which a 
phrase recurs occasionally as a refrain. G. 

GHEYN, VAN DEN. A Flemish family of 
bell founders, who originally belonged to the 
town of Malines, and afterwards spread to Saint 
Trond, Tirlemont, Nivelles, and Louvain. Their 
names are found on bells in the chimes of 
Malines and Louvain with various dates ranging 
from 1516 to 1757, that of the second great bell 
of the church of St. Rombaud at Malines. 

The ornament of the family, Matthias van 
den Gheyn, son of Andre Francois, was born 
April 7, 1721, at Tirlemont, removed to Louvain, 
w r as appointed organist of the church of St. Peter 
1741, and on July 1, 1745, became by public 
competition carillonneur to the town of Louvain," 
which two posts he retained till his death, June 
22, 1785. As carillonneur his duties were to 
play on all market days, fete days, and other 
public occasions, to keep the chimes in tune and 
to set fresh tunes for hours and half-hours on 
the drum of the carillon, whenever so required by 
the authorities ; for this the salary was 100 
'pattacons' a year. For private festivities extra 
fees were paid. His habit was, in addition to 
his regular duties, to extemporise on the carillon 
for half an hour every Sunday. Matthias mar- 



ried Feb. 24, 1745, and had seventeen children, 
one of whom, Josse Thomas (born 1752), suc- 
ceeded him as organist after his death. 

Chev. X. V.van Elewyck, from whose pamphlet 
{Matthias van den Gheyn, Louvain, Peeters, 1862) 
the foregoing account has been condensed, has 
collected fifty-one compositions by Matthias. Of 
these three were printed — Fondements de la 
basse continue, etc. (Louvain, Wyberechts) ; 
' 12 petites sonates pour l'orgue ou le clavecin 
et violon ' in continuation of the foregoing ; ' Six 
Divertiments pour clavecin ' (London, Welcker, 
Gerrard Street, Soho). The rest remained in 
MS. during his lifetime ; they consist of a second 
treatise on harmony and composition, Preludes 
and Fugues for the organ, Sonatas for Clavecin, 
and Airs, Rondos, Marches, Menuets, Fugues 
for three and four parts, etc., for the carillons. 
Elewyck published a volume selected from these 
(Schott, 1863), forming vol. i. of his Anciens 
Clavecinistes Flamandes. g. 

GHRO, Johann, born in Dresden, was organist 
to the Churfiirstl. Schule of S. Affran, in Meissen, 
Saxony, in 1604-12, and in 1625 Musik-director 
and organist of the Kapelle of Rudolph von 
Biinaw at Wesenstein. He published pavans 
and galliards, which are described as plain and 
heavy in style. 

List of works : — 

1. Sechsvnddreissig neue liebliche vnd zierliche Intraden, so 
zuvor niemals gesehen, noch inn Truck komuien, jetzo aber zu 
sonderlichen wolgefallen alien der Edlen m usica Liebhabern, bevor 
aufs denen, so sich der Text nicht gebrauchen, zur froligkeit mit 
fiiuff Stimmen gesetzet . . . Durcb Johannem Ghro Dresd. Gedruckt 
zu Nurnberg durch Paulum Kaufftnann. 1603. 4to. Five part-books 
in the Wolfenblittel herzogl. Bibl. (See Vogel's Cat.) It was re- 
printed in 1611, with the same title, but ' Gedruckt zu Nurnberg 
durch Abraham Wagenmann in verlegung David Kauf manns. 1611.' 
Contents the same, with the original preface dated 1603. Five 
part-books in the Liegnitz konigl. Ritteracademie Bibl. 

2. Dreissig neue ausserlesene Padovane und Galliard, mit fUnff 
Stimmen, so zuvor niemals in Truck kommen, auff alien Musika- 
lischen Instrumenten lieblich zugebrauchen. Componirt durch 
Johannem Ghro Dresd. Gedruckt zu Nurnberg durch Paulum 
Kauffmann. 1604, 4to. The preface is dated from ' Meissen, am Tage 
Petri u, Pauli im 1604 Jare. Joh. Ghro. Organist der Churfiirstl. 
Schul zu S. Affran daselbsten.' Five part-books in the Frankfurt 
Gymnasial Bibl. etc. (See Israel's Cat.) It was reprinted in 1612, 
to the title was added ' . . . lieblich zugebrauchen. Sampt einem 
zu end angehengtem Quotlibet genannt, Bettlerinantel, von man- 
cherley guten Flecklin zusammen gestickt und geflickt . . . mit vier 
Stimmen verfertigt, durch Johann Ghroen Dresdensem der Chur- 
fiirst. Schulen in Meissen Organisten. Gedruckt zu Nurnberg 
durch Abraham Wagenman in verlegung David Kauffmans. 1612.' 
4to. It contains eighteen Padovanen and twelve Galliarden for 
five voices and the Quotlibet for four voices. Five part-books in 
the Breslau Stadtbibl. etc. (See Bohn's Cat.) 

3. Bettler Mantel, von mancherley guten Flecklein zusammen 
gestickt und geflickt, alien denen so inen was neues belieben lassen, 
zu Ehren mit vier Stimmen in Triickt verfertiget durch Johann 
Ghroen Dresdensem, der Churfiirstl. Schulen inn Meissen Orga- 
nisten. Gedruckt zu Niirmberg, durch Paulum Kauffmann. 1606. 
4to. The Altus and Tenor, the only two part-books known, are in 
the Berlin konigl. Bibliothek. (Eitner. ) 

4. Trifolium sacrum musicale oder geistliches musikalisches Klee- 
blatlein . . . insonderheit aber den anfahenden jungen Knabenzum 
taglichen Exercitio zum bestem componiret . . . durch Johann 
Grohen Dressd. dero Zeit der Biinauischen Capellen zum Wesenstein 
verordneten Direct, und Organisten. NUrnberg, durch Ab. Wagen- 
mann gedr. in verl. David Kauffmanns. 1625, 4to. Three part- 
books, the Prima vox and the Tertia vox, are in the Berlin konigl. 
Bibl. A composition by Joh. Groe ' Das ist mir lieb ' in four move- 
ments, written for five voices, is in Burckhard Grossman's ' Angst 
der Hellen . . . der cxvi. Psalm Davids, durch etzliche vornehme 
Musicos im Chur und Furstenthum Sachsen.' etc. Jena. 1623. A 
MS. copy of it (MS. z 110) is in the Berlin Konigl. Bibl. (Eitner.) 

In the Liegnitz Ritteracademie Bibl. in MS. 24 (No. 58) third part, 
is a ' Padouan a 5 ' by Joan. Groh. (See Pfudel's Cat. p. 37.) 

In the Zwickau Ratsschulbibl. in MS. 10. No. 378, a motet ' Lobet 
den Herren' for eight voices, by Johannes Groh. (See Vollhardt's 
Cat.) 

Becker, Die Tonwerke des 16. u. 17. Jahi-h. 1855, gives a work by 
J. Groh, * Der CIV Psalm zu XXI Versikuln gesangweis gesetzt u. 
nach Art der Motetten zu 3, 4, bis 8 Stimmen.' Nurnberg. 1613. 
4to. 

Eitner, Tame des 15. bis 17. Jahrhunderts, 1875, p. 126, reprinted 
No. 5 from Ghro's 36 Intraden, 1611. C. S. 




o 

I— I 

N 

PL, 

H 

GO 

W 
Q 



GIARDINI 



GIBBONS 



165 



GIARDINI, Felice de, an eminent violinist, 
was born at Turin, April 12, 1716. He entered 
the choir of Milan Cathedral as a boy, and be- 
came a pupil of Paladini in singing, composition, 
and the harpsichord. He afterwards returned 
to Turin, and studied the violin under Somis. 
He was still very young when he entered the 
opera-band at Rome, and soon afterwards that 
of San Carlo at Naples. In possession of a 
brilliant execution, he appears to have been 
fond of displaying it by interpolating in the 
accompaniments of the airs all sorts of runs, 
shakes, and cadenzas, and thereby eliciting 
the applause of the house. Of this habit, how- 
ever, he was cured in an emphatic manner. 
During the performance of an opera of Jommelli's, 
the composer came into the orchestra and seated 
himself close to young Giardini. Giardini, 
anxious to give the maestro a proof of his clever- 
ness, introduced into the ritornello of a pathetic 
air a brilliant cadenza of great length, at the 
end of which Jommelli rewarded him with a 
sound box on the ear. Giardini in after years 
was fond of relating this incident, and used to 
add that he never had a better lesson in his 
life. He certainly proved himself not only an 
eminent virtuoso, but an equally good leader 
and conductor. 

From Naples he started in 1748 for a tour 
through Germany and thence to London. The 
date of his first public appearance here is 
variously given. According to Burney it took 
place in 1750, at a concert of Cuzzoni's. His 
success was immense, and Burney affirms that 
no artist, Garrick alone excepted, was ever so 
much applauded as Giardini. His powerful yet 
mellow tone, the brilliancy and boldness of his 
execution, the spirited and expressive style in 
which he played the grand works of Tartini, as 
well as his own lighter but pleasing composi- 
tions, created a perfect furore, and he became 
at once the declared favourite of the London 
public. "We may form an idea of the peculi- 
arity of his style from the fact that when De 
Beriot came to England, the old musicians, 
who still remembered Giardini, were greatly 
struck by the similarity of De Beriot's style to 
his. [In 1751 he started subscription concerts 
with the oboist Thomas Vincent.] After 
Festing's death in 1752, Giardini took the 
place of leader at the Italian Opera, and appears 
to have infused new life and spirit into the 
band, which had much deteriorated under 
Festing's languid leadership. 

In 1756 he undertook the management of 
the Italian Opera, but thereby suffered great 
losses. Nevertheless we find him as impresario 
in 1763, 1764, and 1765. After this he de- 
voted himself once more to playing and teach- 
ing the violin, and leading at concerts and 
musical festivals. At this period F. Cramer 
became his formidable rival, though the two 
remained on most friendly terms. From 1770 



to 1776 he was leader at the Three Choir 
Festivals, from 1774 to 1780 at the Pantheon 
Concerts, and in 1782 and 1783 once more at 
the Italian Opera. In 1784 he left England, 
apparently resolved to retire from public activity 
and spend the rest of his life in Italy. But 
his restless spirit brought him back to London 
in 1790, when he started a Comic Opera at the 
Haymarket. This proving a failure, he went 
with his troupe to Russia, and died at Moscow, 
Dec. 17, 1796. 

Giardini's immense success on his first appear- 
ance in London was no doubt greatly due to 
the fact that he really was the first violin- 
virtuoso of eminence that had been heard 
there, and his star went down as soon as 
Salomon and Cramer became his rivals ; but 
notwithstanding this, his influence on musica 
and operatic life in England was considerable. 
He brought out a number of operas, though 
with little success. [He composed the second 
part of an oratorio, 'Ruth,' in 1763, the first 
part being by Avison and the third by Boyce. 
In 1765 and 1768 he wrote the other two parts], 
and his work was several times performed in 
London. His numerous compositions for the 
chamber include, nine sets of six violin solos 
(sonatas) (opp. 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 16, 19), 
Violin Duets (opp. 3, 5) ; six Sonatas for 
Piano and Violin (op. 3) ; Twelve Violin Con- 
certos (opp. 4. 5, 15) ; seven sets of Trios for 
stringed Instrinisffiats (opp. 2, 4, 13, 17, 20, 
26, 28), six Quintets for strings (op. 11) ; 
eighteen Quartets for strings (opp. 22, 23, and 
29). p. d. 

GIBBONS. The name of a noted family of 
English musicians. 

1. The Rev. Edwabd Gibbons, Mus.Bac, 
born about 1570, was possibly son of William 
Gibbons, one of the Waits of the town of Cam- 
bridge. He graduated as Bachelor of Music 
at Cambridge, and on July 7, 1592, was incor- 
porated at Oxford. [At midsummer of that year 
he became organist and master of the choristers 
at King's College, Cambridge. About 1599] 
he was appointed organist of Bristol Cathedral 
and also priest-vicar, sub-chanter, and master 
of the choristers there. He resigned these 
appointments in 1609 on receiving those of 
organist and custos of the college of priest- 
vicars in Exeter Cathedral, which he retained 
until the silencing of the organ and choir in 
1644. [See West's Cath. Org. p. 6.] Hawkins 
says he was sworn a gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal, March 21, 1604 ; but that is a mistake, 
as his name is not to be found in the cheque- 
book of the Chapel, and the date given is that 
of the admission of his younger brother, Orlando, 
as organist. Some compositions of his are pre- 
served in the Music School at Oxford ; and an 
anthem, 'How hath the city sate solitary ! ' with 
a prelude for the organ and accompaniments for 
viols is contained in the Tudway collection, 



166 



GIBBONS 



GIBBONS 



British Museum (Harl. MS. 7340). He is said 
to have advanced £1000 to Charles I. during 
the civil war, for doing which his estate was 
confiscated, and himself and three grand-children 
compelled to quit his house when he was upwards 
of eighty years of age. Matthew Locke was his 
pupil at Exeter. 

2. Ellis, brother of the preceding, was organ- 
ist of Salisbury Cathedral at the latter end of the 
16th century. He contributed two madrigals — 
' Long live fair Oriana,' and ' Round about her 
chariot'— to 'The Triumphs of Oriana,' 1601. 
About the same time he ceased to be organist of 
Salisbury, but whether by death or resignation 
does not appear. w. h. h. 

3. Orlando Gibbons, younger son of Wil- 
liam Gibbons, one of the Cambridge Waits, and 
thus younger brother of the two preceding 
musicians. He was born at Cambridge in 
1583, and was admitted into the choir of 
King's College in Feb. 1596, under his elder 
brother, Edward, who was master of the chor- 
isters at the time. The name, spelt ' Gibbins, ' 
appears regularly in the lists of payment from 
early in 1596 until the second week after 
Christmas 1597, when it occurs at the top of 
the list as that of the senior chorister. The 
single entry in the winter of 1598 is possibly 
that of a younger brother. After leaving the 
choir, no doubt on the breaking of his voice, 
he was paid various sums for music written for 
various festivities at Michaelmas 1601, 1602, 
and 1603, and at Christmas 1602 and 1603. 
On March 21, 1604, he succeeded Arthur Cock, 
deceased, as organist of the Chapel Royal in 
London, and in 1606 he took the degree of 
Mus.B. at Cambridge (Abdy Williams, Degrees 
in Music, pp. 125 and 156, where the words 
of the grace are quoted, referring to his having 
studied music for seven years). 

He must have mastered a good deal more 
than the rudiments of composition by 1611, 
when he joined Byrd and Bull in the compila- 
tion of virginal pieces called Parthenia. This 
contains a fantasia in four parts by Gibbons, 
which is so masterly in design, so finely in- 
vented, and so splendidly carried out, that we 
meet with nothing at all comparable to it until 
the time of Bach. Another work by Gibbons 
alone made its appearance possibly about the 
same time ; the ' Fantasies of Three Parts ' (for 
viols) are unfortunately without date, or more 
trustworthy clue to the time of their appear- 
ance than can be obtained from the facts that 
the composer is called 'Batchelour of Musick,' 
so that it must have been after 1606, and that 
the dedication to Edward Wray, one of the 
grooms of the king's bedchamber, shows that 
it must have been before 1622, when Wray lost 
his place. As the title also contains the words 
1 Late Organist of His Majesties Chappell 
Royall ' — and there is nothing to show that 
Gibbons was dismissed from that post during 



his life — its evidence may be a little discounted ; 
still, we are left without actual evidence of the 
date of the compositions, which, from internal 
evidence, are a good deal less mature than the 
great fantasia in Parthenia. The dates 1609 
and 1610 have been suggested, but apparently 
quite without ground ; a comparison of the 
titles of the Fantasies and Parthenia implies, 
indeed, that whereas the former claims to be 
the first music ' cut in copper, the like not 
heretofore extant' (in England, of course), while 
the latter only claims to be the ' first music 
that ever was printed for the Virginalls,' the 
Fantasies must have preceded the publication 
of Parthenia. (See Engraving, vol. i. p. 783.) 
The Fantasies are nine in number, four for treble, 
meane, and bass viols, and five for two trebles 
and bass. They are all cast in the same form, 
in a fugal style ; they must have been popular 
for a long time after their first appearance, as 
they were reprinted several times, as circa 1630, 
and in 1653 ; in 1648 they appeared in a col- 
lection of ' XX konincklyche Fantasien ' (the 
only complete copy known is in the library at 
Wolfenbuttel), and in 1843 they were again 
brought out by the Musical Antiquarian Society, 
edited by Dr. E. F. Rimbault. The same society 
reprinted the all-important publication of 1612, 
Gibbons's ' First Set of Madrigals and Motets 
of 5 Parts; apt for viols and voyces.' There 
are thirteen complete madrigals (no motets), but 
as some of these are divided into two, three, or 
even four sections, each as long as an ordinary 
madrigal, we may count the number as twenty. 
Among them are some, such as 'The Silver 
Swan,' ' O that the learned poets,' and ' Dainty 
fine bird, ' that have remained popular wherever 
madrigals are sung. Besides these, which are 
really masterpieces in their kind, such things 
as ' What is our Life ? ' and ' Trust not too 
much, fair youth,' are magnificent examples of 
the finest English workmanship in the poly- 
phonic style. In ' What is our Life ?' especially, 
the composer shows that he has attained that 
instinct for musical expressiveness which had 
already created a kind of revolution in the music 
of Italy, and the first traces of which in England 
are to be met with in Gibbons's later works. Sir 
Christopher Hatton has been credited with the 
authorship of the words, from a passage in the 
dedication to him : ' They were most of them 
composed in your owne house, and doe there- 
fore properly belong vnto you, as Lord of the 
Soile ; the language they speake you prouided 
them, I onely furnished them with Tongues to 
vtter the same.' Whether Sir Christopher 
Hatton or some one else wrote the words, there 
can be no doubt that they are of excellent 
quality, and certain turns of thought and 
phrase suggest that they are all by the same 
hand. There is further evidence that the com- 
poser was on terms of intimacy with his patron, 
in the fact that in the collection of virginal- 



GIBBONS 



GIBBONS 



167 



music called 'Benjamin Cosyn's book,' in the 
Royal Collection at Buckingham Palace, there 
is a piece by Gibbons entitled ' La : Hatten's 
Galliard.' In the Declared Accounts of the 
Audit Office is the following entry, communi- 
cated by G. E. P. Arkwright, Esq. : — • Alsoe 
allowed for money paid to Orlando Gibbons 
one of his Ma ties Musicions for the virginalles 
to attend in his highnes privie Chamber which 
was heretofore supplied by Walter Earle deceased 
at xlvi 11 p. ann. during his life the first paye- 
ment to begin from the feast of St. Michaell 
the Archaungel 1619. By war* under the Sig- 
nett dated at West m the xxvij th day of January 
Anno xvij mo R. Jacobi due for one whole year 
ended at Mich as 1620 xlvi 11 -' He received this 
salary, or pension, until 1623, and after his 
death, Thomas Warwick, or Warrock, was ap- 
pointed musician for the virginals in 1630. 
In May 1622 he accumulated the degrees of 
bachelor and doctor of music at Oxford, on the 
occasion of the foundation of the history pro- 
fessorship by Camden, who requested the uni- 
versity to confer the musical degrees upon 
Gibbons as well as upon Heather, the first 
occupant of the chair. Heather, or Heyther, 
was a musician by profession, and had been a 
chorister of Westminster Abbey ; he does not 
appear to have been a composer, and, by way 
of exercise for the degree, it seems beyond 
question that Gibbons wrote the anthem, ' 
clap your hands ' to serve for both degrees. 
(Dr. W. H. Cummings is in possession of a copy 
of this anthem, inscribed ' Dr. Heather's Com- 
mencement Song, compos'd by Dr. Orlando 
Gibbons.' The copy was in Gostling's sale.) 
In 1623 Gibbons was rated as residing in the 
Woolstaple, Westminster, and in the same year 
he was appointed organist of the Abbey in suc- 
cession to John Parsons. In 1625 he was 
commissioned to compose the music on the 
occasion of the reception of Henrietta Maria by 
Charles I., and was commanded to be present 
at Canterbury. He died there, on June 5, 
Whitsunday, of an apoplectic seizure. The 
report of the post-mortem examination held on 
him is preserved in the Record Office, and was 
printed in the Athenceum, Nov. 14, 1885. He 
was buried on the day following his death in 
Canterbury Cathedral, where a monument to 
his memory was placed against the wall of the 
north aisle of the nave. The inscription on 
it is given in full in West's Cath. Org. p. 106. 
His widow, Elizabeth, daughter of John Patten 
of Westminster, yeoman of the vestry of the 
Chapel Royal, bore him seven children between 
1607 and 1623, and died in 1626. A portrait 
of the composer, by an unknown artist, is in 
the Music School, Oxford. 

Only a very few of the magnificent anthems 
left by Gibbons in manuscript can be even 
approximately dated ; but on a copy of some 
of them, in the British Museum (Add. MS. 



31,821), are some notes, apparently on the 
authority of Dr. Philip Hayes, which serve as 
some sort of guide to the dates of a few of 
them. ' Great King of Gods ' was • made for 
the King's being in Scotland, 1617,' and 'This 
is the record of John ' is noted as being ' made 
for Laud, the president of St. John's, Oxford, for 
John Baptist's Day.' Now Laud was president 
of St. John's from 1611 to 1621, so that we 
have a limit of time for this intensely interest- 
ing anthem, which shows the influence of the 
new Italian music, and the monodic style, upon 
one of the greatest of all the polyphonic writers. 
The words, although set to music that is never 
ungainly or anything but flowing and melodious, 
have evidently suggested the inflection of the 
music in a way that hitherto had not appeared 
in England. Another anthem is more exactly 
dated by a copy in St. George's Chapel, Wind- 
sor, where it is recorded that ' Behold, Thou 
hast made my days but a span long,' was com- 
posed at the request of Anthony Maxey, dean 
of Windsor, and performed at his funeral, and 
in the autograph of the same anthem at Christ 
Church, Oxford, the same destination of the 
anthem is given. Dean Maxey's successor was 
appointed on May 11, 1618. A portrait, copied 
from a lost original once in the possession of a 
Mrs. Fussell, is in the Music School, Oxford. 

A number of services and anthems were 
printed in Barnard's Church Music, and these, 
together with some other works of the same 
kind, were also given in Boyce's Cathedral 
Music. The number of extant compositions 
for the church was completed in 1873 by the 
publication of a volume of services, anthems, 
and the separate organ-parts to sundry other 
anthems, etc., otherwise unknown, edited by 
the Rev. Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley. These ex- 
cluded the music already contained in Boyce's 
Cathedral Music. The following list of Gibbons's 
works is believed to be complete : — 

SERVICES 
Preces in F, a 5. (MSS. at Ch. Ch., Oxford, and St. Peter's College, 

Cambridge, called ' First Preces ' in both. Ouseley.) 
Preces in O, a 5. (Barnard, called ' First Preces.' Ouseley.) 
Psalm, ' to First Preces,' ' Thou openest Thine hand.' (Barnard.) 
First Service, Morning and Evening, in F, a 4. (Barnard, Boyce, 

Novello. ) 
Second Service, a 5, in D minor. (Barnard, Ouseley.) 
Te Deum, Benedictus, Kyrie, Creed, Sanctus, Magnificat, and 

Nunc Dimittis, a 4, in G. (Ouseley.) 
Sanctus, a 4, in F. (Boyce.) 

FULL ANTHEMS 
Deliver us, O Lord, a 4. (Barnard, Ouseley.) 

Part 2. Blessed be the Lord God. (Do., do.) 
Almighty and Everlasting God. Full, a 4. (Barnard, Boyce, Novello.) 
Hosanna. Full, a 6. (Boyce, Novello.) 
O clap your hands. Full, a 8. (Boyce, Novello.) 

2nd part. God is gone up. (Do., do.) 
O Lord, in Thy wrath, a 6. (Ouseley.) 
O Lord, in Thee is all my trust, a 5. 
Why art thou so heavy, O my soul ? a 4. (Ouseley.) 
Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, a 4. (Ouseley.) 
O Lord, increase my faith, a 4. (Ouseley, Novello.) 
Lift up your heads, a 6. (Novello.) Organ part in Ouseley. 

VERSE ANTHEMS 

(The number of parts is in all cases the largest number 
employed.) 

Behold, Thou hast made my days. Funeral anthem, a 8. (Barnard 

Ouseley.) 
This is the record of John, a 5. (Ouseley, Novello.) 
Behold, I bring you glad tidings, a 6. (Ouseley.) 
If ye be risen, a 5. (Ouseley.) 
We praise Thee, O Father, a 5. (Ouseley.) 



168 



GIBBONS 



GIGUE 



Lord, grant grace, a 8. (Ouseley.) 

Glorious and powerful God. a 5. (Ouseley, Novello.) 

Bee, see, the word is incarnate, a 6. (Ouseley.) 

Sing unto the Lord, a 5. (Ouseley.) 

Blessed are all they, a 6. (Ouseley.) 

Great King of Gods, a 5. With Viols. (Ouseley.) 

all true faithful hearts, a 5. With Viols. (Ouseley.) 
The eyes of all wait upon Thee. (Novello.) 

1 am the Resurrection. (Incomplete, in British Museum, Add. MSS. 

29,366-68.) 

HYMNS 

O Lord, how do my woes increase, a 4. (Leighton's Teares or 

Lamentations, Ouseley.) 
O Lord, I lift my heart to Thee, a 4. (Leighton's Teares, etc., 

Ouseley.) 
Sixteen hymn tunes, appended to George Withers's Hymns and 

Songs of the Church (1623), reprinted by J. R. Smith (1856). 

Four of the hymns, which have only treble and bass in the 

original, are given in Ouseley, in their original form ; eight are 

harmonised in Vattendon Hymns, Oxford, 1899 ; and six are in 

Hymns Anc. and Mod., 1904. 

MADRIGALS 
All for five voices, printed (in part-books) in 1612 ; reprinted 
by the Musical Antiquarian Soc. 
The Silver Swan. (Novello.) 

that the learned poets. (Novello.) 

1 weigh not fortune's frown. 

Pt. 2. I tremble not at noise of war. 

Pt. 3. I see ambition never pleas'd. 

Pt. 4. I feign not friendship where I hate. 
How art thou thrall'd. | Pt. 2. Farewell, all joys. 

Dainty fine bird. (Novello.) 

Fair ladies that to love. | Pt. 2. 'Mongst thousands good. 

Now each flow'ry bank. 
Lais now old. 

What is our life ? (Ausgewahlte Madr.) 
Ah! dear heart. (Novello.) 
Fair is the rose. 
Nay, let me weep. 

Pt. 2. Ne'er let the sun. | Pt. 3. Yet if that age. 

Trust not too much, fair youth. (Arion.) 

The Cries of London, a 6. (In MSS. in the Royal College of Music ; 

in Brit. Mus., Add. MSS. 29,372-77, etc.) 
The Country Cry, and other pieces of the same kind, are found 
without any composer's name in Brit. Mus., Add. MSS. 17,792-96 
and 29,427. 

FANCIES FOR VIOLS 
Nine Fantasies of three parts, printed early in the 17th century 

(see above). Reprinted by the Mus. Antiq. Soc. 
22 Fancies of three parts in MS. at Ch. Ch., Oxford. 

VIRGINAL MUSIC 
Six pieces in Parthenia. (Printed in 1611 ; reprinted by the Mus. 
Antiq. Soc, in the TrSsor des Pianistes, etc.) 
Galiardo in C. 

Fantasia of four parts. (In Dannreuther's Primer of Ornamenta- 
tion, correctly transcribed from the original.) 
The Lord of Salisbury his Pavin. 
Galiardo in A minor. 
The Queenes Command. 
Praeludium in G. 
In the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book there is a Pavane and a Fantasia 
or variations, ' The Woode soe wilde.' 
MS. 
In Benjamin Cosyn's Virginal Book, in the Royal Library at Buck- 
ingham Palace, are twenty-five pieces by Gibbons, besides one 
more attributed to him in the index. 
In the Ch. Ch. Library, Oxford, are eleven of the pieces called ' In 
Nomine,' seven in five parts and four in six. Also voluntaries. 



etc. 



M. 



Christopher Gibbons, Mus.D., second son 
of Orlando Gibbons, was born in 1615 (bap- 
tized on August 22). He was a chorister in 
the Chapel Royal, and was afterwards educated 
in the choir of Exeter Cathedral under his uncle, 
Edward. In 1638 he was appointed organist 
of Winchester Cathedral, which appointment 
he was compelled to quit in 1644, when he 
joined the Royalist army. In 1660 he was 
appointed organist of the Chapel Royal, private 
organist to Charles II., and organist of West- 
minster Abbey. On July 7, 1664, the Univer- 
sity of Oxford conferred on him the degree of 
Doctor of Music, ' per literas regias, ' on which 
occasion the Dean and Chapter of Westminster 
made him a present of £5. [He was succeeded 
at Westminster Abbey by Albertus Bryan in 
1666.] He died Oct. 20, 1676, and was buried 
in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. Some 
anthems of his composition as well as fancies for 
viols, etc., are extant in MS. at Ely, the British 



Museum, the Royal College of Music, etc., and 
some of his hymns are printed in the second 
set of Dering's Cantica Sacra, 1674, but he 
excelled more as a performer than a composer. 
[He joined Matthew Locke in the composition 
of the Masque of Cupid and Death, performed 
1653.] A portrait of him is preserved in the 
Music School, Oxford. w. h. h. 

GIBSON, George Alfred, violinist, born at 
Nottingham, Oct. 27, 1849. Began the study 
of the violin at the age of ten under his father. 
Studied afterwards under Henry Farmer, and 
made appearances as a soloist at the age of 
twelve. In 1867 he came to London and p]ayed 
in the band at the Prince of Wales's Theatre ; 
in 1870 he was a first violin in the Italian Opera 
at Drury Lane, a year later he joined the Co vent 
Garden orchestra. He made his first appearance 
at the Monday Popular concerts on Jan. 28, 
1882, appearing at intervals until 1893, when 
on the retirement of Herr Straus he was appointed 
to the post of viola in the Quartet. On Nov. 5, 
1893, he was appointed leader of Her Majesty's 
Private Band. Mr. Gibson's reputation rests 
entirely on his concerted music playing, in 
private as well as in public, and on his ability 
as a teacher. He is professor of the violin at 
the Royal Academy of Music, and the Guildhall 
School of Music. w. w. c. 

GIGELIRA. See Xylophone. 

GIGOUT, Eugene, an eminent French organ- 
ist, born at Nancy, March 23, 1844, was educated 
at the maitrise of the cathedral there, and 
entered Niedermeyer's Ecole de Musique re- 
ligieuse, in Paris, at the age of thirteen. He 
was one of Niedermeyer's favourite pupils, and 
subsequently married his younger daughter ; 
he was professor in that school for upwards of 
twenty years, and, after a long interval, re- 
entered it in 1902 as professor of the organ. 
He became organist of Saint-Augustin in 1863, 
and during his tenure of that post, made tours as 
a virtuoso on the organ, in England, Germany, 
Italy, Spain, Switzerland, and played in Paris 
during the various international exhibitions. 
He enjoys a great reputation as an extempore 
player. In 1885 he founded an organ school 
for organ and improvisation, subventioned by 
the State, an institution which has produced 
many distinguished pupils. Gigout has written 
numerous pieces of importance for his instru- 
ment ; his 'Album Gregorien,' in two volumes, 
containing more than 300 pieces, has become a 
classic ; a volume of ' Pieces breves ' in the 
modal style of plain-song, and a collection called 
' L'Orgue d'Eglise ' are of great value ; besides 
these, he has published many transcriptions, 
vocal and church music, a ' Meditation ' foi 
violin and orchestra, a pianoforte sonata, and 
many other things. G. F. 

GIGUE or GIGA is an old Italian dance 
which derives its name (or vice versd) from the 
Giga, Gigue, Geige, or early fiddle. It was 



GILES 



GILSON 



169 



written indiscriminately in 3-8, 6-8, 3-4, 6-4, 
and 12-8 time, and was in two strains or sections, 
each of which was repeated. Its time was lively, 
and it was usually employed to finish up a Suite. 
A good example is that which winds up No. 8 
of Corelli's twelve solos. 



-ft-gtf 



taf^^s^igll^^ 



i^^ ^J^fj-a ^ ^— ' 



Bach also employs them to close his Suites, 
and has left an immense variety, not a few of 
which are in common time, as well as 9-16 and 
12-16. The well-known one in the Partita in 
Bb is in 4-4, and that in the last Partita of the 
same set in 8-4. Handel's sixteen Suites contain 
thirteen Gigues, one of which contains 143 bars, 
and unlike most gigues, is not divided into two 
sections. [There was a convention that the 
second part of the gigue should be built on an 
inversion of the first subject. See Spitta, J. S. 
Bach, Engl. tr. iii. 159.] Mozart has left a 
very fine little specimen (Kbchel, p. 574) which 
he wrote in an album at Leipzig after a surfeit 
of Bach. 

English Jigs seem to have no special character- 
istics. The word came to be synonymous with 
any light irreverent rhythm, giving the point to 
Pope's line 

Make the soul dance upon a jig to heaven. 

Gr. 

GILES, Nathaniel, Mus.D., son of Thomas 
Giles, organist of St. Paul's Cathedral, was born 
in or near Worcester about the middle of the 
16th century. In 1559 he was admitted a 
chorister of Magdalen College, Oxford, which 
office he resigned in 1561. In 1577 he was ap- 
pointed a clerk in the same chapel, but retained 
the place only until the next year. He gradu- 
ated at Oxford as Bachelor of Music, June 26, 
1585. On Oct. 1, 1595, he received the appoint- 
ments of clerk, organist, and master of the 
choristers of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 
[The warrant of his appointment is printed in 
West's Cath. Org. p. 132.] On the death of 
William Hunnis in June 1597, he was appointed, 
on July 4, gentleman and master of the children 
of the Chapel Royal. Having supplicated for 
the degree of Doctor of Music in 1607, but from 
some unknown reason not having performed the 
exercise for it, he proceeded to it July 5, 1622. 
It has been asserted that on the accession of 
Charles I. he was appointed organist of the 
Chapel Royal, but there is no record of such 
an appointment in the Cheque Book. Giles 
contributed to Leighton's Teares or Lamenta- 
tions of a Sorrowfull Soule, 1614 ; a service 
and an anthem by him were printed in Barnard's 
Church Music, 1641, and other anthems, etc., 
are extant in MS. at Ely, Ch. Ch. Oxford, 
the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, the 
Royal College of Music, etc. A curious ' Lesson 
of Descant of thirtie eighte Proportions of sundrie 
kindes ' by him is printed in the appendix to 



Hawkins's History of Music. Giles died Jan. 
24, 1633, and was buried in one of the aisles 
of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, where an 
inscription was placed over his grave which 
stated him to have been master of the children 
there forty-nine years, master of the children of 
the Chapel Royal thirty-eight years, and to 
have been seventy-five years of age.. A com- 
parison with the dates given above, which are 
all derived from authentic records, will show 
that all three statements on the gravestone 
are erroneous. w. h. h. 

GILMORE, Patrick Sarsfield, a popular 
bandmaster in the United States, was born 
Dec. 25, 1829, in Co. Gal way. [He became a 
member of the regimental band at Athlone, Co. 
Westmeath in 1845, and in 1849] he went to 
Canada with an English band of which he was 
a member, and soon after went across into the 
United States and settled at Salem, Massachu- 
setts, where he was appointed leader of a military 
band. In 1859 Gilmore went to Boston and 
organised a band, named after himself, which 
became distinguished for its fine playing, the 
result of his training. During the Civil War 
Gilmore was a bandmaster in the Federal Army 
stationed at New Orleans, where, in 1864, he 
gave a festival with a monster orchestra made 
up from the army bands, and startled the 
audience with some novelties, one of which was 
the firing of guns by electricity, making the 
report come on the first beat of the bar, as 
though they were great drums. This effect 
was reserved for the performances of patriotic 
music. Gilmore's widest reputation, not con- 
fined to the United States, was earned by his 
success in organising the two immense music 
festivals in Boston — one in 1869, known as the 
National Peace Jubilee, with an orchestra of 
1000 and a chorus of 10,000 ; the other in 
1872, called the World's Peace Jubilee, with 
2000 players in the band and 20,000 choristers. 
On each occasion a powerful organ, chimes of 
bells, anvils and artillery were added to the 
orchestral resources, and an immense shed was 
built for the concert-room. Shortly after the 
second jubilee Gilmore went to New York and 
took charge of a large military band, with whicli 
he travelled over the United States and even 
about Europe on concert tours. He also had 
charge of large bands at concert gardens in New 
York and at summer resorts on the neighbouring 
coast. His compositions of military and dance 
music, as well as his arrangement of works of 
different kinds for open-air performance, have 
enjoyed a wide popularity. [He died at St. 
Louis, Sept. 24, 1892.] r. H. J. ; additions 
by w. h. g. f. 

GILSON, Paul, born at Brussels, June 15, 
1865, is an eminent Belgian composer, who has 
been professor of harmony at the Conservatoire 
Royal at Antwerp since 1902. He is the author 
of numerous orchestral, choral, and vocal com- 

m 



170 



GIMEL 



GIMEL 



positions. Having learnt the elements of music 
from the organist Oantillon, he studied harmony 
and counterpoint with Duyck, a pupil of the 
elder Fetis. He also took private lessons from 
Gevaert, the director of the Brussels Conserva- 
toire, and in 1889 obtained the Prix de Rome, 
instituted by the Belgian government in imita- 
tion of the similar prize given by the French 
Institut. His prize cantata, ' Sinai,' performed 
in 1890 at Brussels, produced a very great 
sensation. It was followed by a symphonic 
work, 'La Mer,' after a poem by Eddy Levis, 
which is recited before each movement of the 
symphony. Performed at the Concerts Popu- 
lates of Brussels in 1892, afterwards at Paris, 
at the Colonne Concerts, and in many towns of 
Germany (Crystal Palace, Nov. 1897), it is 
published in a piano score by Breitkopf & Hartel. 
It reveals a most remarkable mastery of orches- 
tral technique, a strong sense of picturesque 
instrumentation, an uncommon knowledge of 
harmony joined to an interesting originality of 
invention, together with a clever employment of 
rhythms taken from oriental folk-music. Though 
of Flemish race, M. Gilson is the spiritual 
descendant of the young Russian School, whose 
works he has studied with marked attention. 
Besides his cantata already spoken of, we may 
mention among his choral works, ' Francesca 
de Rimini,' for soli, choir, and orchestra (Con- 
certs Populaires, Brussels, 1895) ; Inaugural 
Cantata for the Brussels Exhibition of 1897 ; 
and ' Le Demon, ' an oratorio, after Lermontov, 
performed at Mons. For orchestra there are a 
fantasia on Canadian themes, a Scottish Rhap- 
sody, a ' Humoresque ' for wind instruments, 
often played at the Brussels Conservatoire. 
About thirty songs, with accompaniment for 
piano or orchestra. M. Gilson's dramatic works 
include a ballet, ' La Captive ' (Theatre de la 
Monnaie, 1902) ; incidental music for Em. 
Hiel's drama, 'Alva,' and an opera, 'Prinses 
Zonneschijn' (produced at Antwerp, 1904). 
The composer has numerous compositions as 
yet unperformed. M. K. 

GIMEL (from the Latin gemellus, ' twin '), a 
form of discant described by Gulielmus Monachus, 
a writer of the 15th century, as peculiar to the 
English. It was sung by two voices, generally 
at the interval of a third above or below, thus : — 




Sometimes, however, in a ' Gimel ad modum de 
Fauxbourdon,' the voices were a sixth or even 
a tenth apart, as in the following example, in 
which a contratenor 'bassus' (i.e. below the 
tenor) is added. 



*=& 



-3BSL 



iMJdA 



* 



m 



& 



1 



¥ 



32: 



m 



m 



22; 



St 



i^L=J- 



■e 



jg ^gggg 



JZL 



The treble part was often constructed from a 
plain-song melody, with embellishments, as in 
Fauxbourdon. Gulielmus gives an example 
founded on this plain-song, 



122; 



:^2=: 



zsz 



~ZZL 



-ZZT&- 



■-U 



1 



in which the ' twin ' voices are a sixth apart, 
and a contratenor bassus is again added, as in 
the previous example. 

Treble. 



g ^E^^EpEg^ 




See Cocssemaker, Scriptores, iii. 289, 292. 

In the 16th century the term gimel was 
applied to any part of a vocal composition that 
was temporarily 'divided. ' Such a gimel occurs 
in the first treble part of Tye's Euge Bone mass 
at the words 'Pleni sunt coeli' (p. 35 of Mr. 
Arkwright's Old English Edition). In the Sadler 
part-books at Oxford (MS. Mus. e. 1-5 of the 
Bodleian Library) may be seen an example of 
a double gimel. It occurs in Robert White's 
5 -part antiphon 'Justus es, Domine,' at the 
words 'Tribulatio et angustia invenerunt me.' 
Both the treble and alto parts are divided for 



GIOCONDA, LA 



GIORDANO 



171 



some fifty bars, or nearly a third of the whole 
composition, and are accompanied by the bass 
part only. In the Eton folio MS. 178, the word 
' gemellum ' is used, and is contradicted by the 
word 'semellum' (i.e. single), when the single 
undivided part is resumed. J. f. r. s. 

GIOCONDA, LA. Opera in four acts, the 
libretto founded on Victor Hugo's Angelo by 
* Tobia Gorrio ' (i. e. Arrigo Boito) ; music by 
Amilcare Ponchielli. Produced at the Scala, 
Milan, April 8, 1876 ; in a revised version at 
Genoa, in December 1879 ; and at Milan again 
in the following February. At Covent Garden, 
May 31, 1883, in Italian, with M. Edouard de 
Reszke in the part of Alvise ; in English, by 
the Moody-Manners Company, at the Kenning- 
ton Theatre (first time in English in London), 
May 6, 1903, with Mme. Blanche Marchesi in 
the title part. 

GIORDANI. An Italian musical family of 
the 18th century, the head of which seems to 
have been one Carmine Giordano, or Giordani, 
who wrote an opera, 'La Vittoria d'Amor,' at 
Naples in 1712, and whose 'versetti' for organ 
are in the Brit. Mus. (Add. MS. 14,247); a 
cantata for soprano is in Add. MS. 1 4, 227. That 
the name ' Carmine ' was the surname of the 
family is an error which has been copied from 
Fetis into most of the dictionaries. The family 
appeared in comic operas at Naples until 1753, 
when the father, two daughters, and the elder 
son, Tommaso, migrated to London. Tommaso 
was born in Naples about 1740, and went to 
Dublin in 1761, where he produced Italian 
operas at the Smock Alley Theatre, with a 
brother, a dancer, who cannot have been Giu- 
seppe (see below). In or about 1762 the whole 
family, with the exception of Giuseppe, came 
out at the Hay market Theatre with great suc- 
cess ; in 1765 and 1766 Tommaso was again in 
Ireland, and on April 24 of the latter year, 
he brought out his comic opera ' Love in Dis- 
guise ' for the first time. He conducted the 
Castle Ode for Lord Townshend, the Viceroy, 
in August 1769. His 'Artaserse' is mentioned 
in Bremner's catalogue for 1778. In the 
winter of 1778-79 he opened the little theatre 
in Capel Street (not Chapel Street), in part- 
nership with a singer named Lini, and remained 
there for over three years. He returned to 
London in 1781, and lodged at Spring Gardens, 
in the room above John O'Keeffe. Two of his 
airs were introduced into Arnold's ' Castle of 
Andalusia.' He returned to Dublin in 1784-85, 
married a Miss Wilkinson, and settled in the 
Irish capital. He taught Lady Morgan, Tom 
Cooke, and others, the piano. In April 1789 
he composed and conducted a new Te Deum in 
the Catholic Chapel, Francis Street, Dublin, at 
a solemn High Mass, in thanksgiving for the 
King's recovery. In the same year his opera, 
'Perseverance,' was produced at the Crow 
Street Theatre, Dublin. After 1798 we hear 



no more of Giordani, but his son Tommaso 
carried on the profession of music-teacher in 
Dublin for thirty years. An opera of ' Anti- 
gono' (1773) is in the British Museum, an 
oratorio ' Isaac ' was produced in Dublin in 
1769, and another opera, 'The Siege of Gib- 
raltar,' in the Capel Street Theatre, Dublin, 
in December 1783, and a list of overtures, 
songs, concertos, quartets, and sonatas, is 
given in the Quellen-Lcxikon. 

The younger brother, Giuseppe, was born 
about 1744 at Naples, and learnt composition 
at the Conservatorio di Loreto there. In 1771 
he brought out his first opera, ' L' Astuto in 
imbroglio,' at Pisa, and in 1772 joined his 
father and brother in London, producing an 
opera, 'II Bacio,' there in 1774, a work which 
achieved such success that it was given until 
1782. He joined his elder brother's enterprise 
in Dublin, and was composer and director of 
the music until 1782, when he went back to 
Italy, remaining there for ten years, producing 
operas, oratorios, etc. in great numbers. In 
1791 he went to Fermo to conduct operas, and 
died there Jan. 4, 1798. His works include 
two oratorios, 'La fuga in Egitto ' (1775), ' Le 
tre ore d' Agonia di Nostro Signore Gesu Cristo ' 
(performed at Dresden, 1807), a mass, motets, 
etc. and five operas, canzonets, overtures, con- 
certos, quartets, etc. (see the Quellen-Lexikori). 
A song, 'Let not age,' has preserved its popu- 
larity to the present day, and it is probable 
that the well-known ' Caro mio ben ' is by this 
youngest of the family, who was commonly 
known as ' Giordanello. ' (Information from 
Eitner's and Riemann's Lexicons, and from 
W. H. Grattan Flood, Esq.) M. 

GIORDANO, Umberto, was born at Foggia 
on August 27, 1863. His father, who was an 
artisan, intended to bring up his son to his own 
trade, but in deference to the arguments of a 
friend, who had observed the boy's musical 
temperament, he allowed him to receive such 
musical instruction as Foggia afforded. Gior- 
dano's education was completed at the Conserva- 
toire of Naples, where he studied under Paolo 
Serrao. He remained at Naples for nine years, 
and while still in statu pvpillari wrote an 
opera 'Marina,' which attracted the favourable 
notice of the publisher Sonzogno. In response 
to a commission from the latter Giordano wrote 
'Mala Vita,' the libretto of which was based 
by Daspuro upon the powerful but singularly 
repulsive play of that name. This work was 
produced at Rome in 1892. The fashion for 
operatic melodrama of the most blood-curdling 
type was then at its zenith, and ' Mala Vita ' 
hit the taste of the day as much perhaps by 
the so-called ' actuality ' of its subject as by 
any pretension to musical value. Giordano's 
next opera 'Regina Diaz' (Naples, 1894) was 
a failure, but with 'Andrea Chenier' (Milan, 
1896) he scored what hitherto has proved to 



172 



GIORGI 



GIOVANNINI 



be the greatest success of his career. ' Andrea 
Chenier ' speedily made the round of the Italian 
theatres, and it was produced at Berlin in 
1898. It was given in London by the Carl 
Rosa Company in an English version at the 
Camden Theatre on April 2, 1903. In 1897 
a revised version of ' Mala Yita ' was produced 
under the name of 'II Voto,' and in 1898 
' Fedora, ' an operatic version of Sardou's famous 
drama, repeated in a less degree the success of 
' Andrea Chenier. ' The composer's latest opera, 
'Siberia' (Milan, 1904), appears to have been 
decidedly less successful. Giordano is a typical 
member of the group of composers who sprang 
into fame on the skirts of Mascagni, whose 
methods of workmanship his earlier operas 
reproduce with singular fidelity. In ' Andrea 
Chenier ' he displayed a more definite individu- 
ality of style, and indeed there are passages in 
this and in his later works that exhibit con- 
siderably more refinement of execution than 
the Neo- Italian school usually attempts. Gior- 
dano has an exuberant gift of melody and a 
strong feeling for dramatic effect, but his scores 
lack solidity, and in his music the usual 
theatrical tricks for extorting applause too 
often take the place of a sincere expression of 
emotion. r. a. s. 

GIORGI. See Banti. 

GIOVANELLI, Ruggiero, born 1560 at 
Velletri, near Rome. Nothing is known of his 
circumstances or early studies. In 1585 we find 
him maestro di capella to San Luigi de' Francesi 
in Rome ; from thence he passed to the Chiesa 
dell' Anima, belonging to the German College ; 
and, March 12, 1594, was appointed Palestrina's 
successor at St. Peter's, entering on his duties 
three days later. On April 7, 1599, he was 
made a member of the Sistine choir. He was 
living in 1615, as in that year he published 
the second volume of his new edition of the 
' Graduale, ' undertaken at the request of Pope 
Paul V., and magnificently printed at the 
Medici press, but disfigured by many arbitrary 
alterations of the text. Proske has inserted a 
'Dixit' of Giovanelli's in his Musica Divina 
(Tom. iii.), and speaks of his works as 'grace- 
ful, pure in style, very pleasing in harmony, 
and able to bear comparison with those of the 
greatest masters.' Baini's Paleslrina also con- 
tains many allusions to Giovanelli. Amongst 
his works preserved in the Pontifical Chapel at 
Rome, Baini specially mentions a ' Miserere ' 
for four and eight voices, and a Mass, a 8, on 
Palestrina's madrigal ' Vestiva i colli ' ; but he 
does not seem to have known of a particularly 
fine Mass a 12, characterised by Proske as 
full of beauty and imagination. Giovanelli was 
a great composer of madrigals, even in that 
fertile age. He published six books of them, 
with one of Canzonette and Vilanelle, in the 
years 1585, 1586, 1588, 1589, 1593, 1599, and 
1606. Others are to be found in the collections 



of Scotto and Phalese (Eitner, Sammelwerke). 
[Four madrigals are translated in Morley's 
Madrigals to five voices, 1598 ; and three speci- 
mens of his work are in Torchi's V Arte Musi- 
cale in Italia, vol. ii.] The date of his death 
is unknown. F. G. 

GIOVANNINI, a name interesting in musical 
history solely on account of the part it plays in 
the discussion concerning the song ' Willst du 
dein Herz mir schenken ? ' which for many years 
was attributed to Sebastian Bach. The song 
appears in the larger of the two music books 
of Anna Magdalena Bach, written on two leaves 
now loose, but evidently once belonging to the 
volume, in which they occur after p. 111. The 
outer page of the first leaf bears the title ' Aria 
di Govannini ' (sic), the song itself appearing on 
the two interior pages. As a copy of the song 
' Schlummert ein, ihr matten Augen ' is written 
on the outer page of the second leaf, it has been 
considered that the contents of these pages were 
contemporary with the rest of the book, and 
Zelter, into whose hands the volume came from 
C. P. E. Bach, hazarded the conjecture that the 
song was by Bach himself, that the Italian name 
was the equivalent of the composer's first name, 
and that the copy was made partly by Anna 
Magdalena herself. Zelter's theory became fixed 
in the public mind as a certainty, since a play 
by Ernst Leistner and a novel by A. E. Brach- 
vogel made the composition of the song an 
incident in the love-story of Bach ; and even 
at the present day the question can hardly be 
taken as settled. Forkel refused from the first 
to believe in its authenticity, judging it from 
internal evidence, but Dr. W. Rust has adopted 
Zelter's theory, and has even gone so far as to 
assert that some of the bass notes are in the 
composer's autograph (B. -G. xx. I. p. 15). 
More recently, however, strong evidence has 
been brought which may be taken as proving 
the song to be the composition of an actual 
Giovannini, whose name appears in Gerber's 
Lexicon as that of an Italian violinist and 
composer, a pupil of Leclair's, who lived 
chiefly in Berlin from 1740 until his death in 
1782. In the same writer's Neues Lexicon 
(1812-14) the additional information is given 
that about 1745 he went to London, and 
produced, under the pseudonym of the Count 
of St. Germain, a pasticcio entitled ' L' Incos- 
tanza delusa ' in which the airs were much 
admired. He also published some violin solos 
under the same name. Dr. Spitta, in his 
excellent resume' of the question (J. S. Bach, 
English translation, vol. iii. p. 661, etc.), tells 
us further that songs by Giovannini are included 
in Graefe's Odcnsammlung (1741 and 1743), two 
of which were since published in Lindner's 
Geschichte des deutschen Liedes, etc. (1871). 
These are said to show a strong resemblance to 
the style of 'Willst du dein Herz mir schenken V 
and there seems no longer any reasonable doubt 



GIPSY'S WARNING, THE 



GITTERN 



173 



that this Giovannini is the real composer. The 
external evidence quite admits the possibility 
of this, as the book may very probably have 
come into other hands after the death of Anna 
Magdalena Bach, and so competent a critic as 
Dr. Spitta saw no reason to endorse Dr. Rust's 
opinion that some of the notes are in Bach's 
handwriting ; while from internal evidence it 
might well be thought that no musician who had 
even a slight acquaintance with Bach's work 
could ever suspect it to be by him. See also the 
preface to B. -G. xliii. II., by Graf Waldersee, 
p. xv. ; and the Vierteljahrsschriftf. Musikwis- 
senschaft, i. p. 350 f. M. 

GIPSY'S WARNING, THE. An opera in 
three acts ; words by Linley and Peake ; music 
by Sir Julius Benedict. Produced at Drury Lane, 
April 19, 1838. It was much acted in Germany. 
'Rage, rage, thou angry storm, ' and ' Blest be the 
home,' were long favourites in concert rooms, g. 

GIRARDEAU, Isabella, detta LA ISA- 
BELLA, an Italian singer, married to a French- 
man, who performed in the early Italian Operas 
in London. She is, perhaps, the same as 
the Isabella Calliari mentioned in Quadrio's list 
among the female singers who flourished in 
1700-20. She succeeded ' the Baroness ' at the 
Haymarket, and appeared first in 'Almahide.' 
She sang in the first and succeeding perform- 
ances of Handel's ' Rinaldo.' In this, one of her 
songs, ' Bel piacer,' was wholly unaccompanied 
even by a bass, — a severe trial for any voice. 
On Dec. 12 of the same year, Gasparini's * Antio- 
chus ' was produced, in which La Isabella took 
a part, as she did also in the following January 
in his 'Ambleto.' In the latter she had 'a 
noisy song for trumpets and hautbois obligato ' 
(Burney), from which it may be inferred that 
her voice was very strong. j. m. 

GIRELLI AGUILAR, Signora, an Italian 
prima donna, who took part in the ' grand 
dramatic serenata' composed by Mozart (1771) 
in honour of the nuptials of the Archduke 
Ferdinand, celebrated at Milan on Oct. 17 of 
that year. ' The archduke and his bride, not 
only frequently inclined their heads from their 
box and applauded the maestro, but encored two 
airs sung by Manzuoli and Girelli ' (Holmes, 
p. 79). After this, Girelli married a Frenchman 
named Aguilar, and visited London, succeeding 
Grassi, and singing the principal role in Vento's 
'Sophonisba' (1772-73)-; after which her name 
is not found again in London. j. m. 

GIS. The German name for G sharp. 

GISELLE, on les Wilis. A ballet by 
Adolphe Adam on a plot adapted from Heine 
by Theophile Gautier ; produced at the Grand 
Opera, July 4, 1841, at Her Majesty's, March 12, 
1842. It contained one of Carlotta Grisi's 
greatest parts. 

The subject was employed by Loder in his 
opera of 'The Wilis, or The Night Dancers,' 
and Puccini's ' Le Villi ' is on the same subject. 



GISMONDI, Celeste, a mezzo-soprano en- 
gaged at the- opera in London in 1732-34. 
She made her first appearance (Dec. 1732) as 
Lisaura in Handel's ' Alessandro. ' She played 
a small part in 'Orlando' (1733) ; parts were 
assigned to her (1733) also in 'Deborah,' 
'Tolomeo,' and 'Ottone,' but, after this, she 
is said by M. Schoelcher to have assisted in 
setting up the rival theatre in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields. The newspapers of the day (Nov. 3, 
1735), however, give another account of her 
secession, by announcing the death of ' Signora 
Celeste Gismondi . . . Wife to Mr. Hempson 
an English Gentleman, on Tuesday [Oct. 28], 
after a lingering Illness. She perform'd in 
Mr. Handel's Operas for several Winters 
with great Applause, but did not sing this 
season on any stage, on Account of her In- 
disposition.' j. m. 

GITTERN (or Ghittern, etc.), an obsolete 
instrument of the guitar type. It is mentioned 
several times by Chaucer in such terms as to 
show that it was used for the accompaniment 
of songs. Other later writers refer to it, and it 
is named in a list of musical instruments which 
had belonged to Henry VIII. as : ' Four git- 
terons which are called Spanish vialles.' There 
can be but little doubt that it underwent 
many minor changes in shape and character 
during the period of its use, and that the name 
was by no means definitely fixed upon one 
particular form, but would be assigned to any 
of the guitar tribe. 

In the 17th century it appears to have had 
but little difference from the cithren, that dif- 
ference being its smaller size, and its being strung 
with gut instead of wire, as was the cithren. 
Drayton in Polyolbion, 1613, seems to confirm 
this as to stringing by the lines : — 

Some that delight to touch the sterner wire 

The Cithren, the Pandore, and the Theorbo strike. 

The Gittern and the Kit the wandering tiddlers like. 

In An English Dictionary by E. Coles, 1713, 
the definition of ' ghittern ' is ' a small kind of 
cittern.' John Playford published, with the 
date 1652, A Book of New Lessons for the Cithren 
and Gittern, a copy of which is in the Euing 
Library, Glasgow. In advertisements Playford 
alludes to this (a later edition) as having been 
'printed in 1659, and at various dates between 
1664 and 1672 he advertises as 'newly printed' 
another work, Mustek's Solace on the Cithren and 
Gittern. The gittern and cithren never appear 
to have had much popularity in England, and 
after the last-named date they seem to have 
died a natural death. The music transcribed 
for the instruments was written in tablature on 
a four-line stave. About 1756-58 the cithren 
had a revival in the English guitar, a wire- 
strung instrument which closely resembled it. 
This, however, gave place to the gut -strung 
Spanish variety as now used. (See Cither, 
Guitar.) f . k . 



174 



GIUGLINI 



GLADSTONE 



GIUGLINI, Antonio, born at Fano, 1827 ; 
appeared in London first in 1 857 at Her Majesty's 
Theatre, [where on April 11 he made his debut 
under Lumley, as Fernando in 'La Favorita,' 
and afterwards sang as Arturo, Edgardo, and 
Manrico. In 1858 he was re-engaged, and 
played asThaddeus on the production, in Italian, 
of the ' Bohemian Girl,' Ferdinand in Verdi's 
'Luisa Miller,' and Raoul at Titiens's debut. 
In 1859 and 1860 he sang under E. T. Smith 
at Drury Lane and Her Majesty's. In 1861 
he sang under Mapleson at the Lyceum, in 
1862-64 at Her Majesty's under the same 
manager. His parts in new operas comprised 
Blccardo in ' Un Ballo, ' Zamberto in Schira's 
'Nicolo de' Lapi,' Faust, Fenton in 'Falstaff' 
and Vincent in ' Mirella. ' In the autumn of 

1864 he was engaged at St. Petersburg, but did 
not appear owing to incipient madness. In 

1865 he returned to England, but had to be 
confined by his manager in Dr. Tuke's Asylum 
at Chiswick. In the autumn he was removed 
to Italy, and died at Pesaro on Oct. 12, 1865. 
A. c.J He possessed a sweet and high tenor 
voice, which was ' a welcome variety after the 
stentorian exhibitions of recent singers before 
him ; and an elegance of style of which some 
critics, nevertheless, complained as cold, languid, 
and over drawn-out ' (Chorley). J. m. 

GIULIETTA E ROMEO. Opera in three 
acts, libretto by Romain, music by N. Vaccaj. 
Produced at Milan, Oct. 31, 1825 ; at the King's 
Theatre, Haymarket, London, April 10, 1832. 
For other operas on the subject see Romeo and 
Juliet. 

GIURAMENTO, IL. A Dramma serio ; 
libretto by Rossi from V. Hugo's Angelo ; 
music by Mercadante. Produced at La Seal a, 
Milan, in the spring of 1837 ; at Her Majesty's 
London, 1840; and at the Theatre - Italien, 
Paris, Nov. 22, 1858. Another better-known 
opera on the same subject is by Ponchielli. See 

GlOCONDA, LA. G. 

GIUSTO, correct, suitable — 'Tempo giusto,' 
in suitable time ; as the fugues in ' Israel in 
Egypt,' 'Egypt was glad,' 'He led them through 
the deep ' ; and also ' Thy right hand, Lord,' 
and ' The horse and his rider.' Also used in the 
sense of ' strict, ' to restore the time after a tempo 
rubato. g. 

GIZZIELLO, Gioacchino Conti, detto, so- 
called after his master, D. Gizzi, was one of the 
greatest singers of the 18th century. Born Feb. 
28, 1714, at Arpino (Naples), he early under- 
went the preparation for the career of a soprani st. 
He gained a round, full, sweet voice of great 
extent and penetrating quality, which was united 
to a strong natural taste and feeling in music. 
At the age of fifteen he made his d£but at Rome, 
with immense success. In 1731 he excited the 
greatest enthusiasm there by his singing in 
Vinci's ' Didone ' and ' Artaserse. ' An anecdote 
is related of this occasion, showing how much 



other singers were already affected by his fame. 
[See Farinelli.] He sang at Naples in 1732 
and 1733 with the same success. Three years 
later (April 13, 1736), he is announced in the 
London newspapers as ' expected here in a few 
days.' This was the critical moment at which 
the split occurred in Handel's company, and 
the great master was at a loss for artists to 
replace those who had seceded. On May 5, he 
began with ' Ariodante,' and Gizziello, who then 
made his first appearance in London, ' met with 
an uncommon reception ; in justice to his voice 
and judgment, he may be truly esteemed one of 
the best performers in this kingdom' (Daily Post). 
In presence of Farinelli, no more could be said 
of the young singer, who was still ' so modest 
and diffident, that when he first heard Farinelli, 
at a private rehearsal, he burst into tears, and 
fainted away with despondency' (Burney). 'Ata- 
lanta' was brought out May 12. Gizziello again 
singing the principal man's part, as he did, a 
little later, in ' Poro.' In 1737 he appeared in 
' Arminio, ' ' Berenice, ' ' Giustino, ' and ' Parte- 
nope.' In 1743 he went to Lisbon, where the 
improvement in his style, due to the example of 
Farinelli, was at once perceived. Charles III. 
King of Naples, engaged both him and Caffarelli 
to sing in the ' Achille in Sciro ! of Pergolesi. 
Caffarelli came from Poland, and Gizziello from 
Portugal, and met for the first time. The former 
sang the first song with splendid effect, and 
Gizziello thought himself lost, as he listened to 
the continued applause ; but he sang his own 
song, which followed, with such pathos and 
expression that he divided the honours of the 
performance. In 1749 he was invited by Fari- 
nelli to sing at Madrid with Mingotti ; and 
stayed there three years. He then returned to 
Portugal. About the end of 1753 he quitted 
the stage, and settled at his native place. 
He died at Rome, Oct. 25, 1761. An excel- 
lent mezzotint portrait of him was scraped 
by Alex. Van Haecken, after a picture by C. 
Lucy, in 1736, folio. A good impression of it 
is scarce. j. m. 

GLADSTONE, Dr. Francis Edward, was 
born atSummertown, near Oxford, March 2, 1 845. 
When fourteen he was articled to Dr. S. S.Wesley, 
with whom he remained at Winchester for five 
years. After being organist for two years at Holy 
Trinity Church, Weston-super-Mare, in 1866 he 
obtained the post of organist atLlandaff Cathedral. 
In March 1870 Gladstone was appointed organist 
at Chichester Cathedral, but three years later 
he moved to Brighton, where he remained until 
1876, when, after a short residence in London 
as organist of St. Mark's, Lewisham, he accepted 
the post of organist at Norwich Cathedral, which 
he held from 1877 to 1881. Dr. Gladstone 
then became organist of Christ Church, Lan- 
caster Gate, London, a post which ill -health 
compelled him to resign in 1886. He took the 
degree of Mus.B. Cantab, in 1876, and shortly 



GLlSER 



GLAZOUNOV 



176 



after was made an Honorary Member of the 
Royal Academy of Music. He took the degree 
of Mus.D. in 1879, and is also a Fellow of the 
College of Organists, a Member of the Board of 
Musical Studies at Cambridge, and a teacher of 
organ, etc. at the Royal College of Music. Having 
been received into the Roman Catholic Church, 
he was appointed director of the choir at St. 
Mary of the Angels, Bayswater, about 1887, 
and held the post until 1894. Dr. Gladstone, 
who is one of the first of living English organists, 
has composed much music for his instrument, 
besides services, anthems, songs, a chorus (with 
orchestral accompaniment), ' A wet sheet and a 
flowing sea,' an overture (MS.), a piano trio 
(MS.), and two sacred cantatas — ' Nicodemus ' 
(produced by the Highbury Philharmonic Society 
1880) and ' Philippi, or the Acts of Paul and 
Silas in Macedonia,' — the latter of which was 
written for the North- Eastern Choirs Associa- 
tion, and produced at Newcastle in July 1883. 
A cantata, *■ Constance of Calais,' performed 
by the Highbury Philharmonic Society, in 
1885 ; a mass in E minor (MS.), written for 
the Brompton Oratory; and a short mass in 
Eb, are among Dr. Gladstone's most important 
works. w. b. s. 

GLASER, Franz, born at Obergeorgenthal 
in Bohemia, April 19, 1798 ; studied the violin 
at the Conservatorium of Prague in 1813-17 ; 
going to Vienna in the latter year he became 
conductor at the Leopoldstadt Theatre, in 1822 
at the Josephstadt Theatre, in 1827 at the 
Theatre 'an der Wien,' and in 1830 at the 
Konigstadt Theatre in Berlin. From 1842 to 
his death, August 29, 1861, he was court 
conductor at Copenhagen. He wrote a great 
number of operas, musical comedies, farces, etc. , 
only one of which, ' Des Adlers Horst ' (Berlin, 
1832 x ), achieved a wide celebrity. m. 

GLARE ANUS, Henricus, so called because 
he was born (in June 1488) in the Canton of 
Glarus, his real name being Loris or, Latinised, 
Loritus ; a celebrated teacher of music. He is 
said to have been a shepherd-boy in his youth ; 
but he studied music with Rubellus at Berne, 
and afterwards under Cochlaus at Cologne, 
where he was crowned poet-laureate in 1512 for 
a poem in honour of the Emperor, which he 
composed and sang to his own accompaniment. 
In 1515 he was teaching mathematics at Basle, 
and in 1517 was appointed, at the recommen- 
dation of Erasmus, professor of philosophy and 
' artes liberales ' in Paris. He returned in 1522 
to B isle, where he is said to have set up a school, 
and from whence he removed to Freiburg im 
Breisgau in 1529. Prof. H. Schreiber, in an 
excellent monograph on Glareanus (Freiburg, 

1 The dictionary-makers have made various errors -with regard to 
the date of this work. Riemann's Opern-H<indbuch gives it as 1830, 
but the author has the correct date, 1832, in his Lexikon ; in Baker's 
Biog. Diet, the date is given as 1833, probably owing to the fact that 
the opera is mentioned in a summary of works given at Berlin in 
the previous year, in the AUgem. Musik Zeitung for Jan. 1833. 
Riemann's Lexikon (5th ed. ) gave the date of death as 1869, but the 
6th ed. corrects it, and the newspapers of 1861 confirm the above date. 



1837), proves that it was not at the University 
of either Paris, Basle, or Freiburg, that he was 
professor. He was blind in his later years, and 
died March 28, 1563, at Freiburg. His friends, 
Erasmus, Justus Lipsius, and Vossius, wrote 
panegyrics on him. His principal works on the 
theory of music are Isagoge in musicen Henrici 
Glareani, etc. (the dedication 'ad Falconem 
Consulemurbis A ventinensis,' Avignon, is headed 
'Basileae, anno Christi 1516, 4 to ad idus Mar- 
tias '), now extremely scarce, containing chapters 
on solmisation, the intervals, modes, tones, and 
their treatment ; and AOAEKAXOPAON (1547, 
fol.), a still more important work, the aim of 
which is to prove that there are twelve church 
modes, corresponding to the ancient Greek modes, 
and not eight, as many writers have maintained. 
The third part contains numerous examples from 
the works of Okeghem, Obrecht, Josquin de 
Pres, and other musicians of the 15th and 16th 
centuries, valuable also as specimens of early 
music -printing. Wonnegger of Lithuania pub- 
lished an abstract of the Dodecachordon (Frei- 
burg, 1557), the second edition of which (1559) 
contains a poem by Glareanus in praise of the 
thirteen Federal cities of Switzerland, set to 
music by Manfred Barbarin. The catalogue of 
Draudius mentions a third treatise De musices 
divisione ac definilio